378 relations: A & C Black, Abschwangen massacre, Absolute monarchy, Adolf Hitler, Adolf Tortilowicz von Batocki-Friebe, Agricultural League, Albert Frederick, Duke of Prussia, Albert, Duke of Prussia, Alfred-Maurice de Zayas, Allen & Unwin, Allenstein (region), Angrapa River, Anton Wilhelm von L'Estocq, Archbishopric of Salzburg, Šilutė, Baedeker, Bagrationovsk, Baltic Sea, Baltiysk, Barciany, Barczewo, Bartoszyce, Battle of Eylau, Battle of Friedland, Battle of Grunwald, Battle of Jena–Auerstedt, Battle of Königsberg, Battle of Tannenberg, Belarusians, Berlin, Biała Piska, Biskupiec, Bisztynek, Black Death, Bombing of Königsberg in World War II, Brandenburg, Brandenburg-Prussia, Braniewo, Cambridge University Press, Catholic Church, Centre Party (Germany), Charles William Previté-Orton, Chełmno Land, Chełmno Voivodeship, Chernyakhovsk, Chernyshevskoye, Christian Social People's Service, Christianity, Closed city, Cold War (1985–1991), ..., Collectivism, Columbia Encyclopedia, Commission for the Determination of Place Names, Communist Party of Germany, Congress of Vienna, Curonian Lagoon, Curonian Spit, Curonians, Czerniak, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Dąbrówno, Diet of Augsburg, Districts of Prussia, Dobre Miasto, Dobrovolsk, Domnovo, Drang nach Osten, Druzhba, Russia, Duchy of Prussia, Działdowo, E. Alexander Powell, East Prussia, East Prussian Offensive, East Prussian plebiscite, 1920, East Prussian State Museum, Eastern Europe, Eastern Front (World War II), Ełk, Economic freedom, Eduard Heinrich von Flottwell, Elbląg, Emancipation, Enclave and exclave, Encyclopædia Britannica, Endsieg, Erich Koch, Ernst Siehr, Evacuation of East Prussia, Expatriate, Famine, Fascism, Feoffment, Fief, Finckenstein Palace, First French Empire, First Partition of Poland, Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–50), Fortification, François Joseph Lefebvre, Frederick I of Prussia, Frederick the Great, Frederick William I of Prussia, Frederick William III of Prussia, Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg, Free State of Prussia, Friedrich Adolf, Count von Kalckreuth, Friedrich von Berg, Friedrich von Schrötter, Frombork, Gauleiter, Górowo Iławeckie, Gdańsk, Gdańsk Pomerania, General War Commissariat, Georges Blond, German Army (German Empire), German Conservative Party, German Democratic Party, German Empire, German Free-minded Party, German language, German National People's Party, German People's Party, German Progress Party, German Völkisch Freedom Party, Germanisation, Germans, Germany, Giżycko, Gołdap, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Great Northern War, Great Northern War plague outbreak, Gulag, Gumbinnen (region), Gusev, Kaliningrad Oblast, Gvardeysk, Heinrich Friedrich Karl vom und zum Stein, Heinrich von Treitschke, High Prussian dialect, Holy Roman Empire, House of Hohenzollern, Iława, Imperial Russian Army, Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany, Indigenous peoples, Invasion of Poland, Jewish emancipation, Jews, Jeziorany, Joseph Stalin, Kaliningrad, Kaliningrad Oblast, Karl August von Hardenberg, Königsberg, Königsberg (region), Königsberg Castle, Kętrzyn, King in Prussia, Kingdom of Poland (1385–1569), Kingdom of Prussia, Klaipėda, Klaipėda County, Klaipėda Region, Konrad I of Masovia, Kursenieki, Kutuzovo, Kwidzyn, Landkreis Allenstein, Landkreis Heydekrug, Landsmannschaft Ostpreußen, Landtag, Latvian language, League of Nations mandate, Lemkos, Leonid Brezhnev, Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, Lev Kopelev, Lidzbark Warmiński, Liebstadt, List of cities and towns in East Prussia, List of monarchs of Prussia, Lithuania, Lithuania Minor, Lithuanian language, Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic, Lithuanians, Longman, Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Low Prussian dialect, Lutheranism, Malbork, Malbork Castle, Malbork Voivodeship, Mamonovo, Margraviate of Brandenburg, Marienwerder (region), Masuria, Masurians, Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian III, Archduke of Austria, Mühlhausen, Młynary, Miłakowo, Miłomłyn, Michael Wieck, Michel Tournier, Mikhail Kalinin, Mikołajki, Morąg, Mrągowo, Municipal corporation, MV Goya, MV Wilhelm Gustloff, Napoleon, National Liberal Party (Germany), Nazi concentration camps, Nazi Germany, Nazi Party, Nazism, Neman, Russia, Nemmersdorf massacre, Nesterov, New East Prussia, Nibork, Nidzica, Nogat, Northern Crusades, Oath of allegiance, Oberlandesgericht, Oberpräsident, Office of Public Sector Information, Old Prussian language, Old Prussians, Olecko, Olsztyn, Olsztyn Voivodeship, Olsztynek, Operation Vistula, Orneta, Orzysz, Ostflucht, Ostróda, Ostsiedlung, Otto Braun, Oxford University Press, Ozyorsk, Kaliningrad Oblast, Pagėgiai, Partition Sejm, Partitions of Poland, Pasłęk, Pasym, Personal union, Petrovice (Ústí nad Labem District), Pieniężno, Pierre Benoit (novelist), Pisz, Poland, Poles, Polessk, Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany, Polish Corridor, Polish People's Republic, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War, Polish–Soviet War, Pomeranian Voivodeship, Pomeranian Voivodeship (1466–1772), Pomerelia, Potsdam Conference, Prabuty, Pravdinsk, Primorsk, Kaliningrad Oblast, Prince-Bishopric of Warmia, Prince-elector, Propaganda in Nazi Germany, Protestantism, Province of Pomerania (1653–1815), Province of Posen, Province of Prussia, Provinces of Prussia, Prussia (region), Prussian Army, Prussian Homage, Prussian Lithuanians, Prussian Reform Movement (1806–1815), RAF Bomber Command, Rape, Real union, Red Army, Reformation, Refugee, Regierungsbezirk, Reich Party of the German Middle Class, Reichsbanner Schwarz-Rot-Gold, Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia, Reichstag (Weimar Republic), Religious aspects of Nazism, Reszel, Rhineland, Richard Steigmann-Gall, Richard Walther Darré, Royal Prussia, Rudolf von Auerswald, Ruhr, Russia, Russian Empire, Russian invasion of East Prussia (1914), Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Russians, Ryn, Saalfeld, Sambia Peninsula, Sępopol, Schlieffen Plan, Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes, Second Peace of Thorn (1466), Second Polish Republic, Seedienst Ostpreußen, Serfdom, Settler, Seven Years' War, Sinclair-Stevenson, Slavskoye, Russia, Social Democratic Party of Germany, Sovetsk, Kaliningrad Oblast, Soviet occupation zone, Soviet Union, SS General von Steuben, Stahlhelm, Bund der Frontsoldaten, State of the Teutonic Order, Sturmabteilung, Suvalkija, Szczytno, Szymbark, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Territories of Poland annexed by the Soviet Union, Teutonic Order, The Holocaust, Theodor von Schön, Thirteen Years' War (1454–66), Toponymy, Treaties of Tilsit, Treaty of Bromberg, Treaty of Labiau, Treaty of Oliva, Treaty of Versailles, Ukrainians, Unemployment, Unification of Germany, United Kingdom, Ushakovo, Vassal, Vistula, Volga Germans, Walter Schütz, Walter von Cronberg, War of the Fourth Coalition, War of the Spanish Succession, Warmia, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Węgorzewo, Wehrmacht, Weimar Republic, West Germany, West Prussia, Western Front (World War I), Westphalia, Wielbark, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Wilhelm II, German Emperor, Wilhelm von Bismarck, Winston Churchill, Wolf children, World war, World War I, World War II, Zalewo, Zheleznodorozhny, Kaliningrad Oblast, Zichenau (region), Znamensk, Kaliningrad Oblast. Expand index (328 more) » « Shrink index
A & C Black is a British book publishing company, owned since 2002 by Bloomsbury Publishing.
