321 relations: Acute promyelocytic leukemia, Adrenal gland, Alanine transaminase, Altered level of consciousness, Amazon (company), Annals of Internal Medicine, Anorexia (symptom), Antibiotic, Antibody, Antiemetic, Antimalarial medication, Antipyretic, Anxiolytic, Apoptosis, Arthralgia, Arthropod, Aspartate transaminase, Aspirin, Atlanta, Équateur (former province), Ballantine Books, Bangladesh, Bat, Bellevue Hospital, Bestseller, Bikoro, Biological life cycle, Biological warfare, Biopreparat, Biosafety level, Bleeding, Bleeding time, Blood, Blood in stool, Blood vessel, Body fluid, Breast milk, Budding, Bundibugyo District, Bundibugyo virus, Burial, Bushmeat, C-type lectin, Calcium hypochlorite, Candidiasis, Capsid, Case fatality rate, CBS News, Cell culture, Cell membrane, ..., Cell nucleus, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Central African Republic, Chest pain, Cholera, CNN, Coagulation, Coagulopathy, Coma, Contact tracing, Crab-eating macaque, Cremation, Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever, Cytokine release syndrome, Cytosol, DC-SIGN, Dehydration, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dendritic cell, Dengue fever, Desquamation, Detergent, Diarrhea, Differential diagnosis, Disinfectant, Disseminated intravascular coagulation, Drop (liquid), Duiker, Ebola River, Ebola vaccine, Ebola virus, Ebola virus cases in the United States, Ebola virus disease treatment research, Ebolavirus, Ecchymosis, Edema, Electron microscope, ELISA, Embalming, Endosome, Endothelium, Epidemiology, Epiphora (medicine), Euthanasia, Executive Orders, Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, Fatigue, Feces, Fever, Fibroblast, Filoviridae, Five prime untranslated region, Food and Drug Administration, Fort Detrick, Franquet's epauletted fruit bat, Fresh frozen plasma, Gabon, Gartnavel General Hospital, Gastrointestinal tract, Gene, Genome, Genus, Glasgow, Glycoprotein, Greater forest shrew, Guardian Media Group, Guinea, Hair loss, Hammer-headed bat, Hand washing, Headache, Hematemesis, Hematoma, Hemodialysis, Hemolytic-uremic syndrome, Hemoptysis, Heparin, Hepatitis, Hepatocyte, Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, Hiccup, Histoplasmosis, Hospital-acquired infection, Hypovolemia, Ibuprofen, IFNAR1, IFNAR2, Immunoglobulin G, Immunoglobulin M, Incubation period, Index case, Infectious disease (medical specialty), Influenza, Innate immune system, Integrin, Intensive care medicine, Interferome, Interferon gamma, Interferon type I, Internal bleeding, Intravenous therapy, IRF3, IRF7, Isiro, Isolation (health care), Isolation ward, Kawasaki disease, Kidney, Kidney failure, Kinshasa, Lassa fever, Leishmaniasis, Leptospirosis, Leukocytosis, Leukopenia, Liberia, List of distinct cell types in the adult human body, List of Ebola outbreaks, List of human disease case fatality rates, Little collared fruit bat, Liver, London, Lyme disease, Lymph node, Lymphatic system, Lymphocyte, Lymphocytopenia, Lysosome, Macrophage, Maculopapular rash, Malaria, Marburg virus, Marburg virus disease, Marburgvirus, Martial law, Mayinga N'Seka, Médecins Sans Frontières, Mbandaka, MDA5, Measles, Megabat, Meningitis, Menstrual cycle, Messenger RNA, Middle East, Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, Miscarriage, Mobutu Sese Seko, Mongala, Monocyte, Mononuclear phagocyte system, Monrovia, Myalgia, Natural reservoir, Needlestick injury, Neutrophil, Nucleic acid sequence, Nzara, South Sudan, Oral rehydration therapy, Orchitis, Organ (anatomy), Packed red blood cells, Pain management, Palliative care, Pandemic, Partial thromboplastin time, Pathogen, Pathogen-associated molecular pattern, Pauline Cafferkey, Personal protective equipment, Petechia, Peter Piot, Peters's mouse, Photophobia, Pinocytosis, Plague (disease), Platelet, Polymerase chain reaction, Praomys, Primate, Protein dimer, Protein trimer, Prothrombin time, Purpura, Q fever, Quarantine, Quinine, RAF Northolt, Random House, Rash, Real-time polymerase chain reaction, Receptor (biochemistry), Republic of the Congo, Reston virus, Reston, Virginia, Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Richard Preston, Rickettsia, RIG-I, RNA, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, Rodent, Royal Free Hospital, RVSV-ZEBOV vaccine, Saliva, Scavenger, Scrub typhus, Semen, Sepsis, Seroconversion, Seroprevalence, Sexual intercourse, Shigatoxigenic and verotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Shigellosis, Shortness of breath, Shrew, Sierra Leone, Simian hemorrhagic fever virus, Snakebite, Sodium hypochlorite, Sore throat, STAT1, STAT2, Sterilization (microbiology), Sub-Saharan Africa, Subconjunctival hemorrhage, Sudan, Sudan