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Abomination (from Latin abominare, "to deprecate as an ill omen") is an English term used to translate the Biblical Hebrew terms shiqquts שיקוץ and sheqets שקץ, which are derived from shâqats, or the terms תֹּועֵבָה, tōʻēḇā or to'e'va (noun) or ta'ev (verb).
Advent is a season observed in many Christian churches as a time of expectant waiting and preparation for the celebration of the Nativity of Jesus at Christmas as well as the return of Jesus at the second coming.
An Afterfeast is a period of celebration attached to one of the Great Feasts celebrated by the Orthodox Christian and Eastern Catholic Churches (somewhat analogous to what in the West would be called an Octave).
Agape (Ancient Greek, agapē) is a Greco-Christian term referring to love, "the highest form of love, charity" and "the love of God for man and of man for God".
Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.
The World Council of Churches (WCC) proposed a reform of the method of determining the date of Easter at a summit in Aleppo, Syria, in 1997.
All Saints' Day, also known as All Hallows' Day, Hallowmas, Feast of All Saints, or Solemnity of All Saints, is a Christian festival celebrated in honour of all the saints, known and unknown.
The word "Alleluia" or "Hallelujah" (from Hebrew הללו יה), which literally means "Praise ye Yah", a short form of "Praise Yahweh" and often rendered as "praise the Lord".
Aloysius Lilius (c. 1510 – 1576), also variously referred to as Luigi Lilio, Luigi Giglio, was an Italian doctor, astronomer, philosopher and chronologist, and also the "primary author" who provided the proposal that (after modifications) became the basis of the Gregorian Calendar reform of 1582.
Aurelius Ambrosius (– 397), better known in English as Ambrose, was a bishop of Milan who became one of the most influential ecclesiastical figures of the 4th century.
The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization based in the United States that promotes libraries and library education internationally.
Anabaptism (from Neo-Latin anabaptista, from the Greek ἀναβαπτισμός: ἀνά- "re-" and βαπτισμός "baptism", Täufer, earlier also WiedertäuferSince the middle of the 20th century, the German-speaking world no longer uses the term "Wiedertäufer" (translation: "Re-baptizers"), considering it biased. The term Täufer (translation: "Baptizers") is now used, which is considered more impartial. From the perspective of their persecutors, the "Baptizers" baptized for the second time those "who as infants had already been baptized". The denigrative term Anabaptist signifies rebaptizing and is considered a polemical term, so it has been dropped from use in modern German. However, in the English-speaking world, it is still used to distinguish the Baptizers more clearly from the Baptists, a Protestant sect that developed later in England. Cf. their self-designation as "Brethren in Christ" or "Church of God":.) is a Christian movement which traces its origins to the Radical Reformation.
Corinth (Κόρινθος Kórinthos) was a city-state (polis) on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnese to the mainland of Greece, roughly halfway between Athens and Sparta.
The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion with 85 million members, founded in 1867 in London, England.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human traits, emotions, or intentions to non-human entities.
Antioch on the Orontes (Antiókheia je epi Oróntou; also Syrian Antioch)Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, "Antioch on Daphne"; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη, "Antioch the Great"; Antiochia ad Orontem; Անտիոք Antiok; ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ Anṭiokya; Hebrew: אנטיוכיה, Antiyokhya; Arabic: انطاكية, Anṭākiya; انطاکیه; Antakya.
In Christian theology and ecclesiology, the apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
Armstrongism is a term, usually considered derisive, used to refer to the teachings and doctrines of Herbert W. Armstrong while leader of the Worldwide Church of God (WCG).
The ascension of Jesus (anglicized from the Vulgate Latin Acts 1:9-11 section title: Ascensio Iesu) is the departure of Christ from Earth into the presence of God.
Ash Wednesday is a Christian holy day of prayer, fasting and repentance.
The Roman province of Asia or Asiana (Ἀσία or Ἀσιανή), in Byzantine times called Phrygia, was an administrative unit added to the late Republic.
Augustalis (fl. 5th century) was the first bishop of Toulon, according to some authorities.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Ēostre or Ostara (Ēastre or, Northumbrian dialect Ēastro Sievers 1901 p. 98, Mercian dialect and West Saxon dialect (Old English) Ēostre; *Ôstara) is a Germanic goddess who, by way of the Germanic month bearing her name (Northumbrian: Ēosturmōnaþ; West Saxon: Ēastermōnaþ; Ôstarmânoth), is the namesake of the festival of Easter in some languages.
A bank holiday is a public holiday in the United Kingdom, some Commonwealth countries, Hong Kong and the Republic of Ireland.
Baptism (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below) is a Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity.
A baptismal font is an article of church furniture used for baptism.
Bede (italic; 672/3 – 26 May 735), also known as Saint Bede, Venerable Bede, and Bede the Venerable (Bēda Venerābilis), was an English Benedictine monk at the monastery of St.
Biblical Sabbath is a weekly day of rest or time of worship given in the Bible as the seventh day.