Abschwangen (now Tishino, in Bagrationovsky District) was a small village near Preussisch Eylau in East Prussia some 30 km south of Königsberg, today Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia and the scene of a massacre of German civilians in August 1914.
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Max Johann Otto Adolf Tortilowicz von Batocki-Friebe, usually known as Adolf von Batocki-Friebe (31 July 1868 – 22 May 1944) was a German noble, lawyer and politician, and belonged to a Lithuanian noble family.
The Imperial Agricultural League (Reichs-Landbund) or National Rural League was a German agrarian association during the Weimar Republic.
Albert Frederick (Albrecht Friedrich, Albrecht Fryderyk; 7 May 1553, in Königsberg – 28 August 1618, in Fischhausen, Rybaki) was Duke of Prussia from 1568 until his death.
Albert of Prussia (Albrecht von Preussen, 17 May 149020 March 1568) was the 37th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, who after converting to Lutheranism, became the first ruler of the Duchy of Prussia, the secularized state that emerged from the former Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights.
Alfred-Maurice de Zayas (born May 31, 1947, Havana, Cuba) is an American lawyer, writer, historian, a leading expert in the field of human rights and international law and retired high-ranking United Nations official.
Allen & Unwin is an Australian independent publishing company, established in Australia in 1976 as a subsidiary of the British firm George Allen & Unwin Ltd., which was founded by Sir Stanley Unwin in August 1914 and went on to become one of the leading publishers of the twentieth century.
Regierungsbezirk Allenstein was a Regierungsbezirk, or government region, of the Prussian province of East Prussia from 1905 until 1945.
Angrapa is a river in northeastern Poland and Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast).
Anton Wilhelm von L'Estocq (16 August 1738 – 5 January 1815) was a Prussian cavalry general best known for his command of the Prussian troops at the Battle of Eylau.
The Prince-Archbishopric of Salzburg (Fürsterzbistum Salzburg) was an ecclesiastical principality and state of the Holy Roman Empire.
Šilutė (previously Šilokarčiama, Heydekrug) is a city in the south of the Klaipėda County, Lithuania.
Verlag Karl Baedeker, founded by Karl Baedeker on July 1, 1827, is a German publisher and pioneer in the business of worldwide travel guides.
Bagrationovsk (Багратио́новск), before 1946 known by its German name Preußisch Eylau (Ylava or Prūsų Ylava; Pruska Iława or Iławka) is a town and the administrative center of Bagrationovsky District in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located south of Kaliningrad, the administrative center of the oblast.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
Baltiysk (Балти́йск), before 1946 known by its German name Pillau (Piława; Piliava; Yiddish: פּילאַווע, Pilave), is a seaport town and the administrative center of Baltiysky District in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the northern part of the Vistula Spit, on the shore of the Strait of Baltiysk separating the Vistula Lagoon from the Gdańsk Bay.
Barciany (Barten) is a village in Kętrzyn County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, in northern Poland, close to the border with the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia.
Barczewo (Wartenburg in Ostpreußen) is a town in Olsztyn County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland.
Bartoszyce (German: Bartenstein; Barštynas) is a town on the Łyna River in northeastern Poland with 25,621 inhabitants.
The Battle of Eylau or Battle of Preussisch-Eylau, 7 and 8 February 1807, was a bloody and inconclusive battle between Napoleon's Grande Armée and the Imperial Russian Army under the command of Levin August, Count von Bennigsen near the town of Preussisch Eylau in East Prussia.
The Battle of Friedland (June 14, 1807) was a major engagement of the Napoleonic Wars between the armies of the French Empire commanded by Napoleon I and the armies of the Russian Empire led by Count von Bennigsen.
The Battle of Grunwald, First Battle of Tannenberg or Battle of Žalgiris, was fought on 15 July 1410 during the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War.
The twin battles of Jena and Auerstedt (older name: Auerstädt) were fought on 14 October 1806 on the plateau west of the River Saale in today's Germany, between the forces of Napoleon I of France and Frederick William III of Prussia.
The Battle of Königsberg, also known as the Königsberg Offensive, was one of the last operations of the East Prussian Offensive during World War II.
The Battle of Tannenberg was fought between Russia and Germany between the 26th and 30th of August 1914, the first month of World War I. The battle resulted in the almost complete destruction of the Russian Second Army and the suicide of its commanding general, Alexander Samsonov.
Belarusians (беларусы, biełarusy, or Byelorussians (from the Byelorussian SSR), are an East Slavic ethnic group who are native to modern-day Belarus and the immediate region. There are over 9.5 million people who proclaim Belarusian ethnicity worldwide, with the overwhelming majority residing either in Belarus or the adjacent countries where they are an autochthonous minority.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Biała Piska (Bialla, 1938-45: Gehlenburg, 1334: Gailen) is a town in Pisz County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland, with 4,036 inhabitants (2004).
Biskupiec (Bischofsburg) is a town in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship in Poland.
Bisztynek (Bischofstein) is a town in Bartoszyce County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland, with 2,555 inhabitants (2004).
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
The bombing of Königsberg was a series of attacks made on the city of Königsberg in East Prussia during World War II.
Brandenburg (Brannenborg, Lower Sorbian: Bramborska, Braniborsko) is one of the sixteen federated states of Germany.
Brandenburg-Prussia (Brandenburg-Preußen) is the historiographic denomination for the Early Modern realm of the Brandenburgian Hohenzollerns between 1618 and 1701.
Braniewo, (Braunsberg in Ostpreußen, Brunsberga, Old Prussian: Brus, Prūsa), is a town in northeastern Poland, in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, with a population of 18,068 (2004).
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or just Zentrum) is a lay Catholic political party in Germany, primarily influential during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic.
Charles William Previté-Orton (16 January 1877 – 11 March 1947) was a British medieval historian and the first Professor of Medieval History at the University of Cambridge on the establishment of the position in 1937.
Chełmno land (ziemia chełmińska,, Old Prussian: Kulma, Kulmo žemė) is a historical region, located in central-northern Poland.
The Chełmno Voivodeship was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Kingdom of Poland since 1454/1466 until the Partitions of Poland in 1772/1795.
Chernyakhovsk (Черняхо́вск); prior to 1946 known by its German name (Įsrutis; Wystruć) is a town and the administrative center of Chernyakhovsky District in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Instruch and Angrapa Rivers, forming the Pregolya.
Chernyshevskoye (from 1938: Eydtkau) is a settlement in Nesterovsky District in the eastern part of Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, close to the border with Lithuania.
The Christian Social People's Service (Christlich-Sozialer Volksdienst) was a Protestant conservative political party in the Weimar Republic.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
A closed city or closed town is a settlement where travel or residency restrictions are applied so that specific authorization is required to visit or remain overnight.
The Cold War period of 1985–1991 began with the rise of Mikhail Gorbachev as leader of the Soviet Union.
