414 relations: Abiotic component, Abundance (ecology), Adaptation, Aerenchyma, Agriculture, Agroecology, Agroforestry, Akaike information criterion, Aldo Leopold, Alexander von Humboldt, Alfred J. Lotka, Algae, Allopatric speciation, Alpine tundra, Ammonia, Amoeba, Anaerobic organism, Animal migration, Anoxic waters, Anoxygenic photosynthesis, Ant, Anthropocene, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Apartheid, Aphid, Applied science, Aquatic ecosystem, Arbuscular mycorrhiza, Aristotle, Arthur Tansley, Autotroph, Bacteria, Balance of nature, Basic research, Beaver, Bee, Bioaccumulation, Biocomplexity, Biodiversity, Biodiversity loss, Biogeochemical cycle, Biogeography, Biological dispersal, Biological interaction, Biological life cycle, Biological organisation, Biological specificity, Biology, Biomass, Biomass (ecology), ..., Biome, Biomechanics, Biomolecule, Biophysics, Biosphere, Biotic component, Biotope, Bioturbation, Bird-of-paradise, Brackish water, C4 carbon fixation, Carbon, Carbon cycle, Carbon dioxide, Carl Linnaeus, Carnivore, Carrying capacity, Cell (biology), Charles Darwin, Charles F. Cooper (ecologist), Charles Sutherland Elton, Chemical ecology, Chemosynthesis, Circles of Sustainability, Circulatory system, Climate, Cline (biology), Cloning, Coast, Cognitive science, Columbia River drainage basin, Commensalism, Community (ecology), Community health, Competitive exclusion principle, Complex system, Concept map, Conservation biology, Consumer, Coral, Coupled human–environment system, Courtship, Cultural ecology, DDT, Decomposer, Decomposition, Desert, Deserts and xeric shrublands, Detritivore, Developmental biology, Devonian, Dialectic, Dialectical naturalism, Dimension, Display (zoology), Dolphin, Dynamic equilibrium, E. O. Wilson, Ecological death, Ecological economics, Ecological network, Ecological psychology, Ecological pyramid, Ecological resilience, Ecological succession, Ecophysiology, Ecosophy, Ecosystem, Ecosystem diversity, Ecosystem engineer, Ecosystem health, Ecosystem management, Ecosystem services, Ecotone, Ecotope, Electrochemical gradient, Electromagnetic spectrum, Ellen Swallow Richards, Emergence, Emigration, Enactivism, Energy, Energy budget, Enthalpy, Environment (biophysical), Environmental gradient, Environmental impact assessment, Environmental movement, Environmental science, Environmentalism, Ernst Haeckel, Erosion, Essentialism, Estuary, Ethology, Euclidean space, Eugenius Warming, Eusociality, Euthenics, Evapotranspiration, Evolution, Evolutionary biology, Evolutionary ecology, Facultative anaerobic organism, Fecundity, Feedback, Fermentation, Ferric, Field research, Fig wasp, Fishery, Flight zone, Food chain, Food energy, Food web, Forestry, Frederic Clements, Freshwater ecosystem, Fungus, Fungus-growing ants, G. Evelyn Hutchinson, Gaia hypothesis, Gene, Genetic diversity, Genetics, Geomorphology, George Perkins Marsh, Germination, Gilbert White, Global warming, Glossary of ecology, Gravitropism, Great Oxygenation Event, Greenhouse gas, Group selection, Habitat, Hagfish, Halophyte, Henry A. Gleason (botanist), Herbivore, Heredity, Herodotus, Heterotroph, Heuristic, Hippocrates, Holism, Home economics, Homeorhesis, Homeostasis, Host (biology), Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, Human ecology, Hydrogen, Hydrogen sulfide, Hypoxia (environmental), Idealism, Immigration, Index of biology articles, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Industrial ecology, Information ecology, Insular biogeography, Interdisciplinarity, Invasive species, Isaac Newton, James Hutton, Jan Smuts, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, John Avise, Journal of Biogeography, Julia Lathrop, Juvenile (organism), Kelp, Kin selection, Kinji Imanishi, Landscape, Landscape ecology, Leech, Lichen, Life history theory, Linnaean taxonomy, List of ecologists, Logistic function, Malthusian growth model, Manganese, Marine ecosystem, Materialism, Matrix (mathematics), Metabolic theory of ecology, Metaphysics, Metaphysics (Aristotle), Methane, Methanogen, Microbiota, Microcosm (experimental ecosystem), Microorganism, Mineral, Molecular ecology, Molecular Ecology, Molecular genetics, Monism, Monogamy, Monosaccharide, Montane ecosystems, Mutation, Mutualism (biology), Mysticism, Naked mole-rat, Natural capital, Natural history, Natural resource, Natural resource management, Natural science, Natural selection, Negative feedback, Nematode, Neritic zone, Neuroscience, Niche construction, Nile crocodile, Nitrate, Nitrogen, Nitrogen fixation, Nonlinear system, Normative science, Novel ecosystem, Nutrient, Nutrient cycle, Ocean, Oligocene, Omnivore, On the