Blood of Christ in Christian theology refers to (a) the physical blood actually shed by Jesus Christ primarily on the Cross, and the salvation which Christianity teaches was accomplished thereby; and (b) the sacramental blood present in the Eucharist or Lord's Supper, which is considered by Catholic, Orthodox, Anglican, and Lutheran Christians to be the same blood of Christ shed on the Cross.
In Christian theology, the term Body of Christ has two main but separate meanings: it may refer to Jesus' words over the bread at the Last Supper that "This is my body" in, or to the usage of the term by the Apostle Paul in and to refer to the Christian Church.
The Book of Common Prayer (BCP) is the short title of a number of related prayer books used in the Anglican Communion, as well as by the Continuing Anglican, Anglican realignment and other Anglican Christian churches.
Bright Week, Pascha Week or Renewal Week (Διακαινήσιμος Ἑβδομάς) is the name used by the Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine Rite Catholic Churches for the period of seven days beginning on Easter and continuing up to (but not including) the following Sunday, which is known as Thomas Sunday.
Calabria (Calàbbria in Calabrian; Calavría in Calabrian Greek; Καλαβρία in Greek; Kalavrì in Arbëresh/Albanian), known in antiquity as Bruttium, is a region in Southern Italy.
The Calendar (New Style) Act 1750 (c.23) (also known as Chesterfield's Act after Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain.
Calvary, or Golgotha (Biblical Greek Γολγοθᾶ Golgotha, traditionally interpreted as reflecting Syriac (Aramaic) golgolta, as it were Hebrew gulgōleṯ "skull" Strong's Concordance.), was, according to the Gospels, a site immediately outside Jerusalem's walls where Jesus was crucified.
In the practice of Christianity, canonical hours mark the divisions of the day in terms of periods of fixed prayer at regular intervals.
The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church, also referred to as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia and the Original Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in the United States and designed to serve the Roman Catholic Church.
The Cenacle (from Latin cēnāculum "dining room", later spelt coenaculum and semantically drifting towards "upper room"), also known as the "Upper Room", is a room in the David's Tomb Compound in Jerusalem, traditionally held to be the site of the Last Supper.
In church architecture, the chancel is the space around the altar, including the choir and the sanctuary (sometimes called the presbytery), at the liturgical east end of a traditional Christian church building.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
Christendom has several meanings.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
Chronicon Paschale (the Paschal Chronicle), also called Chronicum Alexandrinum, Constantinopolitanum or Fasti Siculi, is the conventional name of a 7th-century Greek Christian chronicle of the world.
A chronology of Jesus aims to establish a timeline for the historical events of the life of Jesus.
A church building or church house, often simply called a church, is a building used for Christian religious activities, particularly for worship services.
A church bell in the Christian tradition is a bell which is rung in a church for a variety of church purposes, and can be heard outside the building.
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre (كَنِيسَةُ ٱلْقِيَامَة Kanīsatu al-Qiyāmah; Ναὸς τῆς Ἀναστάσεως Naos tes Anastaseos; Սուրբ Հարության տաճար Surb Harut'yan tač̣ar; Ecclesia Sancti Sepulchri; כנסיית הקבר, Knesiyat ha-Kever; also called the Church of the Resurrection or Church of the Anastasis by Orthodox Christians) is a church in the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem.
A church service (also called a service of worship, or simply a service) is a formalized period of communal worship in Christian tradition.
Clean Monday (Καθαρά Δευτέρα), also known as Pure Monday, Ash Monday, Monday of Lent or Green Monday, is the first day of Great Lent throughout Eastern Christianity and is a moveable feast, falling on the 7th Monday before Pascha.
Clipping the church is an ancient custom that is traditionally held in England on Easter Monday or Shrove Tuesday or a date relevant to the Saint associated with the church.
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
Computus (Latin for "computation") is a calculation that determines the calendar date of Easter.
In Christianity, confirmation is seen as the sealing of Christianity created in baptism.
Congregational churches (also Congregationalist churches; Congregationalism) are Protestant churches in the Reformed tradition practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs.
The Feast of Corpus Christi (Latin for "Body of Christ") is a Catholic liturgical solemnity celebrating the real presence of the body and blood of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, in the Eucharist—known as transubstantiation.
Crucifixion is a method of capital punishment in which the victim is tied or nailed to a large wooden beam and left to hang for several days until eventual death from exhaustion and asphyxiation.
The crucifixion of Jesus occurred in 1st-century Judea, most likely between AD 30 and 33.
Dionysius Exiguus (Latin for "Dionysius the Humble"; –) was a 6th-century monk born in Scythia Minor (probably modern Dobruja, in Romania and Bulgaria).
In Christianity, the term disciple primarily refers to dedicated followers of Jesus.
The Dismissal (απόλυσις; Slavonic: otpust) is the final blessing said by a Christian priest or minister at the end of a religious service.