virus, Symptom, Tedros Adhanom, The Hot Zone, The Lancet, The New York Times, The Observer, The Wall Street Journal, Therapy, Three prime untranslated region, Thrombocytopenia, Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, Tissue factor, TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, Tom Clancy, Transcription (biology), Translation (biology), Trypanosomiasis, Typhoid fever, Uganda, United States, United States Army, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Uveitis, Vaccine, Viral hemorrhagic fever, Viral hepatitis, Visual impairment, Vomiting, Wangata, Warfarin, Weakness, Weapon of mass destruction, West African Ebola virus epidemic, White blood cell, Whole genome sequencing, William Close, World Health Organization, Yambuku, Zaire, Zaire ebolavirus. 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Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APML, APL) is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a cancer of the white blood cells.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
Alanine transaminase (ALT) is a transaminase enzyme.
An altered level of consciousness is any measure of arousal other than normal.
Amazon.com, Inc., doing business as Amazon, is an American electronic commerce and cloud computing company based in Seattle, Washington that was founded by Jeff Bezos on July 5, 1994.
Annals of Internal Medicine is an academic medical journal published by the American College of Physicians (ACP).
Anorexia (from Ancient Greek ανορεξία: 'ἀν-' "without" + 'όρεξις', spelled 'órexis' meaning "appetite") is the decreased sensation of appetite.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea.
Antimalarial medications, also known as antimalarials, are designed to prevent or cure malaria.
Antipyretics (from anti- 'against' and 'feverish') are substances that reduce fever.
An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Arthralgia (from Greek arthro-, joint + -algos, pain) literally means joint pain; it is a symptom of injury, infection, illnesses (in particular arthritis) or an allergic reaction to medication.
An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.
Aspartate transaminase (AST) or aspartate aminotransferase, also known as AspAT/ASAT/AAT or serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), is a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent transaminase enzyme that was first described by Arthur Karmen and colleagues in 1954.
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.
Atlanta is the capital city and most populous municipality of the state of Georgia in the United States.
Équateur (French for "Equator") was one of the eleven provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo between 1966 and 2015, when it was split into the new, smaller Équateur province, as well as the Tshuapa, Mongala, Nord-Ubangi and Sud-Ubangi provinces.
Ballantine Books is a major book publisher located in the United States, founded in 1952 by Ian Ballantine with his wife, Betty Ballantine.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera; with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.
Bellevue Hospital, founded on March 31, 1736, is the oldest public hospital in the United States.
A bestseller is, usually, a book that is included on a list of top-selling or frequently-borrowed titles, normally based on publishing industry and book trade figures and library circulation statistics; such lists may be published by newspapers, magazines, or book store chains.
Bikoro is a market town in Équateur Province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, lying on Lake Tumba, south of Mbandaka.
In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.
Biological warfare (BW)—also known as germ warfare—is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi with the intent to kill or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war.
Biopreparat (p, "Biological substance preparation") was the Soviet Union's major biological warfare agency from the 1970s on.
A biosafety level is a set of biocontainment precautions required to isolate dangerous biological agents in an enclosed laboratory facility.
Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.
Bleeding time is a medical test done on someone to assess their platelets function.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
When referring to human feces, blood in stool looks different depending on how early it enters the digestive tract—and thus how much digestive action it has been exposed to—and how much there is.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
Body fluid, bodily fluids, or biofluids are liquids within the bodies of living people.