Origin of Species, Organ (anatomy), Organic compound, Organism, Orogeny, Orographic lift, Osmoregulation, Osmotic pressure, Outgassing, Outline of biology, Outline of Earth sciences, Oxygen, Paleoecology, Panarchy, Parasitism, Park Grass Experiment, Parts-per notation, Pedogenesis, Pedosphere, Permafrost, Pesticide, Phenomenon, Phenotype, Phenotypic trait, Phosphorus, Photosynthesis, Phylogenetics, Phylogeography, Physiology, Phytoplankton, Pinniped, Pinus halepensis, Plantesamfund, Plate tectonics, Poikilotherm, Polar desert, Political ecology, Pollination, Polymerase chain reaction, Pond, Population, Population density, Population ecology, Population growth, Potential energy, Predation, Pressure, Primary producers, Primary production, Prodoxidae, Promiscuity, Propagule, Rachel Carson, Radiant energy, Rain shadow, Randomness, Range (biology), Raymond Lindeman, Red Queen hypothesis, Redox, Reduction potential, Reductionism, Relative species abundance, Resource (biology), Richard Bradley (botanist), Robert H. MacArthur, Salamander, Sandpiper, Scientific method, Scientific modelling, Sea otter, Sea urchin, Sensory ecology, Seral community, Serotiny, Sexual selection, Silent Spring, Silicon dioxide, Silviculture, Slime mold, Social capital, Social spider, Society, Soil ecology, Solar energy, Solar irradiance, Species, Species diversity, Sperm, Spiritual ecology, Steller's sea cow, Sulfate, Sulfur, Superorganism, Sustainable development, Symbiosis, Systems biology, Taiga, Taxonomy (biology), Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest, Temperate deciduous forest, Temperature, Terrestrial ecosystem, The Theory of Island Biogeography, Theophrastus, Theoretical ecology, Thermocline, Thermodynamics, Tissue (biology), Trade winds, Tree swallow, Trends (journals), Trophic level, Trophic species, Tropical rainforest, Tundra, Turbulence, Umwelt, Urban ecology, Vladimir Vernadsky, W. D. Ross, Warm-blooded, Wasp, Water column, Water filter, Wavelength, Weevil, Westerlies, Wetland, Whale, Xylem, Zooplankton, 1866. Expand index (364 more) » « Shrink index
In biology and ecology, abiotic components or abiotic factors are non-living chemical and physical parts of the environment that affect living organisms and the functioning of ecosystems.
In ecology, abundance is the relative representation of a species in a particular ecosystem.
In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.
Aerenchyma is a spongy tissue that forms spaces or air channels in the leaves, stems and roots of some plants, which allows exchange of gases between the shoot and the root.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Agroecology is the study of ecological processes applied to agricultural production systems.
Agroforestry is a land use management system in which trees or shrubs are grown around or among crops or pastureland.
The Akaike information criterion (AIC) is an estimator of the relative quality of statistical models for a given set of data.
Aldo Leopold (January 11, 1887 – April 21, 1948) was an American author, philosopher, scientist, ecologist, forester, conservationist, and environmentalist.
Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt (14 September 17696 May 1859) was a Prussian polymath, geographer, naturalist, explorer, and influential proponent of Romantic philosophy and science.
Alfred James Lotka (March 2, 1880 – December 5, 1949) was a US mathematician, physical chemist, and statistician, famous for his work in population dynamics and energetics.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
Allopatric speciation (from the ancient Greek allos, meaning "other", and patris, meaning "fatherland"), also referred to as geographic speciation, vicariant speciation, or its earlier name, the dumbbell model, is a mode of speciation that occurs when biological populations of the same species become isolated from each other to an extent that prevents or interferes with genetic interchange.
Alpine tundra is a type of natural region or biome that does not contain trees because it is at high altitude.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
An amoeba (rarely spelled amœba, US English spelled ameba; plural am(o)ebas or am(o)ebae), often called amoeboid, is a type of cell or organism which has the ability to alter its shape, primarily by extending and retracting pseudopods.
An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth.
Animal migration is the relatively long-distance movement of individual animals, usually on a seasonal basis.
Anoxic waters are areas of sea water, fresh water, or groundwater that are depleted of dissolved oxygen and are a more severe condition of hypoxia.