Divine Liturgy (Theia Leitourgia; Bozhestvena liturgiya; saghmrto lit'urgia; Sfânta Liturghie; 'Bozhestvennaya liturgiya; Sveta Liturgija; Surb Patarag;, and Boska Liturgia Świętego, Božská liturgie) is the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine Rite which is the Rite of The Great Church of Christ and was developed from the Antiochene Rite of Christian liturgy.
Divine Mercy Sunday (also known as the Feast of the Divine Mercy) is celebrated on the Sunday after Easter, the Octave Day of Easter.
Dominical letters or Sunday letters are a method used to determine the day of the week for particular dates.
Early Christianity, defined as the period of Christianity preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325, typically divides historically into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period (from the Apostolic Age until Nicea).
Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, also called Pascha (Greek, Latin) or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary 30 AD.
The Easter Act 1928 (c. 35) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed and enacted in 1928 concerning the date for Easter, but has never come into force or become implemented.
The Easter Bilby is an Australian alternative to the Easter Bunny.
The Easter Bunny (also called the Easter Rabbit or Easter Hare) is a folkloric figure and symbol of Easter, depicted as a rabbit bringing Easter eggs.
The controversy over the correct date for Easter began in Early Christianity as early as the 2nd Century A.D. Discussion and disagreement over the best method of computing the date of Easter Sunday has been ongoing and unresolved for centuries.
Easter eggs, also called Paschal eggs, are decorated eggs that are usually used as gifts on the occasion of Easter.
The holiday of Easter is associated with various Easter customs and foodways (food traditions that vary regionally).
Easter Monday is the day after Easter Sunday and is a holiday in some countries.
The Easter parade is an American cultural event consisting of a festive strolling procession on Easter Sunday.
Easter Saturday, on the Christian calendar, is the Saturday following the festival of Easter, the Saturday of Easter or Bright Week.
Since its origins, Easter has been a time of celebration and feasting and many traditional Easter games and customs developed, such as egg rolling, egg tapping, pace egging, cascarones or confetti eggs, and egg decorating.
Easter Tuesday is the third day of the Octave of Easter and is a holiday in some areas.
Easter Vigil, also called the Paschal Vigil or the Great Vigil of Easter, is a service held in traditional Christian churches as the first official celebration of the Resurrection of Jesus.
Easter Week is the period of seven days from Easter Sunday through the Saturday following.
The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, and in some historical cases Uniate Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian particular churches sui iuris in full communion with the Pope in Rome, as part of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Eastern Christianity consists of four main church families: the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox churches, the Eastern Catholic churches (that are in communion with Rome but still maintain Eastern liturgies), and the denominations descended from the Church of the East.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Eastern Orthodox church architecture constitutes a distinct, recognizable family of styles among church architectures.
Eastertide (also called the Easter Season as well as Easter Time) or Paschaltide (also called the Paschal Season as well as Paschal Time) is a festal season in the liturgical year of Christianity that focuses on celebrating the Resurrection of Jesus Christ.
An ecclesiastical full moon is formally the 14th day of the ecclesiastical lunar month (an ecclesiastical moon) in an ecclesiastical lunar calendar.
An ecclesiastical new moon is the first day of a lunar month (an ecclesiastical moon) in an ecclesiastical lunar calendar.
The Ecumenical Patriarch (Η Αυτού Θειοτάτη Παναγιότης, ο Αρχιεπίσκοπος Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Νέας Ρώμης και Οικουμενικός Πατριάρχης, "His Most Divine All-Holiness the Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome, and Ecumenical Patriarch") is the Archbishop of Constantinople–New Rome and ranks as primus inter pares (first among equals) among the heads of the several autocephalous churches that make up the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, mammals, and fish, and have been eaten by humans for thousands of years.
An egg hunt is a game during which decorated eggs or Easter eggs are hidden for children to find.
In Christianity, the empty tomb is the tomb of Jesus that was found to be empty by the women myrrhbearers who had come to his tomb to carry out their last devotions to Jesus' body by anointing his body with spices and by pouring oils over it.
The epact (Latin epactae, from Greek: epaktai hèmerai.
Ephesus (Ἔφεσος Ephesos; Efes; may ultimately derive from Hittite Apasa) was an ancient Greek city on the coast of Ionia, three kilometres southwest of present-day Selçuk in İzmir Province, Turkey.
Epiphanius of Salamis (Ἐπιφάνιος; c. 310–320 – 403) was bishop of Salamis, Cyprus, at the end of the 4th century.
An equinox is commonly regarded as the moment the plane (extended indefinitely in all directions) of Earth's equator passes through the center of the Sun, which occurs twice each year, around 20 March and 22-23 September.
The Eucharist (also called Holy Communion or the Lord's Supper, among other names) is a Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches and an ordinance in others.