Breast milk is the milk produced by the breasts (or mammary glands) of a human female to feed a child.
Budding is a type of asexual reproduction in which a new organism develops from an outgrowth or bud due to cell division at one particular site.
Bundibugyo District is a district in the Western Region of Uganda, bordering the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).
Bundibugyo virus (BDBV) is a close relative of the much more commonly known Ebola virus (EBOV).
Burial or interment is the ritual act of placing a dead person or animal, sometimes with objects, into the ground.
Bushmeat, wildmeat, or game meat is meat from non-domesticated mammals, reptiles, amphibians and birds hunted for food in tropical forests.
A C-type lectin (CLEC) is a type of carbohydrate-binding protein domain known as a lectin.
Calcium hypochlorite is an inorganic compound with formula2.
Candidiasis is a fungal infection due to any type of Candida (a type of yeast).
A capsid is the protein shell of a virus.
In epidemiology, a case fatality rate (CFR)—or case fatality risk, case fatality ratio or just fatality rate—is the proportion of deaths within a designated population of "cases" (people with a medical condition) over the course of the disease.
CBS News is the news division of American television and radio service CBS.
Cell culture is the process by which cells are grown under controlled conditions, generally outside their natural environment.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
The Central African Republic (CAR; Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka; République centrafricaine, or Centrafrique) is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
Chest pain is pain in any region of the chest.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
Coagulation (also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot.
A bleeding disorder (coagulopathy) is a condition that affects the way the blood clots.
Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awaken; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.
In epidemiology, contact tracing is the identification and diagnosis of people who may have come into contact with an infected person.
The crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis), also known as the long-tailed macaque, is a cercopithecine primate native to Southeast Asia.
Cremation is the combustion, vaporization, and oxidation of cadavers to basic chemical compounds, such as gases, ashes and mineral fragments retaining the appearance of dry bone.
Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral disease.
Cytokine release syndrome is a form of systemic inflammatory response syndrome that arises as a complication of some diseases or infections, and is also an adverse effect of some monoclonal antibody drugs, as well as adoptive T-cell therapies.
The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.
DC-SIGN (Dendritic Cell-Specific Intercellular adhesion molecule-3-Grabbing Non-integrin) also known as CD209 ('''C'''luster of '''D'''ifferentiation 209) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CD209 gene.
In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (also known as accessory cells) of the mammalian immune system.
Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus.
Desquamation, also called skin peeling, is the shedding of the outermost membrane or layer of a tissue, such as the skin.
A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with cleaning properties in dilute solutions.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
In medicine, a differential diagnosis is the distinguishing of a particular disease or condition from others that present similar clinical features.
Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to the surface of non-living objects to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects.
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a condition in which blood clots form throughout the body, blocking small blood vessels.
A drop or droplet is a small column of liquid, bounded completely or almost completely by free surfaces.
A duiker is a small to medium-sized brown in colour antelope native to Sub-Saharan Africa.
The Ebola River, also commonly known by its indigenous name Legbala, is the headstream of the Mongala River, a tributary of the Congo River, in northern Democratic Republic of the Congo It is roughly 250 km in length.
Ebola vaccine candidates against Ebola have been developed in the decade prior to 2014, but none have yet been approved for clinical use in humans.
Ebola virus (EBOV, formerly designated Zaire ebolavirus) is one of five known viruses within the genus Ebolavirus.
In December 2014, Ebola virus cases in the United States occurred due to four laboratory-confirmed cases of Ebola virus disease (commonly known as "Ebola") in the United States.
Ebola virus disease (research) or simply Ebola, is a disease that affects humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses; there is no cure or specific treatment that is currently approved, treatment is primarily supportive in nature.
The genus Ebolavirus is a virological taxon included in the family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales.
An ecchymosis is a subcutaneous spot of bleeding (from extravasation of blood) with diameter larger than.
Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.
The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a test that uses antibodies and color change to identify a substance.
Embalming is the art and science of preserving human remains by treating them (in its modern form with chemicals) to forestall decomposition.
In cell biology, an endosome is a membrane-bound compartment inside eukaryotic cells.
Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
Epiphora is an overflow of tears onto the face.
