301 relations: Action Programme (1968), Aleksandras Stulginskis, Alexander Dubček, Alliance, Autarky, Škoda Auto, Baltic states, BBC, Benjamin B. Fischer, Berlin Blockade, Berlin Wall, Beryozka, Bessarabia, Black market, Bourgeoisie, Brandenburg Gate, Bratislava, Brezhnev Doctrine, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Bukovina, Burgas, Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Central and Eastern Europe, Central Committee, Central newspapers of the Soviet Union, Centrul Civic, Chernobyl disaster, Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, China, Chromium, Cold War, Collective farming, Collectivism, Combat Groups of the Working Class, Comecon, Cominform, Committee for State Security, Communist party, Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Continuation War, Corecom, Csepel, Cuba, Czech Republic, Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, Czechoslovakia, De-Stalinization, De-Stalinization in Romania, Dekulakization, Demands of Hungarian Revolutionaries of 1956, ..., Democracy, Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, Derg, Deutsche Welle, Dictatorship of the proletariat, Dual carriageway, East German mark, East Germany, Eastern Bloc emigration and defection, Eastern European Group, Eastern Front (World War II), Economy of East Germany, Economy of the Soviet Union, Enver Hoxha, Era of Stagnation, Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic, Eurasian Economic Union, Final good, Five-year plan, Five-year plans for the national economy of the Soviet Union, Flag of Hungary, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Głogów, General strike, George Sanford (political scientist), Georgy Zhukov, Gheorghe Calciu-Dumitreasa, Glasnost, Great Hungarian Plain, Gross domestic product, Group of Soviet Forces in Germany, Gulag, Gustaw Herling-Grudziński, Gustáv Husák, Hertza region, Holodomor, Human capital flight, Hungarian People's Republic, Imre Nagy, Industrialisation, Informal sector, Infrastructure, Inner German border, Internetowa encyklopedia PWN, Intershop, Intrauterine device, Iron Curtain, Jan Masaryk, Jan T. Gross, János Kádár, Józef Cyrankiewicz, Joint-stock company, Joseph Stalin, Josip Broz Tito, July Theses, Karelia, Karelian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic, Karolina Lanckorońska, Kasernierte Volkspolizei, Katyn massacre, Kauno diena, Kent (cigarette), KGB, Kraków, Kurier Wileński, Lada, Laos, Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic, Leninism, Leonid Brezhnev, Liberal democracy, Lignite, List of Allied World War II conferences, Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic, London Club, Looting, Main Intelligence Directorate, Market economy, Marshall Plan, Marxism–Leninism, Mátyás Rákosi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Military occupations by the Soviet Union, Ministry of Public Security (Poland), Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Mongolian People's Republic, Moscow Armistice, Moscow Peace Treaty, Museum of Occupations, Nationalization, NATO, Natural environment, Naukowa i Akademicka Sieć Komputerowa, Nazi Germany, Népszabadság, Neues Deutschland, Nicolae Ceaușescu, NKVD, Nomenklatura, Normalization (Czechoslovakia), North Korea, Occupation of the Baltic states, Oder–Neisse line, Ogaden War, Open hearth furnace, Operation Barbarossa, Palace of the Parliament, Panelák, Panelház, Paris Club, Passport system in the Soviet Union, Pál Maléter, Penguin Books, People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, People's Republic of Angola, People's Republic of Benin, People's Republic of Bulgaria, People's Republic of Kampuchea, People's Republic of Mozambique, People's Republic of the Congo, People's Revolutionary Government (Grenada), People's Socialist Republic of Albania, Per capita, Perestroika, Petar Mladenov, Pew Research Center, Pewex, Planned economy, Plattenbau, Polish Committee of National Liberation, Polish People's Republic, Polish prisoners-of-war in the Soviet Union after 1939, Polish United Workers' Party, Polish złoty, Politburo, Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Political rehabilitation, Post-Soviet states, Post–World War II economic expansion, Potsdam Conference, Prague Spring, Pravda (Slovakia), Prefabrication, Proletarian internationalism, Propiska in the Soviet Union, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Rahva Hääl, Red Army, Reichskommissariat Ostland, Religious persecution during the Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, Republics of the Soviet Union, Republikflucht, Revolutions of 1848, Revolutions of 1989, Romanian Revolution, Routledge, Ruble, Rudé právo, Russian Civil War, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Sanitation, Satellite state, Służba Bezpieczeństwa, Scînteia, Second World, Securitate, Shortage economy, Show trial, Sigurimi, Simon Sebag Montefiore, Sinatra Doctrine, Sino-Soviet split, Socialism, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Socialist Republic of Romania, Socialist state, Socialist Unity Party of Germany, Solidarity (Polish trade union), Somali Democratic Republic, South Yemen, Soviet deportations from Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, Soviet Empire, Soviet invasion of Poland, Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, Soviet Union, Sovietization, SovRom, Stakhanovite movement, Stalinism, Stasi, State atheism, State Protection Authority, StB, Studies in Intelligence, Svetlana Alliluyeva, Systematization (Romania), Szklarska Poręba, TASS, Tehran Conference, Telephone tapping in the Eastern Bloc, Territories of Poland annexed by the Soviet Union, The Conference Board, The New York Times, The Truth About Chernobyl, Theft, Tito–Stalin Split, Titoism, Todor Zhivkov, Total Economy Database, Totalitarianism, Tourism, Trabant, Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, Treaty on the Creation of the USSR, Trente Glorieuses, Trybuna Ludu, Tuzex, Udarnik, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, United Nations, United Nations Statistics Division, VAZ-2101, Velvet Revolution, Vietnam, Vladimir Lenin, Voice of America, Volkspolizei, Walter Cronkite, Walter Ulbricht, Warsaw, Warsaw Pact, Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, Wartburg (marque), Władysław Anders, Władysław Gomułka, West Berlin, West Germany, Western betrayal, Western Bloc, Winston Churchill, Winter War, Wirtschaftswunder, World War II, Wrocław, Yalta Conference, ZAZ Zaporozhets, ZOMO, Zvyazda, 101st kilometre. Expand index (251 more) » « Shrink index
The Action Programme is a political plan, devised by Alexander Dubček and his associates in the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ), that was published on April 5, 1968.