Eusebius of Caesarea (Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, Eusébios tés Kaisareías; 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius Pamphili (from the Εὐσέβιος τοῦ Παμϕίλου), was a historian of Christianity, exegete, and Christian polemicist. He became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima about 314 AD. Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon and is regarded as an extremely learned Christian of his time. He wrote Demonstrations of the Gospel, Preparations for the Gospel, and On Discrepancies between the Gospels, studies of the Biblical text. As "Father of Church History" (not to be confused with the title of Church Father), he produced the Ecclesiastical History, On the Life of Pamphilus, the Chronicle and On the Martyrs. During the Council of Antiochia (325) he was excommunicated for subscribing to the heresy of Arius, and thus withdrawn during the First Council of Nicaea where he accepted that the Homoousion referred to the Logos. Never recognized as a Saint, he became counselor of Constantine the Great, and with the bishop of Nicomedia he continued to polemicize against Saint Athanasius of Alexandria, Church Fathers, since he was condemned in the First Council of Tyre in 335.
The Exsultet (spelled in pre-1920 editions of the Roman Missal as Exultet) or Easter Proclamation, in Latin Praeconium Paschale, is the hymn of praise sung, ideally by a deacon, before the paschal candle during the Easter Vigil in the Roman Rite of Mass.
A Fabergé egg (Яйца Фаберже́, yaytsa faberzhe) is a jeweled egg (possibly numbering as many as 69, of which 57 survive today) created by the House of Fabergé, in St. Petersburg, Imperial Russia.
Fasting is the willing abstinence or reduction from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time.
The Feast of the Ascension of Jesus Christ, also known as Holy Thursday, Ascension Day, or Ascension Thursday, commemorates the Christian belief of the bodily Ascension of Jesus into heaven.
The First Council of Nicaea (Νίκαια) was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea (now İznik, Bursa province, Turkey) by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325.
Maundy (from the Vulgate of John 13:34 mandatum meaning "command"), or the Washing of the Feet, is a religious rite observed by various Christian denominations.
The full moon is the lunar phase when the Moon appears fully illuminated from Earth's perspective.
The Genesis creation narrative is the creation myth of both Judaism and Christianity.
Gentile (from Latin gentilis, by the French gentil, feminine: gentille, meaning of or belonging to a clan or a tribe) is an ethnonym that commonly means non-Jew.
"Gloria in excelsis Deo" (Latin for "Glory to God in the highest") is a Christian hymn known also as the Greater Doxology (as distinguished from the "Minor Doxology" or Gloria Patri) and the Angelic HymnOxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (Oxford University Press 2005), article Gloria in Excelsis/Hymn of the Angels.
A golden number (sometimes capitalized) is a number assigned to each year in sequence to indicate the year's position in a 19-year Metonic cycle.
Good Friday is a Christian holiday celebrating the crucifixion of Jesus and his death at Calvary.
Gospel is the Old English translation of Greek εὐαγγέλιον, evangelion, meaning "good news".
The Gospel Book, Evangelion, or Book of the Gospels (Greek: Εὐαγγέλιον, Evangélion) is a codex or bound volume containing one or more of the four Gospels of the Christian New Testament – normally all four – centering on the life of Jesus of Nazareth and the roots of the Christian faith.
The Gospel According to John is the fourth of the canonical gospels.
Grand Rapids is the second-largest city in Michigan, and the largest city in West Michigan.
Great Lent, or the Great Fast, (Greek: Μεγάλη Τεσσαρακοστή or Μεγάλη Νηστεία, meaning "Great 40 Days," and "Great Fast," respectively) is the most important fasting season in the church year in the Byzantine Rite of the Eastern Orthodox Church (including Western Rite Orthodoxy) and the Eastern Catholic Churches, which prepares Christians for the greatest feast of the church year, Pascha (Easter).
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar in the world.
HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster.
Harvesting is the process of gathering a ripe crop from the fields.
The Hebrew or Jewish calendar (Ha-Luah ha-Ivri) is a lunisolar calendar used today predominantly for Jewish religious observances.
Heinemann is a publisher of professional resources and a provider of educational services established in 1978 in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, as a U.S. subsidiary of Heinemann UK.
High Sabbaths, in most Christian and Messianic Jewish usage, are seven annual Biblical festivals and rest days, recorded in the books of Leviticus and Deuteronomy.
A holiday is a day set aside by custom or by law on which normal activities, especially business or work including school, are suspended or reduced.
The Holy Fire (Greek Ἃγιον Φῶς, "Holy Light") is described by Orthodox Christians as a miracle that occurs every year at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem on Great Saturday, or Holy Saturday, the day preceding Orthodox Easter.
Holy Saturday (Sabbatum Sanctum), the Saturday of Holy Week, also known as Holy and Great Saturday, the Great Sabbath, Black Saturday, Joyous Saturday, or Easter Eve, and called "Joyous Saturday" or "the Saturday of Light" among Coptic Christians, is the day after Good Friday.
Holy water is water that has been blessed by a member of the clergy or a religious figure.
In Christianity, Holy Wednesday, also called Spy Wednesday, or Good Wednesday (in Western Christianity), and Holy and Great Wednesday (in the Eastern and Oriental Orthodox Churches), is the Wednesday of Holy Week, the week before Easter.