Euthanasia (from εὐθανασία; "good death": εὖ, eu; "well" or "good" – θάνατος, thanatos; "death") is the practice of intentionally ending a life to relieve pain and suffering.
Executive Orders is a political and military thriller novel by Tom Clancy.
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), also known as extracorporeal life support (ECLS), is an extracorporeal technique of providing prolonged cardiac and respiratory support to persons whose heart and lungs are unable to provide an adequate amount of gas exchange or perfusion to sustain life.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
A fibroblast is a type of biological cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, the structural framework (stroma) for animal tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing.
The family Filoviridae is the taxonomic home of several related viruses (filoviruses or filovirids) that form filamentous infectious viral particles (virions), and encode their genome in the form of single-stranded negative-sense RNA.
The 5′ untranslated region (5′ UTR) (also known as a leader sequence or leader RNA) is the region of an mRNA that is directly upstream from the initiation codon.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Fort Detrick is a United States Army Medical Command installation located in Frederick, Maryland.
Franquet's epauletted fruit bat (Epomops franqueti) is a species of megabat in the family Pteropodidae, and is one of three different species of epauletted bats.
Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) is a blood product made from the liquid portion of whole blood.
Gabon, officially the Gabonese Republic (République gabonaise), is a sovereign state on the west coast of Central Africa.
Gartnavel General Hospital is a teaching hospital in the West End of Glasgow, Scotland.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
Glasgow (Glesga; Glaschu) is the largest city in Scotland, and third most populous in the United Kingdom.
Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains.
The greater forest shrew (Sylvisorex ollula) is a species of mammal in the family Soricidae found in Cameroon, the Central African Republic, the Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and Nigeria.
Guardian Media Group plc (GMG) is a British mass media company owning various media operations including The Guardian and The Observer.
Guinea, officially the Republic of Guinea (République de Guinée), is a country on the western coast of Africa.
Hair loss, also known as alopecia or baldness, refers to a loss of hair from part of the head or body.
The hammer-headed bat (Hypsignathus monstrosus), also known as the big-lipped bat, is a megabat widely distributed in equatorial Africa.
Hand washing, also known as hand hygiene, is the act of cleaning hands for the purpose of removing soil, dirt, and microorganisms.
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
Hematemesis or haematemesis is the vomiting of blood.
A hematoma (US spelling) or haematoma (UK spelling) is a localized collection of blood outside the blood vessels, due to either disease or trauma including injury or surgery and may involve blood continuing to seep from broken capillaries.
Hemodialysis, also spelled haemodialysis, commonly called kidney dialysis or simply dialysis, is a process of purifying the blood of a person whose kidneys are not working normally.
Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a disease characterized by a triad of hemolytic anemia (anemia caused by destruction of red blood cells), acute kidney failure (uremia), and a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia).
Hemoptysis is the coughing up of blood or blood-stained mucus from the bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs.
Heparin, also known as unfractionated heparin (UFH), is medication which is used as an anticoagulant (blood thinner).
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue.
A hepatocyte is a cell of the main parenchymal tissue of the liver.
Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), also known as Osler–Weber–Rendu disease and Osler–Weber–Rendu syndrome, is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder that leads to abnormal blood vessel formation in the skin, mucous membranes, and often in organs such as the lungs, liver, and brain.
A hiccup (also spelled hiccough) is an involuntary contraction (myoclonic jerk) of the diaphragm that may repeat several times per minute.
Histoplasmosis (also known as "Cave disease", "Darling's disease", "Ohio valley disease", "reticuloendotheliosis", "spelunker's lung" and "caver's disease") is a disease caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum.
A hospital-acquired infection (HAI), also known as a nosocomial infection, is an infection that is acquired in a hospital or other health care facility.
Hypovolemia is a state of decreased blood volume; more specifically, decrease in volume of blood plasma.
Ibuprofen is a medication in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) class that is used for treating pain, fever, and inflammation.
Interferon-alpha/beta receptor alpha chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IFNAR1 gene.
Interferon-alpha/beta receptor beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IFNAR2 gene.
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody.
Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is one of several forms of antibody that are produced by vertebrates.
Incubation period is the time elapsed between exposure to a pathogenic organism, a chemical, or radiation, and when symptoms and signs are first apparent.