Aleksandras Stulginskis (February 26, 1885 – September 22, 1969) was the second President of Lithuania (1920–1926).
Alexander Dubček (27 November 1921 – 7 November 1992) was a Slovak politician who served as the First secretary of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) (de facto leader of Czechoslovakia) from January 1968 to April 1969.
An alliance is a relationship among people, groups, or states that have joined together for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose, whether or not explicit agreement has been worked out among them.
Autarky is the quality of being self-sufficient.
Škoda Auto, more commonly known as Škoda, is a Czech automobile manufacturer founded in 1895 as Laurin & Klement.
The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Benjamin B. Fischer has worked for the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) for nearly 30 years.
The Berlin Blockade (24 June 1948–12 May 1949) was one of the first major international crises of the Cold War.
The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.
Beriozka (Russian: Берёзка, lit. "little birch tree") was a twin chain of state-run retail stores in the Russian SFSR that sold goods for foreign currency.
Bessarabia (Basarabia; Бессарабия, Bessarabiya; Besarabya; Бессара́бія, Bessarabiya; Бесарабия, Besarabiya) is a historical region in Eastern Europe, bounded by the Dniester river on the east and the Prut river on the west.
A black market, underground economy, or shadow economy is a clandestine market or transaction that has some aspect of illegality or is characterized by some form of noncompliant behavior with an institutional set of rules.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
The Brandenburg Gate (Brandenburger Tor) is an 18th-century neoclassical monument in Berlin, built on the orders of Prussian king Frederick William II after the (temporarily) successful restoration of order during the early Batavian Revolution.
Bratislava (Preßburg or Pressburg, Pozsony) is the capital of Slovakia.
The Brezhnev Doctrine was a Soviet foreign policy, first and most clearly outlined by Sergei Kovalev in a September 26, 1968 Pravda article entitled Sovereignty and the International Obligations of Socialist Countries.
The Budapest University of Technology and Economics (Budapesti Műszaki és Gazdaságtudományi Egyetem or in short italic), official abbreviation BME, is the most significant University of Technology in Hungary and is considered the world's oldest Institute of Technology which has university rank and structure.
Bukovina (Bucovina; Bukowina/Buchenland; Bukowina; Bukovina, Буковина Bukovyna; see also other languages) is a historical region in Central Europe,Klaus Peter Berger,, Kluwer Law International, 2010, p. 132 divided between Romania and Ukraine, located on the northern slopes of the central Eastern Carpathians and the adjoining plains.
Burgas (Бургас), sometimes transliterated as Bourgas, is the second largest city on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast and the fourth-largest in Bulgaria after Sofia, Plovdiv, and Varna, with a population of 211,033 inhabitants, while 277,922 live in its urban area.
The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR, or Byelorussian SSR; Bielaruskaja Savieckaja Sacyjalistyčnaja Respublika; Belorusskaya SSR.), also commonly referred to in English as Byelorussia, was a federal unit of the Soviet Union (USSR).
Central and Eastern Europe, abbreviated CEE, is a term encompassing the countries in Central Europe (the Visegrád Group), the Baltic states, and Southeastern Europe, usually meaning former communist states from the Eastern bloc (Warsaw Pact) in Europe.
Central Committee was the common designation of a standing administrative body of communist parties, analogous to a board of directors, whether ruling or non-ruling in the 20th century and of the surviving communist states in the 21st century.
The following publications were known as central newspapers in the Soviet Union.
Centrul Civic (the Civic Center) is a district in central Bucharest, Romania, which was completely rebuilt in the 1980s as part of the scheme of systematization under the dictator Nicolae Ceauşescu.
The Chernobyl disaster, also referred to as the Chernobyl accident, was a catastrophic nuclear accident.
The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Zone of Alienation (translit, translit) is an officially designated exclusion zone around the site of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor disaster.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Collective farming and communal farming are various types of "agricultural production in which multiple farmers run their holdings as a joint enterprise." That type of collective is often an agricultural cooperative in which member-owners jointly engage in farming activities.
Collectivism is a cultural value that is characterized by emphasis on cohesiveness among individuals and prioritization of the group over self.
The Combat Groups of the Working Class (German: Kampfgruppen der Arbeiterklasse, KdA) was a paramilitary organization in East Germany, founded in 1953 and abolished in 1990.
The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (English abbreviation COMECON, CMEA, or CAME) was an economic organization from 1949 to 1991 under the leadership of the Soviet Union that comprised the countries of the Eastern Bloc along with a number of communist states elsewhere in the world.
Founded on October 5, 1947, Cominform (from Communist Information Bureau) is the common name for what was officially referred to as the Information Bureau of the Communist and Workers' Parties.
The Committee for State Security (Комитет за държавна сигурност, Komitet za dǎržavna sigurnost; abbreviated КДС, CSS, DS), popularly known as State Security (Държавна сигурност, Darzhavna sigurnost; abbrievated ДС) was the name of the Bulgarian secret service during the Communist rule of Bulgaria and the Cold War, until 1989.
A communist party is a political party that advocates the application of the social and economic principles of communism through state policy.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.
The Continuation War was a conflict fought by Finland and Nazi Germany, as co-belligerents, against the Soviet Union (USSR) from 1941 to 1944, during World War II.
Corecom (Кореком) was a chain of hard-currency stores during the Communist rule in Bulgaria.
For the defunct Hungarian automaker see: Csepel (automobile) Csepel (Tschepele) is the 21st district and a neighbourhood in Budapest, Hungary.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Czech/Slovak: Československá socialistická republika, ČSSR) ruled Czechoslovakia from 1948 until 23 April 1990, when the country was under Communist rule.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
De-Stalinization (Russian: десталинизация, destalinizatsiya) consisted of a series of political reforms in the Soviet Union after the death of long-time leader Joseph Stalin in 1953, and the ascension of Nikita Khrushchev to power.
The De-Stalinization in Romania was a process of removing Stalinist policies and Stalin's cult of personality between 1959 and 1965.