Bacterial anoxygenic photosynthesis is distinguished from the more familiar terrestrial plant oxygenic photosynthesis by the nature of the terminal reductant (e.g. hydrogen sulfide rather than water) and in the byproduct generated (e.g. elemental sulfur instead of molecular oxygen).
Ants are eusocial insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera.
The Anthropocene is a proposed epoch dating from the commencement of significant human impact on the Earth's geology and ecosystems, including, but not limited to, anthropogenic climate change.
Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek FRS (24 October 1632 – 26 August 1723) was a Dutch businessman and scientist in the Golden Age of Dutch science and technology.
Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.
Aphids are small sap-sucking insects and members of the superfamily Aphidoidea.
Applied science is the application of existing scientific knowledge to practical applications, like technology or inventions.
An aquatic ecosystem is an ecosystem in a body of water.
An arbuscular mycorrhiza (plural mycorrhizae or mycorrhizas, a.k.a. endomycorrhiza) is a type of mycorrhiza in which the fungus (AM fungi, or AMF) penetrates the cortical cells of the roots of a vascular plant.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Sir Arthur George Tansley FLS, FRS (15 August 1871 – 25 November 1955) was an English botanist and a pioneer in the science of ecology.
An autotroph ("self-feeding", from the Greek autos "self" and trophe "nourishing") or producer, is an organism that produces complex organic compounds (such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) from simple substances present in its surroundings, generally using energy from light (photosynthesis) or inorganic chemical reactions (chemosynthesis).
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
The balance of nature is a theory that proposes that ecological systems are usually in a stable equilibrium or homeostasis, which is to say that a small change in some particular parameter (the size of a particular population, for example) will be corrected by some negative feedback that will bring the parameter back to its original "point of balance" with the rest of the system.
Basic research, also called pure research or fundamental research, has the scientific research aim to improve scientific theories for improved understanding or prediction of natural or other phenomena.
The beaver (genus Castor) is a large, primarily nocturnal, semiaquatic rodent.
Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax.
Bioaccumulation is the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism.
Biocomplexity is the study of complex structures and behaviors that arise from nonlinear interactions of active biological agents, which may range in scale from molecules to cells to organisms.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
Loss of biodiversity or biodiversity loss is the extinction of species (human, plant or animal) worldwide, and also the local reduction or loss of species in a certain habitat.
In geography and Earth science, a biogeochemical cycle or substance turnover or cycling of substances is a pathway by which a chemical substance moves through biotic (biosphere) and abiotic (lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere) compartments of Earth.
Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time.
Biological dispersal refers to both the movement of individuals (animals, plants, fungi, bacteria, etc.) from their birth site to their breeding site ('natal dispersal'), as well as the movement from one breeding site to another ('breeding dispersal').
Biological interactions are the effects that the organisms in a community have on each other.
In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.
Biological organization is the hierarchy of complex biological structures and systems that define life using a reductionistic approach.
In biology, biological specificity is the tendency of a characteristic such as a behavior or a biochemical variation to occur in a particular species.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.
Biomass is the mass of living biological organisms in a given area or ecosystem at a given time.
A biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in.
Biomechanics is the study of the structure and function of the mechanical aspects of biological systems, at any level from whole organisms to organs, cells and cell organelles, using the methods of mechanics.
A biomolecule or biological molecule is a loosely used term for molecules and ions that are present in organisms, essential to some typically biological process such as cell division, morphogenesis, or development.
Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that applies the approaches and methods of physics to study biological systems.
The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.
Biotic components or biotic factors, can be described as any living component that affects another organism, or shapes the ecosystem.
A biotope is an area of uniform environmental conditions providing a living place for a specific assemblage of plants and animals.
Bioturbation is defined as the reworking of soils and sediments by animals or plants.
The birds-of-paradise are members of the family Paradisaeidae of the order Passeriformes.
Brackish water is water that has more salinity than fresh water, but not as much as seawater.
C4 carbon fixation or the Hatch-Slack pathway is a photosynthetic process in some plants.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
A carnivore, meaning "meat eater" (Latin, caro, genitive carnis, meaning "meat" or "flesh" and vorare meaning "to devour"), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.
The carrying capacity of a biological species in an environment is the maximum population size of the species that the environment can sustain indefinitely, given the food, habitat, water, and other necessities available in the environment.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
Charles F. Cooper (1924–1994) was an American born ecologist known for his studies of fire ecology and ecosystem management.
Charles Sutherland Elton (29 March 1900 – 1 May 1991) was an English zoologist and animal ecologist.