The index case is the first documented patient in the onset of an epidemiological investigation, or more generally, the first case of a condition or syndrome (not necessarily contagious) to be described in the medical literature, whether or not the patient is thought to be the first person affected.
Infectious disease, also known as infectious diseases, infectious medicine, infectious disease medicine or infectiology, is a medical specialty dealing with the diagnosis, control and treatment of infections.
Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
The innate immune system, also known as the non-specific immune system or in-born immunity system, is an important subsystem of the overall immune system that comprises the cells and mechanisms involved in the defense of the host from infection by other organisms.
Integrins are transmembrane receptors that facilitate cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion.
Intensive care medicine, or critical care medicine, is a branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and management of life-threatening conditions that may require sophisticated life support and monitoring.
Interferome is an online bioinformatics database of interferon-regulated genes (IRGs).
Interferon gamma (IFNγ) is a dimerized soluble cytokine that is the only member of the type II class of interferons.
Human type I interferons (IFNs) are a large subgroup of interferon proteins that help regulate the activity of the immune system.
Internal bleeding (also called internal hemorrhage) is a loss of blood that occurs from the vascular system into a body cavity or space.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Interferon regulatory factor 3, also known as IRF3, is an interferon regulatory factor.
Interferon regulatory factor 7, also known as IRF7, is a member of the interferon regulatory factor family of transcription factors.
Isiro (pronounced) is the capital of Haut-Uele Province in the northeastern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
In health care facilities, isolation represents one of several measures that can be taken to implement infection control: the prevention of contagious diseases from being spread from a patient to other patients, health care workers, and visitors, or from outsiders to a particular patient (reverse isolation).
In hospitals and other medical facilities, an isolation ward is a separate ward used to isolate patients suffering from infectious diseases.
Kawasaki disease, also known as mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome, is a disease in which blood vessels throughout the body become inflamed.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.
Kinshasa (formerly Léopoldville (Léopoldville or Dutch)) is the capital and the largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Lassa fever, also known as Lassa hemorrhagic fever (LHF), is a type of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by the Lassa virus.
Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by parasites of the Leishmania type.
Leptospirosis is an infection caused by corkscrew-shaped bacteria called Leptospira.
Leukocytosis is white cells (the leukocyte count) above the normal range in the blood.
Leukopenia is a decrease in the number of white blood cells (leukocytes) found in the blood, which places individuals at increased risk of infection.
Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast.
There are many different types of cell in the human body.
This list of Ebola outbreaks records the known occurrences of Ebola hemorrhagic fever, a highly infectious and acutely lethal viral disease that has afflicted humans and animals primarily in equatorial Africa.
This is a list of human disease case fatality rates (CFRs).
The little collared fruit bat (Myonycteris torquata) is a species of megabat in the family Pteropodidae found in Angola, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, the Republic of the Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Togo, and Uganda.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Lyme disease, also known as Lyme borreliosis, is an infectious disease caused by bacteria of the Borrelia type which is spread by ticks.
A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.
The lymphatic system is part of the vascular system and an important part of the immune system, comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph (from Latin, lympha meaning "water") directionally towards the heart.
A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.
Lymphocytopenia, or lymphopenia, is the condition of having an abnormally low level of lymphocytes in the blood.
A lysosome is a membrane-bound organelle found in nearly all animal cells.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
A maculopapular rash is a type of rash characterized by a flat, red area on the skin that is covered with small confluent bumps.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Marburg virus is a hemorrhagic fever virus of the Filoviridae family of viruses and a member of the species Marburg marburgvirus, genus Marburgvirus.
Marburg virus disease (MVD; formerly Marburg hemorrhagic fever) is a severe illness of humans and non-human primates caused by either of the two marburgviruses, Marburg virus (MARV) and Ravn virus (RAVV).
The genus Marburgvirus is the taxonomic home of one species, Marburg marburgvirus, whose members are the two known marburgviruses, Marburg virus (MARV) and Ravn virus (RAVV).
Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public.
Mayinga N'Seka (1954 – October 19, 1976) was a nurse in Zaïre, now Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF; pronounced), also known in English as Doctors Without Borders, is an international humanitarian medical non-governmental organisation (NGO) of French origin best known for its projects in conflict zones and in countries affected by endemic diseases.