Dekulakization (раскулачивание, raskulachivanie; розкуркулення, rozkurkulennia) was the Soviet campaign of political repressions, including arrests, deportations, and executions of millions of wealthy peasants and their families in the 1929–1932 period of the First five-year plan.
On October 22, 1956, a group of Hungarian students compiled a list of sixteen points containing key national policy demands.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA; جمهوری دمکراتی افغانستان,; دافغانستان دمکراتی جمهوریت), renamed in 1987 to the Republic of Afghanistan (جمهوری افغانستان;; د افغانستان جمهوریت), commonly known as Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Afġānistān), existed from 1978 to 1992 and covers the period when the socialist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) ruled Afghanistan.
The Derg, Common Derg or Dergue (Ge'ez: ደርግ, meaning "committee" or "council") is the short name of the Coordinating Committee of the Armed Forces, Police and Territorial Army that ruled Ethiopia from 1974 to 1987.
Deutsche Welle ("German wave" in German) or DW is Germany's public international broadcaster.
In Marxist sociopolitical thought, the dictatorship of the proletariat refers to a state in which the proletariat, or the working class, has control of political power.
A dual carriageway (British English) or divided highway (American English) is a class of highway with carriageways for traffic travelling in opposite directions separated by a central reservation.
The East German mark (German), commonly called the eastern mark in West Germany and after the reunification), in East Germany only Mark, was the currency of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany).
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
Eastern Bloc emigration and defection was a point of controversy during the Cold War.
The Eastern European Group (EEG), also known as Countries with Economies in Transition (CEIT), is one of the five unofficial Regional Groups in the United Nations that act as voting blocs and negotiation forums.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
East Germany had a centrally-planned economy similar to the one in the Soviet Union and other Comecon member states (in contrast to the market economies or mixed economies of capitalist states).
The economy of the Soviet Union (экономика Советского Союза) was based on a system of state ownership of the means of production, collective farming, industrial manufacturing and centralized administrative planning.
Enver Halil Hoxha (16 October 190811 April 1985) was an Albanian communist politician who served as the head of state of Albania from 1944 until his death in 1985, as the First Secretary of the Party of Labour of Albania.
The Era of Stagnation (Период застоя, Stagnation Period, also called the Brezhnevian Stagnation) was the period in the history of the Soviet Union which began during the rule of Leonid Brezhnev (1964–1982) and continued under Yuri Andropov (1982–1984) and Konstantin Chernenko (1984–1985).
The Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic (Estonian SSR or ESSR; Eesti Nõukogude Sotsialistlik Vabariik ENSV; Эстонская Советская Социалистическая Республика ЭССР, Estonskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika ESSR), also known as Soviet Estonia or Estonia was an unrecognized republic of the Soviet Union, administered by a subordinate of the Government of the Soviet Union.
The Eurasian Economic Union (officially EAEU, but sometimes called EEU or EAU)The acronym is used in the.
In economics, any commodity which is produced and subsequently consumed by the consumer, to satisfy his current wants or needs, is a consumer good or final good.
Five-year plan may refer to.
The five-year plans for the development of the national economy of the Soviet Union (USSR) (Пятиле́тние пла́ны разви́тия наро́дного хозя́йства СССР, Pjatiletnije plany razvitiya narodnogo khozyaystva SSSR) consisted of a series of nationwide centralized economic plans in the Soviet Union, beginning in the late 1920s.
The flag of Hungary (Magyarország zászlaja) is a horizontal tricolour of red, white and green.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
Głogów (Glogau, rarely Groß-Glogau, Hlohov) is a town in southwestern Poland.
A general strike (or mass strike) is a strike action in which a substantial proportion of the total labour force in a city, region, or country participates.
George Sanford is a former professor of politics at the University of Bristol, England.
Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (– 18 June 1974) was a Soviet Red Army General who became Chief of General Staff, Deputy Commander-in-Chief, Minister of Defence and a member of the Politburo.
Gheorghe Calciu-Dumitreasa (1925–2006) was a Romanian priest and dissident.
In the Russian language the word glasnost (гла́сность) has several general and specific meanings.
The Great Hungarian Plain (also known as Alföld or Great Alföld, Alföld, Nagy Alföld) is a plain occupying the majority of Hungary.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
The Group of Soviet Forces in Germany (1954–1988) (Группа советских войск в Германии, ГСВГ), also known as the Group of Soviet Occupation Forces in Germany (1945–1954) and the Western Group of Forces (1988–1994) were the troops of the Soviet Army in East Germany.
The Gulag (ГУЛАГ, acronym of Главное управление лагерей и мест заключения, "Main Camps' Administration" or "Chief Administration of Camps") was the government agency in charge of the Soviet forced labor camp system that was created under Vladimir Lenin and reached its peak during Joseph Stalin's rule from the 1930s to the 1950s.
Gustaw Herling-Grudziński (May 20, 1919 − July 4, 2000) was a Polish writer, journalist, essayist, World War II underground fighter, and political dissident abroad during the communist system in Poland.
Gustáv Husák (10 January 1913 – 18 November 1991) was a Slovak politician, president of Czechoslovakia and a long-term Secretary General of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (1969–1987).
Hertza region (Край Герца, Kraj Herca; Ținutul Herța) is a border region within an administrative district (raion) of Hertsa (Herța) in the southern part of Chernivtsi Oblast in southwestern Ukraine, near Romania.
The Holodomor (Голодомо́р); (derived from морити голодом, "to kill by starvation"), also known as the Terror-Famine and Famine-Genocide in Ukraine, and—before the widespread use of the term "Holodomor", and sometimes currently—also referred to as the Great Famine, and The Ukrainian Genocide of 1932–33—was a man-made famine in Soviet Ukraine in 1932 and 1933 that killed millions of Ukrainians that was part of the wider Soviet famine of 1932–33, which affected the major grain-producing areas of the country.
Human capital flight refers to the emigration of individuals who have received advanced training at home.
The Hungarian People's Republic (Magyar Népköztársaság) was a one-party socialist republic (communist state) from 20 August 1949 to 23 October 1989.
Imre Nagy (7 June 1896 – 16 June 1958) was a Hungarian communist politician who was appointed Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Hungarian People's Republic on two occasions.
Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.
The informal sector, informal economy, or grey economy is the part of an economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government.
Infrastructure is the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function.
The inner German border (innerdeutsche Grenze or deutsch-deutsche Grenze; initially also Zonengrenze) was the border between the German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany) and the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, West Germany) from 1949 to 1990.
Internetowa encyklopedia PWN (Polish for Internet PWN Encyclopedia) is a free online Polish-language encyclopedia published by Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
Intershop was a chain of government-run retail stores in the German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany) in which only hard currencies (and later Forum checks) could be used to purchase high-quality goods.
An intrauterine device (IUD), also known as intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD or ICD) or coil, is a small, often T-shaped birth control device that is inserted into a woman's uterus to prevent pregnancy.
The Iron Curtain was the name for the boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991.
Jan Garrigue Masaryk (14 September 1886 – 10 March 1948) was a Czech diplomat and politician who served as the Foreign Minister of Czechoslovakia from 1940 to 1948.
Jan Tomasz Gross (born 1947) is a Polish-American sociologist and historian.
János Kádár (26 May 1912 – 6 July 1989) was a Hungarian communist leader and the General Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party, presiding over the country from 1956 until his retirement in 1988.
Józef Cyrankiewicz (April 23, 1911 – January 20, 1989) was a Polish Socialist (PPS) and after 1948 Communist politician.
A joint-stock company is a business entity in which shares of the company's stock can be bought and sold by shareholders.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Josip Broz (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз,; 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito (Cyrillic: Тито), was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and political leader, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980.
The July Theses (Tezele din iulie) is a name commonly given to a speech delivered by Romanian leader Nicolae Ceaușescu on July 6, 1971, before the Executive Committee of the Romanian Communist Party (PCR).
Karelia (Karelian, Finnish and Estonian: Karjala; Карелия, Kareliya; Karelen), the land of the Karelian peoples, is an area in Northern Europe of historical significance for Finland, Russia, and Sweden.
The Karelian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (r; Karjalan autonominen sosialistinen neuvostotasavalta), or, in short, the Karelian ASSR (r; Karjalan ASNT), sometimes referred to as Soviet Karelia or simply Karelia was an autonomous republic of the Russian SFSR, Soviet Union, with the capital in Petrozavodsk.
The Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic (Karelo-Finnish SSR; Karjalais-suomalainen sosialistinen neuvostotasavalta; r), also called Soviet Karelia or simply known as Karelia, was a republic of the Soviet Union.
Countess Karolina Maria Adelajda Franciszka Ksawera Małgorzata Edina Lanckorońska (Gars am Kamp, Lower Austria, 11 August 1898 — 25 August 2002, Rome, Italy) was a Polish noble, World War II resistance fighter, and historian.
The Kasernierte Volkspolizei (KVP, German for Barracked People's Police) was the precursor to the National People's Army (NVA) in East Germany.
The Katyn massacre (zbrodnia katyńska, "Katyń massacre" or "Katyn crime"; Катынская резня or Катынский расстрел Katynskij reznya, "Katyn massacre") was a series of mass executions of Polish intelligentsia carried out by the NKVD ("People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs", the Soviet secret police) in April and May 1940.
Kauno diena (Kaunas Daily) is a Lithuanian daily newspaper, printed in Kaunas.
Kent is an American brand of cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company in the United States and British American Tobacco elsewhere.
The KGB, an initialism for Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti (p), translated in English as Committee for State Security, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its break-up in 1991.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
Kurier Wileński (literally: Vilnian Courier) is the main Polish-language newspaper in Lithuania.
LADA is a brand of cars manufactured by AvtoVAZ in Russia, which is today majority owned by Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi Alliance.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
The Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic (Latvian SSR; Latvijas Padomju Sociālistiskā Republika; Латвийская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Latviyskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), also known as Soviet Latvia or Latvia, was a republic of the Soviet Union.
Leninism is the political theory for the organisation of a revolutionary vanguard party and the achievement of a dictatorship of the proletariat as political prelude to the establishment of socialism.
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (a; Леоні́д Іллі́ч Бре́жнєв, 19 December 1906 (O.S. 6 December) – 10 November 1982) was a Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982 as the General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), presiding over the country until his death and funeral in 1982.
Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism.
Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is a soft, brown, combustible, sedimentary rock formed from naturally compressed peat.
This is a list of World War II conferences of the Allies of World War II.
The Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic (Lithuanian SSR; Lietuvos Tarybų Socialistinė Respublika; Литовская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Litovskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), one of the USSR republics that existed in 1940–1941 and 1944–1990, was formed on the basis of the Soviet occupation rule.
The London Club is an informal group of private creditors on the international stage, and is similar to the Paris Club of public lenders.
Looting, also referred to as sacking, ransacking, plundering, despoiling, despoliation, and pillaging, is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe, such as war, natural disaster (where law and civil enforcement are temporarily ineffective), or rioting.
Main Intelligence Directorate (p), abbreviated GRU (p), is the foreign military intelligence agency of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (formerly the Soviet Army General Staff of the Soviet Union).
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $13 billion (nearly $ billion in US dollars) in economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.
In political science, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, of the Communist International and of Stalinist political parties.
Mátyás Rákosi (9 March 1892 – 5 February 1971) was a Hungarian communist politician.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
During World War II, the Soviet Union occupied and annexed several countries effectively handed over by Nazi Germany in the secret protocol Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of 1939.
The Ministry of Public Security of Poland (Ministerstwo Bezpieczeństwa Publicznego or MBP) was a postwar communist, secret police, intelligence and counter-espionage service operating from 1945 to 1954 under minister for Public Security general (Generał brygady) Stanisław Radkiewicz, and supervised by Jakub Berman of the Politburo.
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (shortly: Moldavian SSR, abbr.: MSSR; Republica Sovietică Socialistă Moldovenească, in Cyrillic alphabet: Република Советикэ Сочиалистэ Молдовеняскэ; Молда́вская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика Moldavskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), also known to as Soviet Moldavia or Soviet Moldova, was one of the fifteen republics of the Soviet Union existed from 1940 to 1991.