Holy Week (Latin: Hebdomas Sancta or Hebdomas Maior, "Greater Week"; Greek: Ἁγία καὶ Μεγάλη Ἑβδομάς, Hagia kai Megale Hebdomas, "Holy and Great Week") in Christianity is the week just before Easter.
A homily is a commentary that follows a reading of scripture.
The House of Fabergé (Russian: Дом Фаберже) is a jewellery firm founded in 1842 in St. Petersburg, Imperial Russia, by Gustav Faberge, using the accented name "Fabergé".
An icon (from Greek εἰκών eikōn "image") is a religious work of art, most commonly a painting, from the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, and certain Eastern Catholic churches.
In Australia, an industrial award is a ruling handed down by either the Fair Work Commission (or its predecessor) or by a state industrial relations commission which grants all wage earners in one industry or occupation the same minimum pay rates and conditions of employment such as leave entitlements, overtime and shift work, as well as other workplace related conditions.
Inter gravissimas was a papal bull issued by Pope Gregory XIII on February 24, 1582.
Intercalation or embolism in timekeeping is the insertion of a leap day, week, or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons or moon phases.
Irenaeus (Ειρηναίος Eirēnaíos) (died about 202) was a Greek cleric noted for his role in guiding and expanding Christian communities in what is now the south of France and, more widely, for the development of Christian theology by combatting heresy and defining orthodoxy.
According to the biblical Book of Genesis, Isaac (إسحٰق/إسحاق) was the son of Abraham and Sarah and father of Jacob; his name means "he will laugh", reflecting when Sarah laughed in disbelief when told that she would have a child.
James Ussher (or Usher; 4 January 1581 – 21 March 1656) was the Church of Ireland Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland between 1625 and 1656.
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
For Christians, Jerusalem's role in first-century Christianity, during the ministry of Jesus and the Apostolic Age, as recorded in the New Testament, gives it great importance, in addition to its role in the Old Testament, the Hebrew Bible.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Jewish Christians, also Hebrew Christians or Judeo-Christians, are the original members of the Jewish movement that later became Christianity.
John Chrysostom (Ἰωάννης ὁ Χρυσόστομος; c. 349 – 14 September 407), Archbishop of Constantinople, was an important Early Church Father.
John the Apostle (ܝܘܚܢܢ ܫܠܝܚܐ; יוחנן בן זבדי; Koine Greek: Ιωάννης; ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ; Latin: Ioannes) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus according to the New Testament, which refers to him as Ἰωάννης.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
Kerux: The Journal of Northwest Theological Seminary is an academic journal of theology.
The Last Supper is the final meal that, in the Gospel accounts, Jesus shared with his Apostles in Jerusalem before his crucifixion.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lazarus Saturday in the Eastern Orthodox Churchand those Eastern Catholic Churches which follow the Byzantine Rite and Oriental Orthodoxy is the day before Palm Sunday to which it is liturgically linked.
A lectern (from the Latin lectus, past participle of legere, "to read") is a reading desk, with a slanted top, usually placed on a stand or affixed to some other form of support, on which documents or books are placed as support for reading aloud, as in a scripture reading, lecture, or sermon.
Lent (Latin: Quadragesima: Fortieth) is a solemn religious observance in the Christian liturgical calendar that begins on Ash Wednesday and ends approximately six weeks later, before Easter Sunday.
The four canonical gospels of the New Testament are the primary sources of information for the narrative of the life of Jesus.
Lilium longiflorum (Japanese: テッポウユリ, Teppōyuri), often called the Easter lily, is a plant endemic to both Taiwan and Ryukyu Islands (Japan).
Easter hymns are hymns dedicated to Eastertide, often related to the resurrection of Jesus.
In Germanic paganism, the indigenous religion of the ancient Germanic peoples that inhabited Germanic Europe, there were a number of different gods and goddesses.
This article lists the heads of the Serbian Orthodox Church, since the establishment of the church as an autocephalous Archbishopric in 1219 to today's Patriarchate.
This is a chronological list of moveable Eastern Christian observances.
The liturgical year, also known as the church year or Christian year, as well as the kalendar, consists of the cycle of liturgical seasons in Christian churches that determines when feast days, including celebrations of saints, are to be observed, and which portions of Scripture are to be read either in an annual cycle or in a cycle of several years.
Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group, according to its beliefs, customs and traditions.
The Living Church of God (LCG) is one of hundreds of groups that formed after the death of Herbert W. Armstrong, when major doctrinal changes (causing turmoil and divisions) were occurring in the former Worldwide Church of God (WCG) during the 1990s.
In lunar calendars, a lunar month is the time between two successive syzygies (new moons or full moons).
A lunisolar calendar is a calendar in many cultures whose date indicates both the moon phase and the time of the solar year.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Matins is the monastic nighttime liturgy, ending at dawn, of the canonical hours.