Mbandaka, pronounced mba ˈnda ka and formerly known as Coquilhatville in French or Coquilhatstad in Flemish, is a city on the Congo River in the Democratic Republic of Congo lying near the confluence of the Congo and Ruki Rivers.
MDA5 (Melanoma Differentiation-Associated protein 5) is a RIG-I-like receptor dsRNA helicase enzyme that in humans is encoded by the IFIH1 gene.
Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.
Megabats constitute the suborder Megachiroptera, and its only family Pteropodidae of the order Chiroptera (bats).
Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.
The menstrual cycle is the regular natural change that occurs in the female reproductive system (specifically the uterus and ovaries) that makes pregnancy possible.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
The Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care is the Government of Ontario ministry responsible for administering the health care system and providing services to the province of Ontario.
Miscarriage, also known as spontaneous abortion and pregnancy loss, is the natural death of an embryo or fetus before it is able to survive independently.
Marshal Mobutu Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu Wa Za Banga (born Joseph-Désiré Mobutu; 14 October 1930 – 7 September 1997) was the military dictator and President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (which Mobutu renamed Zaire in 1971) from 1965 to 1997.
Mongala is one of the 26 provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Monocytes are a type of leukocyte, or white blood cell.
In immunology, the mononuclear phagocyte system or mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS) (also known as the reticuloendothelial system or macrophage system) is a part of the immune system that consists of the phagocytic cells located in reticular connective tissue.
Monrovia is the capital city of the West African country of Liberia.
Myalgia, or muscle pain, is a symptom of many diseases and disorders.
In infectious disease ecology and epidemiology, a natural reservoir, also known as a disease reservoir or a reservoir of infection, is the population of organisms or the specific environment in which an infectious pathogen naturally lives and reproduces, or upon which the pathogen primarily depends for its survival.
A needlestick injury, percutaneous injury, or percutaneous exposure incident or sharps injury is the penetration of the skin by a needle or other sharp object, which has been in contact with blood, tissue or other body fluids before the exposure.
Neutrophils (also known as neutrocytes) are the most abundant type of granulocytes and the most abundant (40% to 70%) type of white blood cells in most mammals.
A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.
Nzara is a town in South Sudan.
Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) is a type of fluid replacement used to prevent and treat dehydration, especially that due to diarrhea.
Orchitis or orchiditis (from the Ancient Greek ὄρχις meaning "testicle"; same root as orchid) is inflammation of the testes.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
Packed red blood cells, also known as red cell concentrate and packed cells, are red blood cells that have been separated for blood transfusion.
Pain management, pain medicine, pain control or algiatry, is a branch of medicine employing an interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those living with chronic pain The typical pain management team includes medical practitioners, pharmacists, clinical psychologists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, physician assistants, nurses.
Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach to specialized medical and nursing care for people with life-limiting illnesses.
A pandemic (from Greek πᾶν pan "all" and δῆμος demos "people") is an epidemic of infectious disease that has spread across a large region; for instance multiple continents, or even worldwide.
The partial thromboplastin time (PTT) or activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT or APTT) is a medical test that characterizes blood coagulation, also known as clotting.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or PAMPs, are molecules associated with groups of pathogens, that are recognized by cells of the innate immune system.
Pauline Cafferkey is a British nurse and aid worker who contracted Ebola virus disease in 2014 while working in Sierra Leone as part of the medical aid effort during the West African Ebola virus epidemic.
Personal protective equipment (PPE) refers to protective clothing, helmets, goggles, or other garments or equipment designed to protect the wearer's body from injury or infection.
A petechia, plural petechiae, is a small (1–2 mm) red or purple spot on the skin, caused by a minor bleed from broken capillary blood vessels.
Baron Peter Karel Piot, KCMG, FRCP, FMedSci (born 1949) is a Belgian microbiologist known for his research into Ebola and AIDS.
Peters' mouse (Mus setulosus) is a species of rodent in the family Muridae.
Photophobia is a symptom of abnormal intolerance to visual perception of light.
In cellular biology, pinocytosis, otherwise known as fluid endocytosis and bulk-phase pinocytosis, is a mode of endocytosis in which small particles suspended in extracellular fluid are brought into the cell through an invagination of the cell membrane, resulting in a suspension of the particles within a small vesicle inside the cell.
Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.
Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.