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact,Charles Peters (2005), Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World, New York: PublicAffairs, Ch.
The Mongolian People's Republic (Бүгд Найрамдах Монгол Ард Улс (БНМАУ), Bügd Nairamdakh Mongol Ard Uls (BNMAU)), commonly known as Outer Mongolia, was a unitary sovereign socialist state which existed between 1924 and 1992, coterminous with the present-day country of Mongolia in East Asia.
The Moscow Armistice was signed between Finland on one side and the Soviet Union and United Kingdom on the other side on 19 September 1944, ending the Continuation War.
The Moscow Peace Treaty was signed by Finland and the Soviet Union on 12 March 1940, and the ratifications were exchanged on 21 March.
The Museum of Occupations (Okupatsioonide muuseum) in Tallinn, Estonia, is located at the corner of Toompea St.
Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.
Naukowa i Akademicka Sieć Komputerowa ("Research and Academic Computer Network") or NASK is a Polish research and development organization and data networks operator.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Népszabadság (means "Liberty of the People") was a major left-leaning Hungarian newspaper.
Neues Deutschland (ND) (New Germany) is a German daily newspaper, currently headquartered in Berlin.
Nicolae Ceaușescu (26 January 1918 – 25 December 1989) was a Romanian Communist politician.
The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del), abbreviated NKVD (НКВД), was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union.
The nomenklatura (p; nomenclatura) were a category of people within the Soviet Union and other Eastern Bloc countries who held various key administrative positions in the bureaucracy, running all spheres of those countries' activity: government, industry, agriculture, education, etc., whose positions were granted only with approval by the communist party of each country or region.
In the history of Czechoslovakia, normalization (normalizace, normalizácia) is a name commonly given to the period following the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968 and up to the glasnost era of liberalization that began in the Soviet Union and its neighboring nations in 1987.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
The occupation of the Baltic states involved the military occupation of the three Baltic states—Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania—by the Soviet Union under the auspices of the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact in June 1940 followed by their incorporation into the USSR as constituent republics in August 1940 - most Western powers never recognised this incorporation.
The Oder–Neisse line (granica na Odrze i Nysie Łużyckiej, Oder-Neiße-Grenze) is the international border between Germany and Poland.
The Ogaden War was a Somali military offensive between July 1977 and March 1978 over the disputed Ethiopian region Ogaden starting with the Somali Democratic Republic's invasion of Ethiopia.
Open hearth furnaces are one of a number of kinds of furnace where excess carbon and other impurities are burnt out of pig iron to produce steel.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
The Palace of the Parliament (Palatul Parlamentului) is the seat of the Parliament of Romania.
Panelák is a colloquial term in Czech and Slovak for a panel building constructed of pre-fabricated, pre-stressed concrete, such as those extant in the former Czechoslovakia and elsewhere in the world.
Panelház (Short: Panel) is a Hungarian term for a type of concrete block of flats (panel buildings), built in the People's Republic of Hungary and other Eastern Bloc countries.
The Paris Club (Club de Paris) is a group of officials from major creditor countries whose role is to find coordinated and sustainable solutions to the payment difficulties experienced by debtor countries.
The passport system of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was an organizational framework of the single national civil registration system based upon identification documents, and managed in accordance with the laws by ministries and other governmental bodies authorized by the Constitution of the USSR in the sphere of internal affairs.
Pál Maléter (4 September 1917 – 16 June 1958) was the military leader of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution.
Penguin Books is a British publishing house.
The People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (PDRE) was the official name of Ethiopia from 1987 to 1991, as established by the Communist government of Mengistu Haile Mariam and the Workers' Party of Ethiopia (WPE).
The People's Republic of Angola (Portuguese: República Popular de Angola) covers the period of Angolan history as a self-declared socialist state established in 1975 after it was granted independence from Portugal, akin to the situation in Mozambique.
The People's Republic of Benin (République populaire du Bénin) was a socialist state located in the Gulf of Guinea on the African continent, which would become present-day Benin.
The People's Republic of Bulgaria (PRB; Народна република България (НРБ) Narodna republika Bǎlgariya (NRB)) was the official name of Bulgaria when it was a socialist republic.
The People's Republic of Kampuchea (PRK; សាធារណរដ្ឋប្រជាមានិតកម្ពុជា, Sathéaranakrâth Pracheameanit Kâmpŭchéa; République populaire du Kampuchéa) was founded in Cambodia by the Salvation Front, a group of Cambodian communists dissatisfied with the Khmer Rouge after the overthrow of Democratic Kampuchea, Pol Pot's government.
The People's Republic of Mozambique (Portuguese: República Popular de Moçambique) was a self-declared communist state that lasted from 25 June 1975 to 1 December 1990, when the country became the present-day Republic of Mozambique.
The People's Republic of the Congo (République populaire du Congo) was a Marxist–Leninist socialist state that was established in 1969Decalo, S. 1990.
The People's Revolutionary Government (PRG) was proclaimed on 13 March 1979 after the New Jewel Movement overthrew the government of Grenada in a revolution.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia, Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the People's Socialist Republic of Albania (Republika Popullore Socialiste e Shqipërisë), was a Marxist-Leninist government that ruled Albania from 1946 to 1992.
Per capita is a Latin prepositional phrase: per (preposition, taking the accusative case, meaning "by means of") and capita (accusative plural of the noun caput, "head").
Perestroika (a) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s until 1991 and is widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.
Petar Toshev Mladenov (Петър Тошев Младенов; 22 August 1936 – 31 May 2000) was a Bulgarian communist diplomat and politician.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
Pewex (short for Przedsiębiorstwo Eksportu Wewnętrznego - Internal Export Company) was a chain of hard currency shops in the People's Republic of Poland.
A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.
Plattenbau (plural: Plattenbauten, Platte: panel/ slab; Bau: building/ construction) is a building constructed of large, prefabricated concrete slabs.
The Polish Committee of National Liberation (Polish: Polski Komitet Wyzwolenia Narodowego, PKWN), also known as the Lublin Committee, was a puppet provisional government of Poland,.
