77 relations: Ağrı Province, Abdul Hamid II, Akdamar Island, Anatolia, Aras (river), Ardahan Province, Armenia, Armenian Apostolic Church, Armenian Genocide, Armenian Highlands, Armenian Question, Azerbaijan, Çifte Minareli Medrese, Şırnak Province, Bern, Bingöl, Bingöl Province, Bitlis, Black Sea Region, Cathedral of the Holy Cross, Aghtamar, Central Anatolia Region, Continental climate, Elazığ Province, Elâzığ, Erzurum, Erzurum Province, Euphrates, First Geography Congress, Turkey, Geographical name changes in Turkey, Geographical regions of Turkey, Georgia (country), Hakkâri, Hakkâri Province, Hydroelectricity, Iğdır, Iğdır Province, Iran, Iraq, Kars, Kars Province, Kayseri, Kâtip Çelebi, Kemalism, Kura (Caspian Sea), Lake Çıldır, Lake Balık, Lake Erçek, Lake Hazar, Lake Kuyucuk, Lake Nazik, ..., Lake Van, Lesser Caucasus, List of Pinus species, Malatya, Malatya İnönü Stadium, Mount Ararat, Mount Süphan, Mount Tendürek, Muş, Nemrut (volcano), Nene Hatun, Oak, Sivas, Six vilayets, Southeastern Anatolia Region, Sublime Porte, Sultanate of Rum, Swissair, Taurus Mountains, Tigris, Transcaucasia, Tunceli Province, Turkey, Van Province, Western Armenia, Yalnızçam Mountains, Young Turks. Expand index (27 more) » « Shrink index
The Ağrı Province (Turkish: Ağrı ili) is a province in eastern Turkey, bordering Iran to the east, Kars to the north, Erzurum to the northwest, Muş and Bitlis to the southwest, Van to the south, and Iğdır to the northeast. It has an area of 11,376 km² and a population of 542,022 (2010 est). A majority of the province's population is Kurdish. The region also has got a sizeable Azerbaijani (Qarapapak) minority. The provincial capital is Ağrı, situated on a 1,650 m. high plateau.
Abdul Hamid II (عبد الحميد ثانی, `Abdü’l-Ḥamīd-i sânî; İkinci Abdülhamit; 21 September 184210 February 1918) was the 34th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and the last Sultan to exert effective control over the fracturing state.
Akdamar Island (Akdamar Adası), also known as Aghtamar (Աղթամար) or Akhtamar (Ախթամար), is the second largest of the four islands in Lake Van, in eastern Turkey.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
The Aras or Araxes is a river flowing through Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran.
Ardahan Province (Ardahan ili), is a province in the north-east of Turkey, at the very end of the country, where Turkey borders with Georgia and Armenia. The provincial capital is the city of Ardahan.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Armenian Apostolic Church (translit) is the national church of the Armenian people.
The Armenian Genocide (Հայոց ցեղասպանություն, Hayots tseghaspanutyun), also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire.
The Armenian Highlands (Haykakan leṙnašxarh; also known as the Armenian Upland, Armenian plateau, Armenian tableland,Hewsen, Robert H. "The Geography of Armenia" in The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century. Richard G. Hovannisian (ed.) New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997, pp. 1-17 or simply Armenia) is the central-most and highest of three land-locked plateaus that together form the northern sector of the Middle East.
The term "Armenian Question", as used in European history, became commonplace among diplomatic circles and in the popular press after the Congress of Berlin in 1878.
Çifte Minareli Medrese is an architectural monument of the late Seljuk period in the Turkish city of Erzurum.
The Şırnak Province (Şırnak ili, Parêzgeha Şirnex) is a Turkish province in Southeastern Anatolia Region. Şırnak borders Iraq and Syria. Şırnak was legally separated from Siirt province on May 16, 1990. This law also attached several districts from neighboring provinces of Siirt and Mardin, making them part of Şırnak, including Cizre and Silopi. As of 2013, the province had an estimated population of 475,255 people. The majority of the province's population is Kurdish. The 2015–16 Şırnak clashes are ongoing in Şırnak City, and its districts Cizre, Idil and Silopi.
Bern or Berne (Bern, Bärn, Berne, Berna, Berna) is the de facto capital of Switzerland, referred to by the Swiss as their (e.g. in German) Bundesstadt, or "federal city".
Bingöl (Ճապաղջուր Chapaghjur, Çewlîg, Çewlîg) is a city in Eastern Turkey.