Matzo, matzah, or matza (matsah, מַצָּה matsa; plural matzot; matzos of Ashkenazi Hebrew dialect) is an unleavened flatbread that is part of Jewish cuisine and forms an integral element of the Passover festival, during which chametz (leaven and five grains that, per Jewish Law, can be leavened) is forbidden.
Maundy Thursday (also known as Holy Thursday, Covenant Thursday, Great and Holy Thursday, Sheer Thursday, and Thursday of Mysteries, among other names) is the Christian holy day falling on the Thursday before Easter.
Melito of Sardis (Μελίτων Σάρδεων Melítōn Sárdeōn) (died c. 180) was the bishop of Sardis near Smyrna in western Anatolia, and a great authority in early Christianity.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
In Abrahamic religions, the messiah or messias is a saviour or liberator of a group of people.
Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley, an Anglican minister in England.
For astronomy and calendar studies, the Metonic cycle or Enneadecaeteris (from ἐννεακαιδεκαετηρίς, "nineteen years") is a period of very close to 19 years that is nearly a common multiple of the solar year and the synodic (lunar) month.
The Midnight Office (Μεσονύκτικον, Mesonýtikon; Slavonic: Полунощница, Polúnoshnitsa; Miezonoptică) is one of the Canonical Hours that compose the cycle of daily worship in the Eastern Orthodox Church.
A moveable feast or movable feast is an observance in a Christian liturgical calendar that occurs on a different date (relative to the dominant civil or solar calendar) in different years.
In Orthodox Christian tradition the Myrrhbearers (Greek: Μυροφόροι, Latin: Myrophorae; Slavonic: Жены́-мѷроно́сицы; mironosiţe) are the individuals mentioned in the New Testament who were directly involved in the burial or who discovered the empty tomb following the resurrection of Jesus.
Nelson Thornes was a publishing firm located in Cheltenham, Great Britain.
Nestorius (in Νεστόριος; 386 – 450) was Archbishop of Constantinople (now Istanbul) from 10 April 428 to August 431, when Emperor Theodosius II confirmed his condemnation by the Council of Ephesus on 22 June.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
In astronomy, the new moon is the first lunar phase, when the Moon and Sun have the same ecliptic longitude.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
Nisan (or Nissan; נִיסָן, Standard Nisan Tiberian Nîsān) on the Assyrian calendar is the first month, and on the Hebrew calendar is the first month of the ecclesiastical year and the seventh month (eighth, in leap year) of the civil year.
Nordea Bank AB, commonly referred to as Nordea, is a Nordic financial services group operating in Northern Europe.
The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden (literally "the North").
The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is north of the Equator.
Northwest Theological Seminary was a theological seminary in the Reformed Christian tradition located in Lynnwood, Washington.
In astronomy, an octaeteris (plural: octaeterides) is the period of eight solar years after which the moon phase occurs on the same day of the year plus one or two days.
The term Octave of Easter refers to the eight-day period (octave) in Eastertide that starts on Easter Sunday and concludes with the Sunday following Easter.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
Oriental Orthodoxy is the fourth largest communion of Christian churches, with about 76 million members worldwide.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
Palm Sunday is a Christian moveable feast that falls on the Sunday before Easter.
Papist is a pejorative term referring to the Roman Catholic Church, its teachings, practices, or adherents.
A Paschal candle is a large, white candle used in liturgies in Western Christianity (viz., the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, and Lutheran churches, among others).
The Paschal Greeting, also known as the Easter Acclamation, is an Easter custom among Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Eastern Catholic, and Anglicans Christians.
The Paschal homily or sermon (also known in Greek as Hieratikon or as the Catechetical Homily) of St John Chrysostom (died 407 AD) is read aloud on Easter morning, called "the Great and Holy Pascha of our Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ" in the Eastern Orthodox Church and in the Eastern Catholic Churches of the Byzantine rite.
The Paschal Hours are the form in which the Little Hours are chanted on Pascha (Easter) and throughout Bright Week in the Eastern Orthodox Church and those Eastern Catholic Churches which follow the Byzantine Rite.
Easter Triduum (Latin: Triduum Paschale), Holy Triduum (Latin: Triduum Sacrum), or Paschal Triduum, or The Three Days, is the period of three days that begins with the liturgy on the evening of Maundy Thursday, reaches its high point in the Easter Vigil, and closes with evening prayer on Easter Sunday.
The Paschal troparion or Christos anesti (Greek: Χριστὸς ἀνέστη) is the characteristic hymn for the celebration of the Orthodox Pascha (Easter) in the Eastern Orthodox Church and churches that follow the Byzantine Rite.
In Christianity, the Passion (from Late Latin: passionem "suffering, enduring") is the short final period in the life of Jesus covering his entrance visit to Jerusalem and leading to his crucifixion on Mount Calvary, defining the climactic event central to Christian doctrine of salvation history.
Passover or Pesach (from Hebrew Pesah, Pesakh) is a major, biblically derived Jewish holiday.
Some Christians observe a form of the Jewish holiday of Passover.