The Polish People's Republic (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) covers the history of contemporary Poland between 1952 and 1990 under the Soviet-backed socialist government established after the Red Army's release of its territory from German occupation in World War II.
As a result of the Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939, hundreds of thousands of Polish soldiers became prisoners of war in the Soviet Union.
The Polish United Workers' Party (PUWP; Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza, PZPR) was the Communist party which governed the Polish People's Republic from 1948 to 1989.
The złoty (pronounced; sign: zł; code: PLN), which is the masculine form of the Polish adjective 'golden', is the currency of Poland.
A politburo or political bureau is the executive committee for communist parties.
The Politburo (p, full: Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, abbreviated Политбюро ЦК КПСС, Politbyuro TsK KPSS) was the highest policy-making government authority under the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
Political rehabilitation is the process by which a member of a political organization or government who has fallen into disgrace is restored to public life.
The post-Soviet states, also collectively known as the former Soviet Union (FSU) or former Soviet Republics, are the states that emerged and re-emerged from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup in 1991, with Russia internationally recognised as the successor state to the Soviet Union after the Cold War.
The post–World War II economic expansion, also known as the postwar economic boom, the long boom, and the Golden Age of Capitalism, was a period of strong economic growth beginning after World War II and ending with the 1973–75 recession.
The Potsdam Conference (Potsdamer Konferenz) was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm, in Potsdam, occupied Germany, from 17 July to 2 August 1945.
The Prague Spring (Pražské jaro, Pražská jar) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union after World War II.
Pravda (the Slovak word for "Truth") is a major centre-left, newspaper in Slovakia.
Prefabrication is the practice of assembling components of a structure in a factory or other manufacturing site, and transporting complete assemblies or sub-assemblies to the construction site where the structure is to be located.
Proletarian internationalism, sometimes referred to as international socialism, is the perception of all communist revolutions as being part of a single global class struggle rather than separate localized events.
A propiska (a) was both a residency permit and a migration-recording tool, used in the Russian Empire before 1917 and in the Soviet Union from the 1930s.
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a broadcasting organization that broadcasts and reports news, information, and analysis to countries in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East where it says that "the free flow of information is either banned by government authorities or not fully developed".
Rahva Hääl (lit. The People's Voice) was the official newspaper of the Communist Party of Estonia during Soviet occupation of Estonia.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Nazi Germany established the Reichskommissariat Ostland (RKO) in 1941 as the civilian occupation regime in the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania), the northeastern part of Poland and the west part of the Belarusian SSR during World War II.
During the Soviet occupation, the religious life in Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina underwent a persecution similar to the one in Russia between the two World Wars.
The Republics of the Soviet Union or the Union Republics (r) of the Soviet Union were ethnically based proto-states that were subordinated directly to the Government of the Soviet Union.
"Republikflucht" ("desertion from the republic") and "Republikflüchtling(e)" ("deserter(s) from the republic") were the terms used by authorities in the German Democratic Republic (GDR – East Germany) to describe the process of and the person(s) leaving the GDR for a life in West Germany or any other Western (non-Warsaw Pact) country (Eastern Bloc emigration and defection).
The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, People's Spring, Springtime of the Peoples, or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848.
The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.
The Romanian Revolution (Revoluția Română) was a period of violent civil unrest in Romania in December 1989 and part of the Revolutions of 1989 that occurred in several countries.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The ruble or rouble (p) is or was a currency unit of a number of countries in Eastern Europe closely associated with the economy of Russia.
Rudé právo (Czech for Red Justice or The Red Truth) was the official newspaper of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia.
The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.
The term satellite state designates a country that is formally independent in the world, but under heavy political, economic and military influence or control from another country.
The Służba Bezpieczeństwa Ministerstwa Spraw Wewnętrznych (Security Service of the Ministry of Internal Affairs; Polish abbreviations: SB and MSW, respectively), commonly known as Esbecja, was established in the People's Republic of Poland in 1956.
Scînteia ("The Spark"; the initial spelling of the name in Romanian was Scânteia until the change of the orthography in 1953, as it would have been again, the orthography having officially reverted in 1993) was the name of two newspapers edited by Communist groups at different intervals in Romanian history.
The Second World is the former industrial socialist states (formally the Eastern Bloc) largely encompassing territories under the influence of the Soviet Union.
The Securitate (Romanian for Security) was the popular term for the Departamentul Securității Statului (Department of State Security), the secret police agency of the Socialist Republic of Romania.
Shortage economy (gospodarka niedoboru, hiánygazdaság) is a term coined by the Hungarian economist, János Kornai.
A show trial is a public trial in which the judicial authorities have already determined the guilt of the defendant.
The Directorate of State Security, commonly called the Sigurimi, was the state security, intelligence and secret police service of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania.
Simon Jonathan Sebag Montefiore (born 27 June 1965) is a British historian, television presenter and award-winning author of popular history books and novels.
"Sinatra Doctrine" was the name that the Soviet government of Mikhail Gorbachev used jokingly to describe its policy of allowing neighboring Warsaw Pact states to determine their own internal affairs.
The Sino-Soviet split (1956–1966) was the breaking of political relations between the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), caused by doctrinal divergences arising from each of the two powers' different interpretation of Marxism–Leninism as influenced by the national interests of each country during the Cold War.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a socialist state led by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.
The Socialist Republic of Romania (Republica Socialistă România, RSR) refers to Romania under Marxist-Leninist one-party Communist rule that existed officially from 1947 to 1989.
A socialist state, socialist republic or socialist country (sometimes workers' state or workers' republic) is a sovereign state constitutionally dedicated to the establishment of socialism.
The Socialist Unity Party of Germany (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands, SED), established in April 1946, was the governing Marxist–Leninist political party of the German Democratic Republic from the country's foundation in October 1949 until it was dissolved after the Peaceful Revolution in 1989.
Solidarity (Solidarność, pronounced; full name: Independent Self-governing Labour Union "Solidarity"—Niezależny Samorządny Związek Zawodowy „Solidarność”) is a Polish labour union that was founded on 17 September 1980 at the Lenin Shipyard under the leadership of Lech Wałęsa.