Collectivism is a cultural value that is characterized by emphasis on cohesiveness among individuals and prioritization of the group over self.
The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and in the last edition, sold by the Gale Group.
The Commission for the Determination of Place Names (Komisja Ustalania Nazw Miejscowości) was a commission of the Polish Department of Public Administration, founded in January 1946.
The Communist Party of Germany (Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands, KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period until it was banned in 1956.
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
The Curonian Lagoon (or Bay, Gulf; Куршский залив, Kuršių marios, Zalew Kuroński, Kurisches Haff, Kuršu joma) is separated from the Baltic Sea by the Curonian Spit.
The Curonian Spit (Kuršių nerija; Ку́ршская коса́ (Kurshskaya kosa); Kurische Nehrung,; Kuršu kāpas) is a 98 km long, thin, curved sand-dune spit that separates the Curonian Lagoon from the Baltic Sea coast.
The Curonians or Kurs (Curonian: Kursi; Kuren; kurši; курши; kuršiai; kuralased; Kurowie) were a Baltic tribe living on the shores of the Baltic Sea in what are now the western parts of Latvia and Lithuania from the 5th to the 16th centuries, when they merged with other Baltic tribes.
Czerniak (Schwarzwald, Gut) is a settlement in the administrative district of Gmina Mrągowo, within Mrągowo County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, in northern Poland.
Dąbrówno (German:, Gilgė) is a village and the seat of a gmina (municipality) in Ostróda County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship in northern Poland.
The Diet of Augsburg were the meetings of the Imperial Diet of the Holy Roman Empire held in the German city of Augsburg.
Prussian districts (Kreise, literally "circles") were administrative units in the former Kingdom of Prussia, part of the German Empire from 1871 to 1918, and its successor state, the Free State of Prussia, similar to a county or a shire.
Dobre Miasto is a town in Poland, in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship with 10,489 inhabitants (2006).
Dobrovolsk (Добровольск, lit. "Voluntary Town".; Pillkallen. or Schloßberg.; Pilkalnis.; Pilkały.), formerly Pillkallen (1510-1938) and Schloßberg (1938-1947) is a village in Krasnoznamensky District of Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia.
Domnovo (До́мново; Domnau; Domnowo; Dumnava) is a rural locality (a settlement) in Pravdinsky District of Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located near the Poland–Russia border, about southeast of Kaliningrad, the administrative center of the oblast, and west of Pravdinsk, the administrative center of the district.
Drang nach Osten ("Drive to the East",Ulrich Best, Transgression as a Rule: German–Polish cross-border cooperation, border discourse and EU-enlargement, 2008, p. 58,, "push eastward",Jerzy Jan Lerski, Piotr Wróbel, Richard J. Kozicki, Historical Dictionary of Poland, 966–1945, 1996, p. 118,, "drive toward the East"Edmund Jan Osmańczyk, Anthony Mango, Encyclopedia of the United Nations and International Agreements, 2003, p. 579,, or "desire to push East") was a term coined in the 19th century to designate German expansion into Slavic lands.
Druzhba (Дру́жба) is the name of several rural localities in Russia.
The Duchy of Prussia (Herzogtum Preußen, Księstwo Pruskie) or Ducal Prussia (Herzogliches Preußen, Prusy Książęce) was a duchy in the region of Prussia established as a result of secularization of the State of the Teutonic Order during the Protestant Reformation in 1525.
Działdowo (Soldau) is a town in north-central Poland with 24,830 inhabitants (2006), the capital of Działdowo County.
East Prussia (Ostpreußen,; Prusy Wschodnie; Rytų Prūsija; Borussia orientalis; Восточная Пруссия) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire from 1871); following World War I it formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia, until 1945.
The East Prussian Offensive was a strategic offensive by the Soviet Red Army against the German Wehrmacht on the Eastern Front (World War II).
The East Prussia(n) plebiscite (Abstimmung in Ostpreußen), also known as the Allenstein and Marienwerder plebiscite or Warmia, Masuria and Powiśle plebiscite (Plebiscyt na Warmii, Mazurach i Powiślu), was a plebiscite for self-determination of the regions southern Warmia (Ermland), Masuria (Mazury, Masuren) and Powiśle, which had been in parts of the East Prussian Government Region of Allenstein and of West Prussian Government Region of Marienwerder, in accordance with Articles 94 to 97 of the Treaty of Versailles.
The East Prussian State Museum in Lüneburg, Lower Saxony in Germany, was established 1987 on the basis of the East Prussian Hunting Museum created by forester Hans Loeffke.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
Ełk (Old Prussian: Luks; Lukas; before 1939 rendered in Polish as Łęg or Łęk) is a town in northeastern Poland with 61,156 inhabitants.
Economic freedom or economic liberty is the ability of people of a society to take economic actions.
Eduard Heinrich Flottwell (23 July 1786 – 28 May 1865; after 1861 von Flottwell) was a Prussian Staatsminister.
Elbląg (Elbing; Old Prussian: Elbings) is a city in northern Poland on the eastern edge of the Żuławy region with 124,257 inhabitants (December 31, 2011).
Emancipation is any effort to procure economic and social rights, political rights or equality, often for a specifically disenfranchised group, or more generally, in discussion of such matters.
An enclave is a territory, or a part of a territory, that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Endsieg is German for "ultimate victory".
Erich Koch (19 June 1896 – 12 November 1986) was a Gauleiter of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in East Prussia from 1928 until 1945.
Ernst Siehr (1869, Heinrichswalde, East Prussia – 1945) was a German lawyer and politician.
The evacuation of East Prussia was the movement of the German civilian population and military personnel from East Prussia between 20 January 1945 and March 1945, that was initially carried out by state authorities but later evolved into a chaotic flight from the Red Army.
An expatriate (often shortened to expat) is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country other than their native country.
A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
In the Middle Ages, especially under the European feudal system, feoffment or enfeoffment was the deed by which a person was given land in exchange for a pledge of service.
A fief (feudum) was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty.
Finckenstein Palace (German: Schloss Finckenstein) was a baroque palace, designed by the architect John von Collas between 1716 and 1720 in the former West Prussia, about 25 mi.
The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.
The First Partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth took place in 1772 as the first of three partitions that ended the existence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth by 1795.
During the later stages of World War II and the post-war period, German citizens and people of German ancestry fled or were expelled from various Eastern and Central European countries and sent to the remaining territory of Germany and Austria.
A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.
François Joseph Lefebvre (25 October 1755 – 14 September 1820), Duc de Dantzig,Francis Joseph Lefebvre, Alvin K. Benson, Magill's Guide to Military History, Vol.
Frederick I (Friedrich I.) (11 July 1657 – 25 February 1713), of the Hohenzollern dynasty, was (as Frederick III) Elector of Brandenburg (1688–1713) and Duke of Prussia in personal union (Brandenburg-Prussia).
Frederick II (Friedrich; 24 January 171217 August 1786) was King of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king.
Frederick William I (Friedrich Wilhelm I) (14 August 1688 – 31 May 1740), known as the "Soldier King" (Soldatenkönig), was the King in Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg from 1713 until his death in 1740 as well as the father of Frederick the Great.
Frederick William III (Friedrich Wilhelm III) (3 August 1770 – 7 June 1840) was king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840.
Frederick William (Friedrich Wilhelm) (16 February 1620 – 29 April 1688) was Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia, thus ruler of Brandenburg-Prussia, from 1640 until his death in 1688.
The Free State of Prussia (Freistaat Preußen) was a German state formed after the abolition of the Kingdom of Prussia in the aftermath of the First World War.