Bingöl Province (Bingöl ili; Parêzgeha Bîngolê, Zazaki: Çewlîg, Northern Kurdish: Çewlîg; Ճապաղջուր Chapaghjur) is a province of Turkey in Eastern Anatolia. The province was created in 1946 out of parts of Elazığ and Erzincan. The new province was known as Çapakçur Province until 1950. Its neighbouring provinces are Tunceli, Erzurum, Muş, Diyarbakır, Erzincan and Elazığ. The province covers an area of 8,125 km² and has a population of 255,170. The main spoken languages are Turkish and Zazaki/Kurdish. The capital is Bingöl. The majority of the province's population is Kurdish.
Bitlis (Բաղեշ; Bidlîs; ܒܝܬ ܕܠܝܣ; بتليس; Βαλαλης Balales) is a city in eastern Turkey and the capital of Bitlis Province.
The Black Sea Region (Karadeniz Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.
The Cathedral of the Holy Cross (Աղթամարի Սուրբ Խաչ եկեղեցի/Ախթամարի Սուրբ Խաչ եկեղեցի, Aght’amari Surb Khach yekeghetsi Akdamar Kilisesi or Surp Haç Kilisesi) on Akdamar (Aghtamar) Island, in Lake Van in eastern Turkey, is a medieval Armenian Apostolic cathedral, built as a palatine church for the kings of Vaspurakan and later serving as the seat of the Catholicosate of Aghtamar.
The Central Anatolia Region (İç Anadolu Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.
Continental climates are defined in the Köppen climate classification as having the coldest month with the temperature never rising above 0.0° C (32°F) all month long.
Elâzığ Province (Elâzığ ili) is a province of Turkey with its seat in the city of Elâzığ.
Elazığ) is a city in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey, and the administrative center of Elazığ Province. It is located in the uppermost Euphrates valley. The plain on which the city extends has an altitude of 1067 metres. Elazığ resembles an inland peninsula surrounded by the natural Lake Hazar and reservoirs of Keban Dam, Karakaya Dam, Kıralkızı and Özlüce.http://www.kultur.gov.tr/genel/medya/iltanitimbrosuru-eng/elazig_eng.pdf Elazığ initially developed in 1834 as an extension of the historic city of Harput, which was situated on a hill and difficult to access in winter.
Erzurum (Կարին) is a city in eastern Anatolia (Asian Turkey).
Erzurum Province (Erzurum ili) is a province of Turkey in the Eastern Anatolia Region of the country. It is bordered by the provinces of Kars and Ağrı to the east, Muş and Bingöl to the south, Erzincan and Bayburt to the west, Rize and Artvin to the north and Ardahan to the northeast.
The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
The First Geography Congress (Turkish: Birinci Türk Coğrafya Kongresi), which was held in Ankara in 1941, separated Turkey into seven geographical regions, which are still used today.
Geographical name changes in Turkey have been undertaken, periodically, in bulk from 1913 to the present by successive Turkish governments.
The geographical regions of Turkey comprise seven regions (bölge) which were originally defined at the country's First Geography Congress in 1941.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Hakkâri (ܗܲܟܵܐܪܝ̣ Hakkārī, Colemêrg), is a city and the capital of the Hakkâri Province of Turkey.
Hakkâri Province (Hakkâri ili), is a province in the south east corner of Turkey. The administrative centre is located in the city of Hakkâri (Colemêrg). The province covers an area of 7,121 km² and has a population of 251,302 (2010 est). The province had a population of 236,581 in 2000. The province was created in 1936 out of part of Van Province. Its adjacent provinces are Şırnak to the west and Van to the north. The majority of the province's population is Kurdish.
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.
Iğdır (Turkish; Իգդիր Igdir, also Ցոլակերտ, Tsolakert, after an ancient settlement nearby), is the capital of Iğdır Province in the Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey.
Iğdır Province (Iğdır ili) is a province in eastern Turkey, located along the borders with Armenia, Azerbaijan (the area of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic), and Iran. Its adjacent provinces are Kars to the northwest and Ağrı to the west and south. It occupies an area of 3,587 km² and population of 184,418 (2010 est.), it was 168,634 in 2000 (up from 142,601 in 1990). It was created from southeastern part of former Kars Province in 1993. Turkey's highest mountain, Mount Ararat (Ağrı Dağı) is in Iğdır, but much of the land is a wide plain far below the mountain. The climate is the warmest in this part of Turkey, cotton can be grown in Iğdır. Iğdır is where Noah is said to have thrived following the flood. The closed border with Armenia follows the Aras River. The provincial capital is the city of Iğdır. The majority of the province's population is Kurdish, with Azerbaijanis making up the remainder.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Kars (Armenian: Կարս, less commonly known as Ղարս Ghars) is a city in northeast Turkey and the capital of Kars Province.