The Somali Democratic Republic (Jamhuuriyadda Dimuqraadiya Soomaaliya, الجمهورية الديمقراطية الصومالية al-Jumhūrīyah ad-Dīmuqrāṭīyah aṣ-Ṣūmālīyah, Repubblica Democratica Somala) was the name that the Marxist–Leninist military dictatorship government of former President of Somalia Major General Mohamed Siad Barre gave to Somalia during its rule, after having seized power in a bloodless 1969 coup d'état.
South Yemen is the common English name for the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (جمهورية اليمن الديمقراطية الشعبية), which existed from 1967 to 1990 as a state in the Middle East in the southern and eastern provinces of the present-day Republic of Yemen, including the island of Socotra.
The Soviet deportations from Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina took place between late 1940 and 1951 and were part of Joseph Stalin's policy of political repression of the potential opposition to the Soviet power (see Population transfer in the Soviet Union).
The informal term "Soviet Empire" is used by critics of the Soviet Union and Russian nationalists"The borders of the Russian World extend significantly farther than borders of Russian Federation.
The Soviet invasion of Poland was a Soviet Union military operation that started without a formal declaration of war on 17 September 1939.
The Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina was the military occupation, by the Soviet Red Army, during June 28 – July 4, 1940, of the Romanian regions of Northern Bukovina and Hertza, and of Bessarabia, a region under Romanian administration since Russian Civil War times.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Sovietization is the adoption of a political system based on the model of soviets (workers' councils) or the adoption of a way of life and mentality modelled after the Soviet Union.
The SovRoms (plural of SovRom) were economic enterprises established in Romania following the Communist takeover at the end of World War II, in place until 1954–1956 (when they were dissolved by the Romanian authorities).
The term Stakhanovite originated in the Soviet Union and referred to workers who modelled themselves after Alexey Stakhanov.
Stalinism is the means of governing and related policies implemented from the 1920s to 1953 by Joseph Stalin (1878–1953).
The Ministry for State Security (Ministerium für Staatssicherheit, MfS) or State Security Service (Staatssicherheitsdienst, SSD), commonly known as the Stasi, was the official state security service of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany).
State atheism, according to Oxford University Press's A Dictionary of Atheism, "is the name given to the incorporation of positive atheism or non-theism into political regimes, particularly associated with Soviet systems." In contrast, a secular state purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion, supporting neither religion nor irreligion.
The State Protection Authority (Államvédelmi Hatóság or ÁVH) was the secret police of Hungary from 1945 until 1956.
State Security (Státní bezpečnost, Štátna bezpečnosť) or StB / ŠtB, was a plainclothes communist secret police force in former Czechoslovakia from 1945 to its dissolution in 1990.
Studies in Intelligence is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal on intelligence that is published by the Center for the Study of Intelligence, a group within the United States Central Intelligence Agency.
Svetlana Iosifovna Alliluyeva (Светла́на Ио́сифовна Аллилу́ева;;; 28 February 1926 – 22 November 2011), later known as Lana Peters, was the youngest child and only daughter of Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin and Nadezhda Alliluyeva, Stalin's second wife.
Systematisation (Sistematizarea) in Romania was a program of urban planning carried out by the Socialist Republic of Romania under the leadership of Nicolae Ceaușescu.
Szklarska Poręba (Schreiberhau) is a town in Jelenia Góra County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Russian News Agency TASS (Informatsionnoye agentstvo Rossii TASS), abbr.
The Tehran Conference (codenamed Eureka) was a strategy meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill from 28 November to 1 December 1943, after the Anglo-Soviet Invasion of Iran.
Telephone tapping in the countries of the Eastern Bloc was a widespread method of the mass surveillance of the population by the secret police.
17 days after the German invasion of Poland in 1939, which marked the beginning of World War II, the Soviet Union invaded the eastern regions of the Second Polish Republic, which Poland re-established during the Polish–Soviet War and referred to as the "Kresy", and annexed territories totaling with a population of 13,299,000 inhabitants including Lithuanians,Russians, Belarusians, Ukrainians, Poles, Jews, Czechs and others.
The Conference Board, Inc. is a 501(c)(3) non-profit business membership and research group organization.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Truth About Chernobyl is a 1991 book by Grigori Medvedev.
In common usage, theft is the taking of another person's property or services without that person's permission or consent with the intent to deprive the rightful owner of it.
The Tito–Stalin Split, or Yugoslav–Soviet Split, was a conflict between the leaders of SFR Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union, which resulted in Yugoslavia's expulsion from the Communist Information Bureau (Cominform) in 1948.
Titoism is described as the post-World War II policies and practices associated with Josip Broz Tito during the Cold War, characterized by an opposition to the Soviet Union.
Todor Hristov Zhivkov (Тодор Христов Живков; 7 September 1911 – 5 August 1998) was the communist leader of the People's Republic of Bulgaria (PRB) from 4 March 1954 until 10 November 1989.
The Total Economy Database describes itself as "a comprehensive database with annual data covering GDP, population, employment, hours, labor quality, capital services, labor productivity, and Total Factor Productivity for 123 countries in the world".
Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.
The Trabant is an automobile which was produced from 1957 to 1990 by former East German car manufacturer VEB Sachsenring Automobilwerke Zwickau. Although it is often seen as symbolic of the defunct East Germany and the collapse of the Eastern Bloc in general, it was a sought-after car in East Germany before the fall of the Berlin Wall. The Trabant had a hard plastic body mounted on a one-piece steel chassis (a so-called unibody or monocoque), front-wheel drive, a transverse engine, and independent suspension unusual features at that time. Called "a spark plug with a roof", 3,096,999 Trabants in a number of models were produced over nearly three decades with few significant changes in their basic design. Older models became popular with collectors in the United States due to their low cost and fewer restrictions on the importation of antique cars. The Trabant also gained a following among car tuning and rally racing enthusiasts.
The Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (Transcaucasian SFSR or TSFSR), also known as the Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, was a constituent republic of the Soviet Union that existed from 1922 to 1936.
The Treaty on the Creation of the USSR officially created the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), commonly known as the Soviet Union.