Friedrich Adolf Graf von Kalckreuth (22 February 1737 – 10 June 1818) was a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall.
Friedrich Wilhelm Bernhard von Berg, also von Berg-Markienen, (20 November 1866 – 9 March 1939) was a German politician and chairman of the Secret Civil Cabinet of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1918.
Friedrich Leopold Freiherr von Schrötter (1743 – 1815) was a German Junker, Prussian government minister and until 1806 Reichsfreiherr of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation.
Frombork is a town in northern Poland, on the Vistula Lagoon, in Braniewo County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship.
A Gauleiter was the party leader of a regional branch of the NSDAP (more commonly known as the Nazi Party) or the head of a Gau or of a Reichsgau.
Górowo Iławeckie (Landsberg in Ostpreußen) or simply Górowo, is a town in Bartoszyce County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland, with 4,550 inhabitants (2006).
Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.
For the medieval duchy, see Pomeranian duchies and dukes Gdańsk Pomerania (Pomorze Gdańskie) or Eastern Pomerania (Polish: Pomorze Wschodnie; Kashubian: Pòrénkòwô Pòmòrskô) is a geographical region in northern Poland covering the eastern part of Pomeranian Voivodeship.
Following the defeats Prussia suffered in the 30 Years' War Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg, set up the General War Commissariat to oversee the army, as well as to levy taxes necessary to support the army.
Georges Blond (Jean-Marie Hoedick, 11 July 1906 in Marseille – 16 March 1989 in Paris), was a French writer.
The Imperial German Army (Deutsches Heer) was the name given to the combined land and air forces of the German Empire (excluding the Marine-Fliegerabteilung maritime aviation formations of the Imperial German Navy).
The German Conservative Party (Deutschkonservative Partei, DKP) was a right-wing political party of the German Empire, founded in 1876.
The German Democratic Party (Deutsche Demokratische Partei, DDP) was founded in November, 1918, by leaders of the former Progressive People's Party (Fortschrittliche Volkspartei), left members of the National Liberal Party (Nationalliberale Partei), and a new group calling themselves the Democrats.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The German Free-minded Party or German Radical Party (Deutsche Freisinnige Partei, DFP) was a short-lived liberal party in the German Empire, founded as a result of the merger of the German Progress Party and Liberal Union, an 1880 split-off of the National Liberal Party, on 5 March 1884.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The German National People's Party (DNVP) was a national conservative party in Germany during the time of the Weimar Republic.
The German People's Party (Deutsche Volkspartei, or DVP) was a national liberal party in Weimar Germany and a successor to the National Liberal Party of the German Empire.
The German Progress Party (Deutsche Fortschrittspartei, DFP) was the first modern political party in Germany, founded by liberal members of the Prussian House of Representatives (Abgeordnetenhaus) in 1861, in opposition to Minister President Otto von Bismarck.
The German Völkisch Freedom Party (Deutschvölkische Freiheitspartei, or DVFP) was a National Socialist and anti-Jewish political party of Weimar Germany that took its name from the Völkisch movement, a populist movement focused on folklore and the German ''Volk''.
Germanisation (also spelled Germanization) is the spread of the German language, people and culture or policies which introduced these changes.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Giżycko (Lėcius; former Lec) is a town in northeastern Poland with 29,796 inhabitants (2004).
Gołdap (or variant Goldapp; Geldupė, Geldapė) is a town and the seat of Gołdap County in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship in Poland.
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria.
The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.
During the Great Northern War (1700–1721), many towns and areas of the Circum-Baltic and East-Central Europe suffered from a severe outbreak of the plague with a peak from 1708 to 1712.
The Gulag (ГУЛАГ, acronym of Главное управление лагерей и мест заключения, "Main Camps' Administration" or "Chief Administration of Camps") was the government agency in charge of the Soviet forced labor camp system that was created under Vladimir Lenin and reached its peak during Joseph Stalin's rule from the 1930s to the 1950s.
Regierungsbezirk Gumbinnen was a Regierungsbezirk, or government region, of the Prussian province of East Prussia from 1815 until 1945.
Gusev (Гу́сев), previously known by its German name Gumbinnen (Gumbinė; Gąbin), is a town and the administrative center of Gusevsky District of Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Pissa and Krasnaya Rivers, near the border with Poland and Lithuania, east of Chernyakhovsk.
Gvardeysk (a), known prior to 1946 by its German name (Tepliava; Tapiawa/Tapiewo), is a town and the administrative center of Gvardeysky District in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Pregolya River east of Kaliningrad, the administrative center of the oblast.
Heinrich Friedrich Karl Reichsfreiherr vom und zum Stein (25 October 1757 – 29 June 1831), commonly known as Baron vom Stein, was a Prussian statesman who introduced the Prussian reforms that paved the way for the unification of Germany.
Heinrich Gotthard von Treitschke (15 September 1834 – 28 April 1896) was a German historian, political writer and National Liberal member of the Reichstag during the time of the German Empire.
High Prussian (Hochpreußisch) is the group of East Central German dialects in former East Prussia, in present-day Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The House of Hohenzollern is a dynasty of former princes, electors, kings and emperors of Hohenzollern, Brandenburg, Prussia, the German Empire, and Romania.
Iława (Deutsch Eylau) is a town in northeastern Poland with 32,276 inhabitants (2010).
The Imperial Russian Army (Ру́сская импера́торская а́рмия) was the land armed force of the Russian Empire, active from around 1721 to the Russian Revolution of 1917.
The Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany (Unabhängige Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, USPD) was a short-lived political party in Germany during the German Empire and the Weimar Republic.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.
Jewish emancipation was the external (and internal) process in various nations in Europe of eliminating Jewish disabilities, e.g. Jewish quotas, to which Jewish people were then subject, and the recognition of Jews as entitled to equality and citizenship rights on a communal, not merely individual, basis.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Jeziorany ((Seeburg) formerly known in Polish as Zybork, is a town in Olsztyn County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland, with 3,411 inhabitants (2004).
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Kaliningrad (p; former German name: Königsberg; Yiddish: קעניגסבערג, Kenigsberg; r; Old Prussian: Twangste, Kunnegsgarbs, Knigsberg; Polish: Królewiec) is a city in the administrative centre of Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea.
Kaliningrad Oblast (Калинингра́дская о́бласть, Kaliningradskaya oblast), often referred to as the Kaliningrad Region in English, or simply Kaliningrad, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation that is located on the coast of the Baltic Sea.
Karl August Fürst von Hardenberg (31 May 1750 – 26 November 1822) was a Prussian statesman and Prime Minister of Prussia.
Königsberg is the name for a former German city that is now Kaliningrad, Russia.
Regierungsbezirk Königsberg was a Regierungsbezirk, or government region, of the Prussian province of East Prussia from 1815 until 1945.
The Königsberg Castle (Königsberger Schloss, Кёнигсбергский замок) was a castle in Königsberg, Germany (since 1946 Kaliningrad, Russia), and was one of the landmarks of the East Prussian capital Königsberg.
Kętrzyn (Rastenburg; former Polish name: Rastembork), is a town in northeastern Poland with 28,351 inhabitants (2004).
King in Prussia was a title used by the Electors of Brandenburg from 1701 to 1772.
The Kingdom of Poland (Polish: Królestwo Polskie; Latin: Regnum Poloniae) and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania joined in a personal union established by the Union of Krewo (1385).
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
Klaipėda (Samogitian name: Klaipieda, Polish name: Kłajpeda, German name: Memel), is a city in Lithuania on the Baltic Sea coast.