Kars Province (Turkish: Kars ili) is a province of Turkey, located in the northeastern part of the country. It shares part of its closed border with the Republic of Armenia. The provincial capital is the city of Kars. The provinces of Ardahan and Iğdır were until the 1990s part of Kars Province.
Kayseri is a large and industrialised city in Central Anatolia, Turkey.
Kâtip Çelebi (كاتب چلبى, Kātib Çelebi "Gentleman Scribe"), the pen name of Mustafa bin Abdullah (1609–1657), also later known as Haji Khalifa (Hacı Halife) or Kalfa, was an Ottoman scholar.
Kemalism (Kemalizm), also known as Atatürkism (Atatürkçülük, Atatürkçü düşünce), or the '''Six Arrows''' (Altı ok), is the founding ideology of the Republic of Turkey.
The Kura (Kura; Kür; მტკვარი, Mt’k’vari; Կուր, Kur; Κῦρος, Cyrus; کوروش, Kuruš) is an east-flowing river south of the Greater Caucasus Mountains which drains the southern slopes of the Greater Caucasus east into the Caspian Sea.
Lake Çıldır (Çıldır Gölü, Ծովակ լիճ Tsovak lič, ჩრდილი, ჩრდილის ტბა Črdilis tba, meaning "lake of shadows"), is a large freshwater lake in the Ardahan Province, northeastern part of Turkey.
Lake Balık (Balık Gölü) is a lava-dammed freshwater lake in Ağrı Province, eastern Turkey.
Lake Erçek (Erçek Gölü; Արճակ լիճ) is an endorheic salt lake in Van Province in eastern Turkey, about east of Lake Van.
Lake Hazar (Hazar Gölü, Ծովք լիճ, Covk‘ lič), is a rift lake in the Taurus Mountains, 22 km southeast of Elazig, notable as the source of the Tigris.
Lake Kuyucuk (Kuyucuk Gölü) is a small shallow lake located in Arpaçay district of Kars Province in the Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey.
Lake Nazik (Nazik; Նազիկ) is a freshwater lake in the Bitlis Province, eastern part of Turkey.
Lake Van (Van Gölü, Վանա լիճ, Vana lič̣, Gola Wanê), the largest lake in Turkey, lies in the far east of that country in the provinces of Van and Bitlis.
Lesser Caucasus (Փոքր Կովկաս Pʿokʿr Kovkas, Azerbaijani: Kiçik Qafqaz Dağları, მცირე კავკასიონი, Малый Кавказ, Persian: Arankuh, Küçük Kafkasya, sometimes translated as "Caucasus Minor") is second of the two main mountain ranges of Caucasus mountains, of length about.
Pinus, the pines, is a genus of approximately 111 extant tree and shrub species.
Malatya (Մալաթիա Malat'ya; Meletî; ܡܠܝܛܝܢܐ Malīṭīná; مالاتيا) is a large city in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey and the capital of Malatya Province.
Malatya İnönü Stadium (Malatya İnönü Stadı) is a multi-purpose stadium in Malatya, Turkey.
Mount Ararat (Ağrı Dağı; Մասիս, Masis and Արարատ, Ararat) is a snow-capped and dormant compound volcano in the extreme east of Turkey.
Mount Süphan (Süphan Dağı, Sîpanê Xelatê, Սիփան, Sipan) is a stratovolcano located in eastern Turkey, immediately north of Lake Van.
Tendürek (Tendürek Dağı, Թոնդրակ, Tondrak) is a shield volcano located in the Ağrı and Van provinces of eastern Turkey, close to the borders with Iran.
Muş (transliterated as Mush, also historically Moush or Moosh; Մուշ, script) is a city and the provincial capital of Muş Province in Turkey.
Nemrut (Nemrut Dağı, Սարակն Sarakn, "Mountain spring",, Çiyayê Nemrud) is a dormant volcano in Eastern Turkey, close to Lake Van.
Nene Hatun (1857 – 22 May 1955) was a Turkish folk heroine, who became known for fighting against Russian forces during the recapture of Fort Aziziye in Erzurum from Russian forces at the start of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878.
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
Sivas (Latin and Greek: Sebastia, Sebastea, Sebasteia, Sebaste, Σεβάστεια, Σεβαστή) is a city in central Turkey and the seat of Sivas Province.