The Passover sacrifice (קרבן פסח Korban Pesakh), also known as the "sacrifice of Passover", the Paschal Lamb, or the Passover Lamb, is the sacrifice that the Torah mandates Jews and Samaritans to ritually slaughter on the eve of Passover, and eat on the first night of the holiday with bitter herbs and matzo.
Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.
Penance is repentance of sins as well as an alternate name for the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox sacrament of Reconciliation or Confession.
The Christian feast day of Pentecost is seven weeks after Easter Sunday: that is to say, the fiftieth day after Easter inclusive of Easter Sunday.
The Pentecostarion (Greek: Πεντηκοστάριον, Pentekostárion; Slavonic: Цвѣтнаѧ Трїωдь, Tsvyetnaya Triod', literally "Flowery Triodon"; Penticostar) is the liturgical book used by the Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic churches during the Paschal Season which extends from Pascha (Easter) to the Sunday following All Saints Sunday (i.e., the Second Sunday After Pentecost).
Polish pisanka (plural pisanki) or jaja wielkanocne (Easter eggs); piski, kraszonki is a common name for an egg (usually that of a chicken, although goose or duck eggs are also used) richly ornamented using various techniques.
Polycarp (Πολύκαρπος, Polýkarpos; Polycarpus; AD 69 155) was a 2nd-century Christian bishop of Smyrna.
Polycrates of Ephesus (Πολυκράτης; fl. c. 130 – 196) was an Early Christian bishop who resided in Ephesus.
Pope Anicetus (died c. 20 April 168) was the Bishop of Rome from c. 157 to his death in 168.
Pope Victor I (died 199) was Bishop of Rome, and hence a pope, in the late second century.
Prayer is an invocation or act that seeks to activate a rapport with an object of worship, typically a deity, through deliberate communication.
The Presbyterian Publishing Corporation is a religious corporation, which is the publishing agency of the Presbyterian Church (USA).
Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to Britain, particularly Scotland, and Ireland.
A public holiday, national holiday or legal holiday is a holiday generally established by law and is usually a non-working day during the year.
The Netherlands has the second lowest number of public holidays in the world.
Public holidays in the United Kingdom are days on which most businesses and non-essential services are closed, although an increasing number of retail businesses (especially the larger ones) do open on some of the public holidays.
The Puritans were English Reformed Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to "purify" the Church of England from its "Catholic" practices, maintaining that the Church of England was only partially reformed.
Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.
The term "Quartodecimanism" (from the Vulgate Latin quarta decima in Leviticus 23:5, meaning fourteenth) refers to the custom of early Christians celebrating Passover beginning with the eve of the 14th day of Nisan (or Aviv in the Hebrew Bible calendar), which at dusk is biblically the "Lord's passover".
Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
Quinquagesima is one of the names used in the Western Church for the Sunday before Ash Wednesday.
European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were introduced to Australia in the 18th century with the First Fleet and eventually became widespread.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
A reform of the date of Easter has been proposed several times because the current system for determining the date of Easter is seen as presenting two significant problems.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
The Regina Cæli or Regina Cœli ("Queen of Heaven", pronounced in Ecclesiastical Latin) is an ancient Latin Marian Hymn of the Christian Church.
The Restored Church of God (RCG) is one of the many churches to form following major doctrinal changes in the Worldwide Church of God (WCG) which was founded by Herbert W. Armstrong.
Resurrection is the concept of coming back to life after death.
The resurrection of Jesus or resurrection of Christ is the Christian religious belief that, after being put to death, Jesus rose again from the dead: as the Nicene Creed expresses it, "On the third day he rose again in accordance with the Scriptures".
The Resurrection of Jesus has long been central to Christian faith and Christian art, whether as a single scene or as part of a cycle of the Life of Christ.
The Revised Julian calendar, also known as the Milanković calendar, or, less formally, new calendar, is a calendar proposed by the Serbian scientist Milutin Milanković in 1923, which effectively discontinued the 340 years of divergence between the naming of dates sanctioned by those Eastern Orthodox churches adopting it and the Gregorian calendar that has come to predominate worldwide.
The seventh-day Sabbath, observed from Friday evening to Saturday evening (exact start and ending times varying from group to group), is an important part of the beliefs and practices of seventh-day churches.
A sacrament is a Christian rite recognized as of particular importance and significance.
The Sacred Name Movement (SNM) began within the Church of God (Seventh-Day) in Christianity, propagated by Clarence Orvil Dodd in the 1930s, which claims that it seeks to conform Christianity to its "Hebrew Roots" in practice, belief and worship.
Salvation in Christianity, or deliverance, is the saving of the soul from sin and its consequences.
Samuel Pepys (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an administrator of the navy of England and Member of Parliament who is most famous for the diary he kept for a decade while still a relatively young man.
A sanctuary lamp, chancel lamp, altar lamp, everlasting light, or eternal flame is a light that shines before the altar of sanctuaries in many Jewish places of worship.