Klaipėda County (Klaipėdos apskritis) is one of ten counties in Lithuania.
The Klaipėda Region (Klaipėdos kraštas) or Memel Territory (Memelland or Memelgebiet) was defined by the Treaty of Versailles in 1920 and refers to the most northern part of the German province of East Prussia, when as Memelland it was put under the administration of the Council of Ambassadors.
Konrad I of Masovia (Konrad I Mazowiecki) (ca. 1187/88 – 31 August 1247), from the Polish Piast dynasty, was the sixth Duke of Masovia and Kujawy from 1194 until his death as well as High Duke of Poland from 1229 to 1232 and again from 1241 to 1243.
The Kuršininkai (Curonians; Kuren; kuršininkai, kuršiai; kursenieki, kurši; Kuronowie pruscy) are a nearly extinct Baltic ethnic group living along the Curonian Spit.
Kutuzovo (Кутузово) is the name of several rural localities in Russia.
Kwidzyn (Latin: Quedin; Marienwerder; Prussian: Kwēdina) is a town in northern Poland on the Liwa river in the Powiśle (right bank of Vistula) region, with 40,008 inhabitants (2004).
The 'district Allenstein' was a Prussian County in East Prussia, which existed from 1818 to 1945.
Landkreis Heydekrug (1818–1945) was an administrative territorial entity of East Prussia, located in Lithuania Minor.
The Landsmannschaft Ostpreußen ("Homeland Association of East Prussia") is a non-profit organization for Germans who were evacuated or expelled from East Prussia during World War II and its aftermath.
A Landtag (State Diet) is a representative assembly (parliament) in German-speaking countries with legislative authority and competence over a federated state (Land).
Latvian (latviešu valoda) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
A League of Nations mandate was a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I, or the legal instruments that contained the internationally agreed-upon terms for administering the territory on behalf of the League of Nations.
Lemkos (Лeмки, Łemkowie, Lemko: Лeмкы, translit. Lemkŷ; sing. Лeмкo, Lemko) are an ethnic sub-group inhabiting a stretch of the Carpathian Mountains known as Lemkivshchyna.
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (a; Леоні́д Іллі́ч Бре́жнєв, 19 December 1906 (O.S. 6 December) – 10 November 1982) was a Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982 as the General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), presiding over the country until his death and funeral in 1982.
Leopold I (name in full: Leopold Ignaz Joseph Balthasar Felician; I.; 9 June 1640 – 5 May 1705) was Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary, Croatia, and Bohemia.
Lev Zalmanovich (Zinovyevich) Kopelev (Лев Залма́нович (Зино́вьевич) Ко́пелев, German: Lew Sinowjewitsch Kopelew, 9 April 1912, Kiev – 18 June 1997, Cologne) was a Soviet author and dissident.
Lidzbark Warmiński (Heilsberg) is a town in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship in Poland.
Liebstadt is a town in the Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge district, in the Free State of Saxony, Germany.
List of cities and towns in East Prussia, as used before 1945: This article is a translation of the German Wikipedia's Liste der Städte in Ostpreußen article.
The monarchs of Prussia were members of the House of Hohenzollern who were the hereditary rulers of the former German state of Prussia from its founding in 1525 as the Duchy of Prussia.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Lithuania Minor (Mažoji Lietuva; Kleinlitauen; Litwa Mniejsza; Máлая Литвá) or Prussian Lithuania (Prūsų Lietuva; Preußisch-Litauen, Litwa Pruska) is a historical ethnographic region of Prussia, later East Prussia in Germany, where Prussian Lithuanians or Lietuvininkai lived.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
The Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic (Lithuanian SSR; Lietuvos Tarybų Socialistinė Respublika; Литовская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Litovskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), one of the USSR republics that existed in 1940–1941 and 1944–1990, was formed on the basis of the Soviet occupation rule.
Lithuanians (lietuviai, singular lietuvis/lietuvė) are a Baltic ethnic group, native to Lithuania, where they number around 2,561,300 people.
Longman, commonly known as Pearson Longman, is a publishing company founded in London, England, in 1724 and is owned by Pearson PLC.
Duchess Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (Luise Auguste Wilhelmine Amalie; 10 March 1776 – 19 July 1810) was Queen of Prussia as the wife of King Frederick William III.
Low Prussian (Niederpreußisch), sometimes known simply as Prussian (Preußisch), is a moribund dialect of East Low German that developed in East Prussia.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Malbork (Marienburg; Civitas Beatae Virginis) is a town in northern Poland in the Żuławy region (Vistula delta), with 38,478 inhabitants (2006).
The Castle of the Teutonic Order in Malbork (zamek w Malborku; Ordensburg Marienburg) was built in the 13th century in Prussia and is currently located near the town of Malbork, Poland.
The Malbork Voivodeship (Polish: Województwo malborskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Kingdom of Poland from 1454/1466 until the partitions in 1772–1795.
Mamonovo (Мамоново), prior to 1945 known by its German name Heiligenbeil (Święta Siekierka or Świętomiejsce; Šventpilis; Prussian: Swintamīstan), is a town in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia.
The Margraviate of Brandenburg (Markgrafschaft Brandenburg) was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire from 1157 to 1806 that played a pivotal role in the history of Germany and Central Europe.
Regierungsbezirk Marienwerder The Marienwerder Region (Regierungsbezirk Marienwerder) was a government region (Regierungsbezirk), of Prussia from 1815 until 1945.
Masuria (Masuren, Masurian: Mazurÿ) is a region in northern Poland famous for its 2,000 lakes.
The Masurians or Mazurs (Mazurzy, Masuren, Masurian: Mazurÿ) are a small 5,000-15,000 strong Lechitic sub-ethnic group traditionally present in what is now the present-day Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland.
Maximilian II (31 July 1527 – 12 October 1576), a member of the Austrian House of Habsburg, was Holy Roman Emperor from 1564 until his death.
Maximilian III of Austria, also known as Maximilian the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights (12 October 1558 – 2 November 1618) was the Archduke of Further Austria from 1612 until his death.
Mühlhausen is a city in the north-west of Thuringia, Germany, north of Niederdorla, the country's geographical centre, north-west of Erfurt, east of Kassel and south-east of Göttingen.
Młynary (Mühlhausen in Ostpreußen) is a town in Elbląg County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland, with 1,844 inhabitants (2004).
Miłakowo (Liebstadt) is a town in Ostróda County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland, with 2,691 inhabitants (2008).
Miłomłyn (Liebmühl) is a town in Ostróda County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland, with 2,256 inhabitants (2004).
Michael Wieck (born 19 July 1928) is a German violinist and author.
Michel Tournier (19 December 1924 − 18 January 2016) was a French writer.
Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin (Михаи́л Ива́нович Кали́нин; 3 June 1946), known familiarly by Soviet citizens as "Kalinych", was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet Politician.
Mikołajki is a town in Mrągowo County in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship in north-eastern Poland with 3,849 inhabitants.
Morąg (Mohrungen) is a town in northern Poland in Ostróda County in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship.
Mrągowo (from 1945-1947: Żądźbork) is a town in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship of northeastern Poland, the capital of Mrągowo County and the seat (though not part of) the Gmina Mrągowo.
A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to) cities, counties, towns, townships, charter townships, villages, and boroughs.
Goya was a Norwegian motor freighter.