Les Trente Glorieuses ("The Glorious Thirty") refers to the thirty years from 1945 to 1975 following the end of the Second World War in France.
Trybuna Ludu (People's Tribune) was one of the largest newspapers in communist Poland.
Tuzex was a series of state-run shops in Czechoslovakia from 1957 to 1992 which did not accept normal Czechoslovak currency but only vouchers which could be purchased from banks with foreign currency.
An udarnik (p; English plural udarniks or udarniki), also known in English as a shock worker or strike worker (collectively known as shock brigades or a shock labour team) was a highly productive worker in the Soviet Union, the Eastern Bloc, and other communist countries.
The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR or UkrSSR or UkSSR; Украї́нська Радя́нська Соціалісти́чна Респу́бліка, Украї́нська РСР, УРСР; Украи́нская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика, Украи́нская ССР, УССР; see "Name" section below), also known as the Soviet Ukraine, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union from the Union's inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991. The republic was governed by the Communist Party of Ukraine as a unitary one-party socialist soviet republic. The Ukrainian SSR was a founding member of the United Nations, although it was legally represented by the All-Union state in its affairs with countries outside of the Soviet Union. Upon the Soviet Union's dissolution and perestroika, the Ukrainian SSR was transformed into the modern nation-state and renamed itself to Ukraine. Throughout its 72-year history, the republic's borders changed many times, with a significant portion of what is now Western Ukraine being annexed by Soviet forces in 1939 from the Republic of Poland, and the addition of Zakarpattia in 1946. From the start, the eastern city of Kharkiv served as the republic's capital. However, in 1934, the seat of government was subsequently moved to the city of Kiev, Ukraine's historic capital. Kiev remained the capital for the rest of the Ukrainian SSR's existence, and remained the capital of independent Ukraine after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Geographically, the Ukrainian SSR was situated in Eastern Europe to the north of the Black Sea, bordered by the Soviet republics of Moldavia, Byelorussia, and the Russian SFSR. The Ukrainian SSR's border with Czechoslovakia formed the Soviet Union's western-most border point. According to the Soviet Census of 1989 the republic had a population of 51,706,746 inhabitants, which fell sharply after the breakup of the Soviet Union. For most of its existence, it ranked second only to the Russian SFSR in population, economic and political power.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD), formerly the United Nations Statistical Office, serves under the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) as the central mechanism within the Secretariat of the United Nations to supply the statistical needs and coordinating activities of the global statistical system.
The VAZ-2101 "Zhiguli", commonly nicknamed "Kopeyka" (for the smallest coin, 1/100 of the ''Ruble''), is a compact sedan car (small class, passenger car, model 1 in Soviet classification) produced by the Soviet manufacturer AvtoVAZ and introduced in 1970, the company's first product.
The Velvet Revolution (sametová revoluce) or Gentle Revolution (nežná revolúcia) was a non-violent transition of power in what was then Czechoslovakia, occurring from 17 November to 29 December 1989.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Voice of America (VOA) is a U.S. government-funded international radio broadcast source that serves as the United States federal government's official institution for non-military, external broadcasting.
The Volkspolizei – full official name: the Deutsche Volkspolizei (German People's Police), abbreviated to DVP or VP, and colloquially known as the VoPo – was the national police force of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany).
Walter Leland Cronkite Jr. (November 4, 1916 – July 17, 2009) was an American broadcast journalist who served as anchorman for the CBS Evening News for 19 years (1962–1981).
Walter Ernst Paul Ulbricht (30 June 18931 August 1973) was a German Communist politician.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
The Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, officially known as Operation Danube, was a joint invasion of Czechoslovakia by five Warsaw Pact nations – the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Hungary, East Germany and Poland – on the night of 20–21 August 1968.
The Wartburg was a car marque manufactured in East Germany.
Władysław Albert Anders (11 August 1892 – 12 May 1970) was a general in the Polish Army and later in life a politician and prominent member of the Polish government-in-exile in London.
Władysław Gomułka (6 February 1905 – 1 September 1982) was a Polish communist politician.
West Berlin (Berlin (West) or colloquially West-Berlin) was a political enclave which comprised the western part of Berlin during the years of the Cold War.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
The concept of Western betrayal refers to the view that the United Kingdom and France failed to meet their legal, diplomatic, military and moral obligations with respect to the Czechoslovak and Polish nations during the prelude to and aftermath of World War II.
The Western Bloc during the Cold War refers to the countries allied with the United States and NATO against the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
The Winter War was a military conflict between the Soviet Union (USSR) and Finland.
The term Wirtschaftswunder ("economic miracle"), also known as The Miracle on the Rhine, describes the rapid reconstruction and development of the economies of West Germany and Austria after World War II (adopting an Ordoliberalism-based social market economy).
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wrocław (Breslau; Vratislav; Vratislavia) is the largest city in western Poland.
The Yalta Conference, also known as the Crimea Conference and code named the Argonaut Conference, held from 4 to 11 February 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union for the purpose of discussing Germany and Europe's postwar reorganization.
ZAZ Zaporozhets (Запоро́жець; p) was a series of rear-wheel-drive superminis (city cars in their first generation) designed and built from 1958 at the ZAZ factory in Soviet Ukraine.
Zmotoryzowane Odwody Milicji Obywatelskiej (ZOMO) (Motorized Reserves of the Citizens' Militia), were paramilitary-police formations during the Communist Era, in the People's Republic of Poland.
Zvyazda (Звязда,, literally: "The Star") is a state-owned daily newspaper in Belarus.
The phrase 101st kilometre (101-й километр, sto pervyy kilometr) is a colloquial name for the law restricting freedom of movement in the Soviet Union.
Communist Bloc, Communist Block, Communist Eastern Europe, Communist bloc, Communist block, East Bloc, East bloc, Eastern Bloc economies, Eastern Block, Eastern bloc, Eastern bloc black markets, Eastern block, Eastern-bloc, Economies of the Eastern Bloc, Economy of the Eastern Bloc, Ex-Communist countries, Former communist states, List of the USSR Satellite states, Socialist Bloc, Socialist bloc, Soviet Bloc, Soviet bloc, Soviet block, Soviet-bloc.