Santa Claus, also known as Saint Nicholas, Kris Kringle, Father Christmas, or simply Santa, is a legendary figure originating in Western Christian culture who is said to bring gifts to the homes of well-behaved ("good" or "nice") children on Christmas Eve (24 December) and the early morning hours of Christmas Day (25 December).
The Sardica paschal table or Sardica document is a document from a Latin manuscript of the 7th/8th century AD.
A schism (pronounced, or, less commonly) is a division between people, usually belonging to an organization, movement, or religious denomination.
The semantron or semandron (σήμαντρον), or semanterion (σημαντήριον), also called a xylon (ξύλον) (toacă; Russian: било, bilo; Bulgarian, Macedonian, Serbian: клепало, klepalo; Arabic: ناقوس) is a percussion instrument used in monasteries to summon the monastics to prayer or at the start of a procession.
Septuagesima (in full, Septuagesima Sunday) is the name for the ninth Sunday before Easter, the third before Ash Wednesday.
A sermon is an oration, lecture, or talk by a member of a religious institution or clergy.
Sexagesima, or, in full, Sexagesima Sunday, is the name for the second Sunday before Ash Wednesday in the Gregorian Rite liturgical calendar of the Roman Catholic Church, and also in that of some Protestant denominations, particularly those with Anglican and Lutheran origins.
Shrove Tuesday (also known in Commonwealth countries and Ireland as Pancake Tuesday or Pancake day) is the day in February or March immediately preceding Ash Wednesday (the first day of Lent), which is celebrated in some countries by consuming pancakes.
The sign of the cross (signum crucis), or blessing oneself or crossing oneself, is a ritual blessing made by members of most branches of Christianity.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Socrates of Constantinople (Σωκράτης ὁ Σχολαστικός, b. c. 380; d. after 439), also known as Socrates Scholasticus, was a 5th-century Christian church historian, a contemporary of Sozomen and Theodoret.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
Sunrise service is a worship service on Easter practiced by some Protestant churches, replacing the traditional, ancient Easter Vigil preserved by the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, and Lutheran churches.
Synaxarion or Synexarion (plurals Synaxaria, Synexaria; Συναξάριον, from συνάγειν, synagein, "to bring together"; cf. etymology of synaxis and synagogue; Latin: Synaxarium, Synexarium; ⲥϫⲛⲁⲝⲁⲣⲓⲟⲛ) is the name given in the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches to a compilation of hagiographies corresponding roughly to the martyrology of the Roman Church.
The gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke are referred to as the Synoptic Gospels because they include many of the same stories, often in a similar sequence and in similar or sometimes identical wording.
Syros (Σύρος), or Siros or Syra is a Greek island in the Cyclades, in the Aegean Sea.
The exodus is the founding myth of Jews and Samaritans.
The Reckoning of Time (De temporum ratione) is an Anglo-Saxon era treatise written in Medieval Latin by the Northumbrian monk Bede in 725.
Trinity Sunday is the first Sunday after Pentecost in the Western Christian liturgical calendar, and the Sunday of Pentecost in Eastern Christianity. Trinity Sunday celebrates the Christian doctrine of the Trinity, the three Persons of God: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.
The Triodion (Τριῴδιον, Triōdion; Slavonic: Постнаѧ Трїωдь, Postnaya Triod; Triodul, Albanian: Triod/Triodi), also called the Lenten Triodion (Τριῴδιον κατανυκτικόν, Triodion katanyktikon), is the liturgical book used by the Eastern Orthodox Church.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States Naval Observatory (USNO) is one of the oldest scientific agencies in the United States, with a primary mission to produce Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) for the United States Navy and the United States Department of Defense.
Verdens Gang ("The course of the world"), generally known under the abbreviation VG, is a foreign-owned Norwegian tabloid newspaper.
Vespers is a sunset evening prayer service in the Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Eastern Catholic, Anglican, and Lutheran liturgies of the canonical hours.
Victorius of Aquitaine, a countryman of Prosper of Aquitaine and also working in Rome, produced in AD 457 an Easter Cycle, which was based on the consular list provided by Prosper's Chronicle.
Western Christianity is the type of Christianity which developed in the areas of the former Western Roman Empire.
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.
The World Council of Churches (WCC) is a worldwide inter-church organization founded in 1948.
Zondervan is an international Christian media and publishing company located in Grand Rapids, Michigan.
Alisos anesti, Astronomical Easter, Astronomical easter, Calculation of Easter, Easter 2006, Easter 2009, Easter 2010, Easter 2011, Easter 2016, Easter Day, Easter Myths, Easter Sunday, Easter date 2009, Easter date 2010, Easter date 2011, Easter dates, Easter day, Easter liturgy, Easter sunday, Easter symbols, Eastre, Feast of the Resurrection, Orthodox Easter, Paschal feast, Pâques, Påske, Resurrection Sunday, Sunday of Pascha, Veligden, Velikden, `Id-ul-Fish, `Id-ul-Qiyama.