MV Wilhelm Gustloff was a German military transport ship which was sunk on 30 January 1945 by in the Baltic Sea while evacuating German civilians, German officials and military personnel from Gotenhafen (now Gdynia) as the Red Army advanced.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The National Liberal Party (Nationalliberale Partei, NLP) was a liberal political party of the North German Confederation and the German Empire, which flourished between 1867 and 1918.
Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The National Socialist German Workers' Party (abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945 and supported the ideology of Nazism.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
Neman (Неман), prior to 1946 known by its German name Ragnit (Ragainė; Ragneta), is a town and the administrative center of Nemansky District in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located in the historic East Prussia, on the steep southern bank of the Neman River, where it forms the Russian border with the Klaipėda Region in Lithuania, and northeast of Kaliningrad, the administrative center of the oblast.
The Nemmersdorf massacre was a civilian massacre allegedly perpetrated by Red Army soldiers in the late stages of World War II.
Nesterov (Не́стеров), until 1938 known by its German name Stallupönen (Stalupėnai; Stołupiany) and in 1938-1946 as Ebenrode, is a town and the administrative center of Nesterovsky District in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located east of Kaliningrad, the administrative center of the oblast, near the Russian-Lithuanian border on the railway connecting Kaliningrad Oblast with Moscow.
New East Prussia (Neuostpreußen; Prusy Nowowschodnie; Naujieji Rytprūsiai) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1795 to 1807.
Nibork (Neberg) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Sorkwity, within Mrągowo County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, in northern Poland.
Nidzica (former; formerly Nibork in Polish) is a town in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship in Poland, between Olsztyn and Mława.
The Nogat is a 62 km long delta branch of the Vistula River and does not empty at Gdańsk Bay as the main river does.
The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusades were religious wars undertaken by Catholic Christian military orders and kingdoms, primarily against the pagan Baltic, Finnic and West Slavic peoples around the southern and eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, and to a lesser extent also against Orthodox Christian Slavs (East Slavs).
An oath of allegiance is an oath whereby a subject or citizen acknowledges a duty of allegiance and swears loyalty to monarch or country.
An Oberlandesgericht (plural – Oberlandesgerichte; OLG, Higher Regional Court, or in Berlin Kammergericht: KG) is a higher court in Germany.
Oberpräsident was the official title of the highest administrative officials in the Prussian provinces.
The Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) is the body responsible for the operation of Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO) and of other public information services of the United Kingdom.
Old Prussian is an extinct Baltic language once spoken by the Old Prussians, the Baltic peoples of Prussia (not to be confused with the later and much larger German state of the same name)—after 1945 northeastern Poland, the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia and southernmost part of Lithuania.
Old Prussians or Baltic Prussians (Old Prussian: Prūsai; Pruzzen or Prußen; Pruteni; Prūši; Prūsai; Prusowie; Prësowié) refers to the indigenous peoples from a cluster of Baltic tribes that inhabited the region of Prussia.
Olecko (former since 1560, colloquially also, since 1928, Alėcka) is a city in Masuria, in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship of Poland, near Ełk and Suwałki.
Olsztyn (Allenstein; Old Polish: Holstin; Old Prussian: Alnāsteini or Alnestabs; Alnaštynas, Alnštynas, Alštynas (historical) and Olštynas (modern)) is a city on the Łyna River in northeastern Poland.
Olsztyn Voivodeship was an administrative division and unit of local government in Poland in the years 1945-75, and a new territorial division between 1975–1998, superseded by Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship.
Olsztynek (Hohenstein in Ostpreußen) is a town in Olsztyn County, in Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship of Poland.
Operation Vistula (Akcja "Wisła") was a codename for the 1947 forced resettlement of the Ukrainian minority including Boykos and Lemkos from the south-eastern provinces of post-war Poland, to the Recovered Territories in the west of the country.
Orneta (Wormditt) is a town in northern Poland, in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, with a population of 9,859.
Orzysz (Arys) is a town in Pisz County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland, with 7,512 inhabitants (2007).
The Ostflucht (flight from the East) was the migration of Germans, in the later 19th century and early 20th century, from areas which were then eastern parts of Germany to more industrialized regions in central and western Germany.
Ostróda (Old Prussian: Austrāti) is a town in Ostróda County in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship in Poland, with 33,191 inhabitants as of December 31, 2009.
Ostsiedlung (literally east settling), in English called the German eastward expansion, was the medieval eastward migration and settlement of Germanic-speaking peoples from the Holy Roman Empire, especially its southern and western portions, into less-populated regions of Central Europe, parts of west Eastern Europe, and the Baltics.
Otto Braun (28 January 1872 – 15 December 1955) was a German Social Democratic politician who served as Prime Minister of Prussia for most of the time from 1920 to 1932.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Ozyorsk (Озёрск), known prior to 1938 by its German name Darkehmen (Darkiemis; Darkiejmy), and from 1938 to 1946 as Angerapp, is a town and the administrative center of Ozyorsky District in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the Angrapa River near the border with the Polish Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, southeast of Kaliningrad, the administrative center of the oblast.
Pagėgiai (Pogegen) is a city in the south western Lithuania.
The Partition Sejm (Sejm Rozbiorowy) was a Sejm lasting from 1773 to 1775 in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, convened by its three neighbours (the Russian Empire, Prussia and Austria) in order to legalize their First Partition of Poland.
The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.
Pasłęk ("Prussian Holland", Old Prussian: Pāistlauks) is a town in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland, with 12,195 inhabitants (2004).
Pasym (Passenheim) is a small town in Szczytno County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland, with 2,522 inhabitants (2004).
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.
Petrovice (German Peterswald) is a village and municipality (obec) in Ústí nad Labem District in the Ústí nad Labem Region of the Czech Republic.
Pieniężno is a town on the Wałsza River in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship in Poland.
Pierre Benoit (16 July 1886 - 3 March 1962) was a French novelist and member of the Académie française.
Pisz (previously also Jańsbork, Johannisburg) is a town in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship in Poland, with a population of 19,328 in 2004.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
Polessk (Поле́сск), prior to 1946 known by its German name Labiau (Labguva; Labiawa), is a town and the administrative center of Polessky District in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located northeast of Kaliningrad, the administrative center of the oblast, at the junction of a main road and a railroad at the Deyma River, shortly before it enters the Curonian Lagoon.
Following the Invasion of Poland at the beginning of World War II, nearly a quarter of the entire territory of the Second Polish Republic was annexed by Nazi Germany and placed directly under the German civil administration.
The Polish Corridor (Polnischer Korridor; Pomorze, Korytarz polski), also known as Danzig Corridor, Corridor to the Sea or Gdańsk Corridor, was a territory located in the region of Pomerelia (Pomeranian Voivodeship, eastern Pomerania, formerly part of West Prussia), which provided the Second Republic of Poland (1920–1939) with access to the Baltic Sea, thus dividing the bulk of Germany from the province of East Prussia.
The Polish People's Republic (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) covers the history of contemporary Poland between 1952 and 1990 under the Soviet-backed socialist government established after the Red Army's release of its territory from German occupation in World War II.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
The Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War or Great War occurred between 1409 and 1411, pitting the allied Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania against the Teutonic Knights.
The Polish–Soviet War (February 1919 – March 1921) was fought by the Second Polish Republic, Ukrainian People's Republic and the proto-Soviet Union (Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine) for control of an area equivalent to today's western Ukraine and parts of modern Belarus.
Pomeranian Voivodeship, Pomorskie Region, or Pomerania Province (in Polish województwo pomorskie, in Kashubian Pòmòrsczé wòjewództwò), is a voivodeship, or province, in north-western Poland.
The Pomeranian Voivodeship (Województwo pomorskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Kingdom of Poland and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1454/1466 until the First partition of Poland in 1772.