Praomys is a genus of rodent in the family Muridae endemic to Africa.
A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").
In biochemistry, a protein dimer is a macromolecular complex formed by two protein monomers, or single proteins, which are usually non-covalently bound.
In biochemistry, a protein trimer is a macromolecular complex formed by three, usually non-covalently bound, macromolecules like proteins or nucleic acids.
The prothrombin time (PT)—along with its derived measures of prothrombin ratio (PR) and international normalized ratio (INR)—are assays evaluating the extrinsic pathway of coagulation.
Purpura is a condition of red or purple discolored spots on the skin that do not blanch on applying pressure.
Q fever is a disease caused by infection with Coxiella burnetii, a bacterium that affects humans and other animals.
A quarantine is used to separate and restrict the movement of people; it is a 'a restraint upon the activities or communication of persons or the transport of goods designed to prevent the spread of disease or pests', for a certain period of time.
Quinine is a medication used to treat malaria and babesiosis.
RAF Northolt is a Royal Air Force station in South Ruislip, from Uxbridge in the London Borough of Hillingdon, west London.
Random House is an American book publisher and the largest general-interest paperback publisher in the world.
A rash is a change of the human skin which affects its color, appearance, or texture.
A real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-Time PCR), also known as quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), is a laboratory technique of molecular biology based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
The Republic of the Congo (République du Congo), also known as the Congo-Brazzaville, the Congo Republic or simply the Congo, is a country in Central Africa.
Reston virus (RESTV) is one of five known viruses within the genus Ebolavirus.
Reston is one of the leading "New Town" planned communities in the United States.
Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), a variant of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), is a technique commonly used in molecular biology to detect RNA expression.
Richard Preston (born August 5, 1954) is a New Yorker writer and bestselling author who has written books about infectious disease, bioterrorism, redwoods and other subjects, as well as fiction.
Rickettsia is a genus of nonmotile, Gram-negative, nonspore-forming, highly pleomorphic bacteria that can be present as cocci (0.1 μm in diameter), rods (1–4 μm long), or thread-like (10 μm long).
RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene I) is a RIG-I-like receptor dsRNA helicase enzyme that is encoded (in humans) by the DDX58 gene.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP), (RDR), or RNA replicase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the replication of RNA from an RNA template.
Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.
The Royal Free Hospital (also known simply as the Royal Free) is a major teaching hospital in Hampstead, London.
Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus–Zaire Ebola virus (rVSV-ZEBOV) is an experimental vaccine for protection against Ebola virus disease.
Saliva is a watery substance formed in the mouths of animals, secreted by the salivary glands.
Scavenging is both a carnivorous and a herbivorous feeding behavior in which the scavenger feeds on dead animal and plant material present in its habitat.
Scrub typhus or bush typhus is a form of typhus caused by the intracellular parasite Orientia tsutsugamushi, a Gram-negative α-proteobacterium of family Rickettsiaceae first isolated and identified in 1930 in Japan.
Semen, also known as seminal fluid, is an organic fluid that may contain spermatozoa.
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.
In immunology, seroconversion is the time period during which a specific antibody develops and becomes detectable in the blood.
Seroprevalence is the number of persons in a population who test positive for a specific disease based on serology (blood serum) specimens; often presented as a percent of the total specimens tested or as a proportion per 100,000 persons tested.
Sexual intercourse (or coitus or copulation) is principally the insertion and thrusting of the penis, usually when erect, into the vagina for sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.
Shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) and verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) are strains of the bacterium Escherichia coli that produce either Shiga toxin or Shiga-like toxin (verotoxin).
Shigellosis is a type of diarrhea caused by a bacterial infection with Shigella.
Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough.
A shrew (family Soricidae) is a small mole-like mammal classified in the order Eulipotyphla.
Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa.
Simian hemorrhagic fever virus or simian haemorrhagic fever virus or SHFV is a highly pathogenic virus in monkeys.
A snakebite is an injury caused by the bite of a snake, especially a venomous snake.
Sore throat, also known as throat pain, is pain or irritation of the throat.
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) is a transcription factor which in humans is encoded by the STAT1 gene.
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the STAT2 gene.
Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that eliminates, removes, kills, or deactivates all forms of life and other biological agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, spore forms, prions, unicellular eukaryotic organisms such as Plasmodium, etc.) present in a specified region, such as a surface, a volume of fluid, medication, or in a compound such as biological culture media.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
(Top) A stress induced subconjunctival hemorrhage in the left eye one week after hemorrhaging. (Bottom) Same hemorrhage four weeks after hemorrhaging. Some of the blood in the sclera has turned yellow, like a bruise. Subconjunctival hemorrhage, also known as subconjunctival haemorrhage and hyposphagma, is bleeding underneath the conjunctiva.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
Sudan virus (SUDV) is one of five known viruses within the genus Ebolavirus and causes Ebola virus disease (EVD) in humans and other primates; it is the sole member of the species Sudan ebolavirus.
A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.
Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus (Ge'ez: ቴዎድሮስ አድሓኖም ገብረኢየሱስ; born 1965) is an Ethiopian politician, academic, and public-health authority as well as Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO).
The Hot Zone: A Terrifying True Story is a best-selling 1995 nonfiction thriller by Richard Preston about the origins and incidents involving viral hemorrhagic fevers, particularly ebolaviruses and marburgviruses.
The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Observer is a British newspaper published on Sundays.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
Therapy (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.
In molecular genetics, the three prime untranslated region (3'-UTR) is the section of messenger RNA (mRNA) that immediately follows the translation termination codon.
Thrombocytopenia is a condition characterized by abnormally low levels of thrombocytes, also known as platelets, in the blood.
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare disorder of the blood-coagulation system, causing extensive microscopic clots to form in the small blood vessels throughout the body, resulting in low platelet counts.
Tissue factor, also called platelet tissue factor, factor III, or CD142 is a protein encoded by the F3 gene, present in subendothelial tissue and leukocytes.
Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) also known as CD283 (cluster of differentiation 283) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR3 gene.
Toll-like receptor 7, also known as TLR7, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR7 gene.
Toll-like receptor 8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR8 gene.
Toll-like receptor 9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR9 gene.
Thomas Leo Clancy Jr. (April 12, 1947 – October 1, 2013) was an American novelist best known for his technically detailed espionage and military-science storylines set during and after the Cold War.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.
Trypanosomiasis or trypanosomosis is the name of several diseases in vertebrates caused by parasitic protozoan trypanosomes of the genus Trypanosoma.
Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to ''Salmonella'' typhi that causes symptoms.
Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID; pronounced: you-SAM-rid) is the U.S Army’s main institution and facility for defensive research into countermeasures against biological warfare.
Uveitis is the inflammation of the uvea, the pigmented layer that lies between the inner retina and the outer fibrous layer composed of the sclera and cornea.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.
Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a diverse group of animal and human illnesses in which fever and hemorrhage are caused by a viral infection.
Viral hepatitis is liver inflammation due to a viral infection.
Visual impairment, also known as vision impairment or vision loss, is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
Wangata is a commune in the city of Mbandaka in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Warfarin, sold under the brand name Coumadin among others, is a medication that is used as an anticoagulant (blood thinner).
Weakness or asthenia is a symptom of a number of different conditions.
A weapon of mass destruction (WMD) is a nuclear, radiological, chemical, biological or other weapon that can kill and bring significant harm to a large number of humans or cause great damage to human-made structures (e.g., buildings), natural structures (e.g., mountains), or the biosphere.
The West African Ebola virus epidemic (2013–2016) was the most widespread outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in history—causing major loss of life and socioeconomic disruption in the region, mainly in the countries of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
Whole genome sequencing (also known as WGS, full genome sequencing, complete genome sequencing, or entire genome sequencing) is the process of determining the complete DNA sequence of an organism's genome at a single time.
William Taliaferro Close (June 7, 1924 – January 15, 2009) was an American surgeon who played a major role in stemming a 1976 outbreak of the Ebola virus in Zaire, the first major outbreak of the viral hemorrhagic fever in Central Africa, and preventing its further spread.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Yambuku is a small village in Mongala Province in northern Democratic Republic of the Congo, best known as the center of the 1976 Ebola outbreak.
Zaire, officially the Republic of Zaire (République du Zaïre), was the name for the Democratic Republic of the Congo that existed between 1971 and 1997 in Central Africa.
The species Zaire ebolavirus is a virological taxon included in the genus Ebolavirus, family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales.
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