The Six vilayets or Six provinces (ولايت سته Vilâyat-ı Sitte) or the Six Armenian vilayets (Վեց հայկական վիլայեթներ Vets' haykakan vilayet'ner, Altı vilayet, Altı Ermeni ili) were the Armenian-populated vilayets (provinces) of the Ottoman Empire.
The Southeastern Anatolia Region (Güneydoğu Anadolu Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.
The Sublime Porte, also known as the Ottoman Porte or High Porte (باب عالی Bāb-ı Ālī or Babıali, from باب, bāb "gate" and عالي, alī "high"), is a synecdochic metonym for the central government of the Ottoman Empire.
The Sultanate of Rûm (also known as the Rûm sultanate (سلجوقیان روم, Saljuqiyān-e Rum), Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate, Sultanate of Iconium, Anatolian Seljuk State (Anadolu Selçuklu Devleti) or Turkey Seljuk State (Türkiye Selçuklu Devleti)) was a Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim state established in the parts of Anatolia which had been conquered from the Byzantine Empire by the Seljuk Empire, which was established by the Seljuk Turks.
Swissair AG/S.A. (German: Schweizerische Luftverkehr-AG; French: S.A. Suisse pour la Navigation Aérienne) was the national airline of Switzerland between its founding in 1931 and bankruptcy in 2002.
The Taurus Mountains (Turkish: Toros Dağları, Armenian: Թորոս լեռներ, Ancient Greek: Ὄρη Ταύρου) are a mountain complex in southern Turkey, separating the Mediterranean coastal region of southern Turkey from the central Anatolian Plateau.
Batman River The Tigris (Sumerian: Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼; دجلة Dijlah; ܕܹܩܠܵܬ.; Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ;, biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.
Transcaucasia (Закавказье), or the South Caucasus, is a geographical region in the vicinity of the southern Caucasus Mountains on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
Tunceli Province (parêzgeha Dêrsimê, df), formerly Dersim Province, is located in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. Its population mostly consists of Alevi Kurds (Kurmanj and Zaza speaking Kurds). The province was originally named Dersim Province (Dersim vilayeti), then demoted to a district (Dersim kazası) and incorporated into Elâzığ Province in 1926. It was finally changed to Tunceli Province on January 4, 1936 by the "Law on Administration of the Tunceli Province" (Tunceli Vilayetinin İdaresi Hakkında Kanun), no. 2884 of 25 December 1935, but some still call the region by its original name. The name of the provincial capital, Kalan, was then officially changed to Tunceli to match the province's name. The adjacent provinces are Erzincan to the north and west, Elazığ to the south, and Bingöl to the east. The province covers an area of and has a population of 76,699. It has the lowest population density of any province in Turkey, just 9.8 inhabitants/km². The majority of the population is Kurdish. Tunceli is the only province of Turkey with an Alevi majority. Tunceli is known for its old buildings such as the Çelebi Ağa Mosque, Sağman Mosque, Elti Hatun Mosque and adjoining Tomb, castles including Mazgirt Castle, Pertek Castle, Derun-i Hisar Castle, and impressive natural scenery, especially in Munzur Valley National Park, the largest national park of Turkey.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Van Province (Armenian:Վան Van ili) is a province in eastern Turkey, between Lake Van and the Iranian border. It is 19,069 km2 in area and had a population of 1,035,418 at the end of 2010. Its adjacent provinces are Bitlis to the west, Siirt to the southwest, Şırnak and Hakkâri to the south, and Ağrı to the north. The capital is the city of Van. The majority of the province's population is Kurdish. and has a sizeable Azerbaijani minority (Küresünni).
Western Armenia (Western Armenian: Արեւմտեան Հայաստան, Arevmdian Hayasdan) is a term used to refer to eastern parts of Turkey (formerly the Ottoman Empire) that were part of the historical homeland of Armenians.
The Yalnızçam Mountains (Yalnızçam Dağları) or Arsiani Range (არსიანის ქედი, arsianis k’edi) is a mountain range in Eastern Anatolia Region, northeast Turkey, and the Autonomous Republic of Adjara, southwest Georgia.
Young Turks (Jön Türkler, from Les Jeunes Turcs) was a Turkish nationalist party in the early 20th century that consisted of Ottoman exiles, students, civil servants, and army officers.
Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi, East Anatolia, East Anatolia Region, Turkey, East Anatolian, Eastern Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia Region (geographical), Eastern Anatolia Region, Turkey, Eastern Anatolia region, Eastern Turkey.