Pomerelia (Pomerelia; Pomerellen, Pommerellen), also referred to as Eastern Pomerania (Pomorze Wschodnie) or as Gdańsk Pomerania (Pomorze Gdańskie), is a historical region in northern Poland.
The Potsdam Conference (Potsdamer Konferenz) was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm, in Potsdam, occupied Germany, from 17 July to 2 August 1945.
Prabuty (Riesenburg) is a town in Kwidzyn County within the Pomeranian Voivodeship of northern Poland.
Pravdinsk, prior to 1946 known by its German name Friedland (Romuva; Frydląd) is a town and the administrative center of Pravdinsky District in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the Lava River, approximately east of Bagrationovsk and southeast of Kaliningrad, the administrative center of the oblast.
Primorsk (Примо́рск), prior to 1946 known by its German name Fischhausen (Žuvininkai/Skanavikas; Rybaki), is a town in Baltiysky District of Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the Vistula Lagoon.
The Prince-Bishopric of Warmia (Biskupie Księstwo Warmińskie, Fürstbistum Ermland) was a semi-independent ecclesiastical state, ruled by the incumbent ordinary of the Ermland/Warmia see and comprising one third of the then diocesan area.
The prince-electors (or simply electors) of the Holy Roman Empire (Kurfürst, pl. Kurfürsten, Kurfiřt, Princeps Elector) were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire.
The propaganda used by the German Nazi Party in the years leading up to and during Adolf Hitler's leadership of Germany (1933–1945) was a crucial instrument for acquiring and maintaining power, and for the implementation of Nazi policies.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
The Province of Pomerania was a province of Brandenburg-Prussia, the later Kingdom of Prussia.
The Province of Posen (Provinz Posen, Prowincja Poznańska) was a province of Prussia from 1848 and as such part of the German Empire from 1871 until 1918.
The Province of Prussia (Prowincjô Prësë) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1829–1878.
The Provinces of Prussia constituted the main administrative divisions of Prussia upon the Stein-Hardenberg Reforms.
Prussia (Old Prussian: Prūsa, Preußen, Prūsija, Prusy, tr) is a historical region in Europe, stretching from Gdańsk Bay to the end of Curonian Spit on the southeastern coast of the Baltic Sea, and extending inland as far as Masuria.
The Royal Prussian Army (Königlich Preußische Armee) served as the army of the Kingdom of Prussia.
The Prussian Homage or Prussian Tribute (Preußische Huldigung; hołd pruski) was the formal investment of Albert of Prussia as duke of the Polish fief of Ducal Prussia.
The Prussian Lithuanians, or Lietuvininkai (singular: Lietuvininkas, plural: Lietuvininkai), are Lithuanians, originally Lithuanian language speakers, who formerly inhabited a territory in northeastern East Prussia called Prussian Lithuania, or Lithuania Minor (Prūsų Lietuva, Mažoji Lietuva, Preußisch-Litauen, Kleinlitauen), instead of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and, later, the Republic of Lithuania (Lithuania Major, or Lithuania proper).
The Prussian Reform Movement was a series of constitutional, administrative, social and economic reforms early in the nineteenth-century Kingdom of Prussia.
RAF Bomber Command controlled the RAF's bomber forces from 1936 to 1968.
Rape is a type of sexual assault usually involving sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual penetration carried out against a person without that person's consent.
Real union is a union of two or more states, which share some state institutions as in contrast to personal unions; however they are not as unified as states in a political union.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition).
A German Regierungsbezirk (often abbreviated to Reg.-Bez.; administrative district) is an administrative district of one of the nation's federal states.
The Reich Party of the German Middle Class (Reichspartei des deutschen Mittelstandes), known from 1920–25 as the Economic Party of the German Middle Classes (Wirtschaftspartei des deutschen Mittelstandes), was a conservative German political party during the Weimar Republic.
The Reichsbanner Schwarz-Rot-Gold ("Black, Red, Gold Banner of the Reich") was an organization in Germany during the Weimar Republic, formed by members of the Social Democratic Party of Germany, the German Centre Party, and the (liberal) German Democratic Party in 1924.
The Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia (Reichsgau Danzig-Westpreussen) was a Nazi German province created on 8 October 1939 from annexed territory of the Free City of Danzig, the Greater Pomeranian Voivodship (Polish Corridor), and the ''Regierungsbezirk'' West Prussia of Gau East Prussia.
The Reichstag (English: Diet of the Realm) was the Lower house of the Weimar Republic's Legislature from 1919, with the creation of the Weimar constitution, to 1933, with the Reichstag fire.
Historians, political scientists and philosophers have studied Nazism with a specific focus on its religious and pseudo-religious aspects.
Reszel (Rößel; Prussian: Resel or Resl) is a town in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, in northeastern Poland.
The Rhineland (Rheinland, Rhénanie) is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine, chiefly its middle section.
Richard Steigmann-Gall (born 1965) is Associate Professor of History at Kent State University, and was the Director of the Jewish Studies Program from 2004 to 2010.
Richard Walther Darré (born Ricardo Walther Oscar Darré; 14 July 1895 – 5 September 1953) was one of the leading Nazi "blood and soil" (German: Blut und Boden) ideologists and served as Reich Minister of Food and Agriculture from 1933 to 1942.
Royal Prussia (Prusy Królewskie; Königlich-Preußen or Preußen Königlichen Anteils, Królewsczé Prësë) or Polish PrussiaAnton Friedrich Büsching, Patrick Murdoch.
Rudolf Ludwig Cäsar von Auerswald (1 September 1795 – 15 January 1866) was a German official who served as Prime Minister of Prussia during the Revolution of 1848.
The Ruhr (Ruhrgebiet), or the Ruhr district, Ruhr region, Ruhr area or Ruhr valley, is a polycentric urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian invasion of East Prussia occurred during the First World War, lasting from August to September 1914.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
Ryn (Rhein) is a town in Poland located 19 km southwest of Giżycko, in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship.
Saalfeld (Saalfeld/Saale) is a town in Germany, capital of the Saalfeld-Rudolstadt district of Thuringia.
Sambia (Самбийский полуостров, Sambiysky poluostrov, literally the Sambiysky Peninsula;Sembos pusiasalis) or Samland (Земландский полуостров, Zemlandsky poluostrov, literally the Zemlandsky Peninsula) or Kaliningrad Peninsula (official name, Калининградский полуостров, Kaliningradsky poluostrov) is a peninsula in the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia, on the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea.
Sępopol (Schippenbeil) is a town in Bartoszyce County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland, with 2,025 inhabitants (2004).
The Schlieffen Plan (Schlieffen-Plan) was the name given after World War I to the thinking behind the German invasion of France and Belgium on 4 August 1914.
The Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes, also known as the Winter Battle of the Masurian Lakes, was the northern part of the Central Powers' offensive on the Eastern Front in the winter of 1915.
The Peace of Thorn of 1466 (Zweiter Friede von Thorn; drugi pokój toruński) was a peace treaty signed in the Hanseatic city of Thorn (Toruń) on 19 October 1466 between the Polish king Casimir IV Jagiellon on one side, and the Teutonic Knights on the other.
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).
The Seedienst Ostpreussen or Sea Service East Prussia was a ferry connection between the German provinces of Pomerania and, later, Schleswig-Holstein and the German exclave of East Prussia from 1920 to 1939.
Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism.
A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established a permanent residence there, often to colonize the area.
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
Sinclair-Stevenson Ltd is a British publisher founded in 1989 by Christopher Sinclair-Stevenson.
Slavskoye (Сла́вское; Kreuzburg in Ostpreußen; Kryžbarkas) is a settlement in the Bagrationovsky District, Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located south of Kaliningrad.
The Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) is a social-democratic political party in Germany.
Sovetsk (Сове́тск), before 1946 known as Tilsit (Tilžė; Tylża) in East Prussia, is a town in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the south bank of the Neman River.
The Soviet Occupation Zone (Sovetskaya okkupatsionnaya zona Germanii, "Soviet Occupation Zone of Germany") was the area of central Germany occupied by the Soviet Union from 1945 on, at the end of World War II.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
SS General von Steuben was a German passenger liner and later an protected transport ship in the Kriegsmarine of Nazi Germany which was sunk during World War II.
The Stahlhelm, Bund der Frontsoldaten ("Steel Helmet, League of Front Soldiers", also known in short form as Der Stahlhelm) was one of the many paramilitary organizations that arose after the German defeat of World War I. It was part of the "Black Reichswehr" and in the late days of the Weimar Republic operated as the armed branch of the national conservative German National People's Party (DNVP), placed at party gatherings in the position of armed security guards (Saalschutz).
The State of the Teutonic Order (Staat des Deutschen Ordens; Civitas Ordinis Theutonici), also called Deutschordensstaat or Ordensstaat in German, was a crusader state formed by the Teutonic Knights or Teutonic Order during the 13th century Northern Crusades along the Baltic Sea.
The Sturmabteilung (SA), literally Storm Detachment, functioned as the original paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Suvalkija or Sudovia (Sūduva or Suvalkija or Užnemunė) is the smallest of the five cultural regions of Lithuania.
Szczytno (Ortelsburg) is a town in north-eastern Poland with 27,970 inhabitants (2004).
Szymbark (German: Schönberg) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Iława, within Iława County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, in northern Poland.
17 days after the German invasion of Poland in 1939, which marked the beginning of World War II, the Soviet Union invaded the eastern regions of the Second Polish Republic, which Poland re-established during the Polish–Soviet War and referred to as the "Kresy", and annexed territories totaling with a population of 13,299,000 inhabitants including Lithuanians,Russians, Belarusians, Ukrainians, Poles, Jews, Czechs and others.
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
Heinrich Theodor von Schön (20 January 1773 – 23 July 1856) was a Prussian statesman who assisted in the liberal reforms in Prussia during the Napoleonic Wars.
The Thirteen Years' War (Dreizehnjähriger Krieg; wojna trzynastoletnia), also called the War of the Cities, was a conflict fought in 1454–66 between the Prussian Confederation, allied with the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, and the State of the Teutonic Order.
Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.
The Treaties of Tilsit were two agreements signed by Napoleon I of France in the town of Tilsit in July 1807 in the aftermath of his victory at Friedland.
The Treaty of Bromberg (Latin: Pacta Bydgostensia) or Treaty of Bydgoszcz was a treaty between John II Casimir of Poland and Elector Frederick William of Brandenburg-Prussia, ratified at Bromberg (Bydgoszcz) on 6 November 1657.
The Treaty of Labiau was a treaty signed between Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg and Charles X Gustav of Sweden on 10 November (O.S.) / 20 November (N.S.) 1656 in Labiau (now Polessk).
The Treaty or Peace of Oliva of 23 April (OS)/3 May (NS) 1660Evans (2008), p.55 (Pokój Oliwski, Freden i Oliva, Vertrag von Oliva) was one of the peace treaties ending the Second Northern War (1655-1660).
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.
The unification of Germany into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871, in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles in France.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
Ushakovo (Ушаково) is the name of several rural localities in Russia.
A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.
The Vistula (Wisła, Weichsel,, ווייסל), Висла) is the longest and largest river in Poland, at in length. The drainage basin area of the Vistula is, of which lies within Poland (54% of its land area). The remainder is in Belarus, Ukraine and Slovakia. The Vistula rises at Barania Góra in the south of Poland, above sea level in the Silesian Beskids (western part of Carpathian Mountains), where it begins with the White Little Vistula (Biała Wisełka) and the Black Little Vistula (Czarna Wisełka). It then continues to flow over the vast Polish plains, passing several large Polish cities along its way, including Kraków, Sandomierz, Warsaw, Płock, Włocławek, Toruń, Bydgoszcz, Świecie, Grudziądz, Tczew and Gdańsk. It empties into the Vistula Lagoon (Zalew Wiślany) or directly into the Gdańsk Bay of the Baltic Sea with a delta and several branches (Leniwka, Przekop, Śmiała Wisła, Martwa Wisła, Nogat and Szkarpawa).
The Volga Germans (Wolgadeutsche or Russlanddeutsche, Povolzhskiye nemtsy) are ethnic Germans who colonized and historically lived along the Volga River in the region of southeastern European Russia around Saratov and to the south.
Walter Schütz (25 October 1897 – between 27 and 29 March 1933) was a German communist politician.
Walter von Cronberg (1477 or 1479 – 4 April 1545) was the 38th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, serving from 1527 to 1543.
The Fourth Coalition fought against Napoleon's French Empire and was defeated in a war spanning 1806–1807.
The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death of the childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700.
Warmia (Warmia, Latin: Varmia,, Old Prussian: Wārmi, Varmė) is a historical region in northern Poland.
Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship or Warmia-Masuria Province or Warmia-Mazury Province (in Województwo warmińsko-mazurskie,.
Węgorzewo (Angerburg, Ungura) is a tourist town in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland, not far from the border with Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
The Province of West Prussia (Provinz Westpreußen; Zôpadné Prësë; Prusy Zachodnie) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773 to 1824 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire from 1871); it also briefly formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia until 1919/20.
The Western Front was the main theatre of war during the First World War.
Westphalia (Westfalen) is a region in northwestern Germany and one of the three historic parts of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia.
Wielbark is a village in Szczytno County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, in northern Poland.
Wilhelm II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern; 27 January 18594 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918.
Count Wilhelm von Bismarck-Schönhausen (né Wilhelm Otto Albrecht von Bismarck) (1 August 1852 – 30 May 1901) was a German counselor, civil servant and politician, who served as a member of the Reichstag from 1880 to 1881 and president of the Regency of Hanover from 1889 to 1890.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
Wolf children (Wolfskinder) was the name given to a group of orphaned German children at the end of World War II in East Prussia.
A world war, is a large-scale war involving many of the countries of the world or many of the most powerful and populous ones.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Zalewo (Saalfeld in Ostpreußen) is a town in Iława County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland, with 2,977 inhabitants (2008).
Zheleznodorozhny (Железнодоро́жный, lit. railway; Gerdauen; Girdava; Gierdawy, Gierdawa), formerly Gerdauen until 1946, is an urban locality (an urban-type settlement) in Pravdinsky District of Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia.
Regierungsbezirk Zichenau was a Regierungsbezirk, or administrative region, of the Nazi German Province of East Prussia in 1939–45.
Znamensk (Vėluva; Welawa) is a rural locality (a settlement) in Gvardeysky District of Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Pregolya River at its confluence with the Lava River east of Kaliningrad.
East Prussia Province, East Prussian, East Prussian Germans, East-Prussia, Eastern Prussia, Eastprussian, Ostpreussen, Ostpreußen, Province of East Prussia, Province of east prussia, Provinz Ostpreußen, Prussia, East, Prussia, East (Poland and Russia), Prusy Wschodnie, Rytprūsiai, Rytų Prūsija, Восточная Пруссия.