Chemical ecology examines the role of chemical interactions between living organisms and their environment, as the consequences of those interactions on the ethology and evolution of the organisms involved.
In biochemistry, chemosynthesis is the biological conversion of one or more carbon-containing molecules (usually carbon dioxide or methane) and nutrients into organic matter using the oxidation of inorganic compounds (e.g., hydrogen gas, hydrogen sulfide) or methane as a source of energy, rather than sunlight, as in photosynthesis.
Circles of Sustainability is a method for understanding and assessing sustainability, and for managing projects directed towards socially sustainable outcomes.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
In biology, a cline (from the Greek “klinein”, meaning “to lean”) is a measurable gradient in a single character (or biological trait) of a species across its geographical range.
Cloning is the process of producing genetically identical individuals of an organism either naturally or artificially.
A coastline or a seashore is the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or a line that forms the boundary between the land and the ocean or a lake.
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.
The Columbia River drainage basin is the drainage basin of the Columbia River in the Pacific Northwest region of North America.
Commensalism is a long term biological interaction (symbiosis) in which members of one species gain benefits while those of the other species are neither benefited nor harmed.
In ecology, a community is a group or association of populations of two or more different species occupying the same geographical area and in a particular time, also known as a biocoenosis The term community has a variety of uses.
Community health is a major field of study within the medical and clinical sciences which focuses on the maintenance, protection, and improvement of the health status of population groups and communities.
In ecology, the competitive exclusion principle, sometimes referred to as Gause's law, is a proposition named for Georgy Gause that two species competing for the same limiting resource cannot coexist at constant population values.
A complex system is a system composed of many components which may interact with each other.
A concept map or conceptual diagram is a diagram that depicts suggested relationships between concepts.
Conservation biology is the management of nature and of Earth's biodiversity with the aim of protecting species, their habitats, and ecosystems from excessive rates of extinction and the erosion of biotic interactions.
A consumer is a person or organization that use economic services or commodities.
Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria.
A coupled human–environment system (known also as a coupled human and natural system, or CHANS) characterizes the dynamical two-way interactions between human systems (e.g., economic, social) and natural (e.g., hydrologic, atmospheric, biological, geological) systems.
Courtship is the period of development towards an intimate relationship wherein people (usually a couple) get to know each other and decide if there will be an engagement or other romantic arrangement.
Cultural ecology is the study of human adaptations to social and physical environments.
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, commonly known as DDT, is a colorless, tasteless, and almost odorless crystalline chemical compound, an organochlorine, originally developed as an insecticide, and ultimately becoming infamous for its environmental impacts.
Decomposers are organisms that break down dead or decaying organisms, and in doing so, they carry out the natural process of decomposition.
Decomposition is the process by which organic substances are broken down into simpler organic matter.
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
Deserts and xeric shrublands are a biome characterized by receiving only a small amount of moisture, usually defined as less than 250 mm of annual precipitation.
Detritivores, also known as detrivores, detritophages, detritus feeders, or detritus eaters, are heterotrophs that obtain nutrients by consuming detritus (decomposing plant and animal parts as well as feces).
Developmental biology is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop.
The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, Mya.
Dialectic or dialectics (διαλεκτική, dialektikḗ; related to dialogue), also known as the dialectical method, is at base a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned arguments.
Dialectical naturalism is a term coined by American philosopher Murray Bookchin to describe the philosophical underpinnings of the political program of social ecology.
In physics and mathematics, the dimension of a mathematical space (or object) is informally defined as the minimum number of coordinates needed to specify any point within it.
Display is a form of animal behaviour, connected to sexual selection and survival of the species in various ways.
Dolphins are a widely distributed and diverse group of aquatic mammals.
In chemistry, a dynamic equilibrium exists once a reversible reaction ceases to change its ratio of reactants/products, but substances move between the chemicals at an equal rate, meaning there is no net change.
Edward Osborne Wilson (born June 10, 1929), usually cited as E. O. Wilson, is an American biologist, researcher, theorist, naturalist and author.
Ecological death is the inability of an organism to function in an ecological context, leading to death.
Ecological economics (also called eco-economics, ecolonomy or bioeconomics of Georgescu-Roegen) is both a transdisciplinary and an interdisciplinary field of academic research addressing the interdependence and coevolution of human economies and natural ecosystems, both intertemporally and spatially.
An ecological network is a representation of the biotic interactions in an ecosystem, in which species (nodes) are connected by pairwise interactions (links).
Ecological psychology is a term claimed by several schools of psychology with the main one involving the work of James J. Gibson and his associates, and another one the work of Roger G. Barker, Herb Wright and associates at the University of Kansas in Lawrence.
An ecological pyramid (also trophic pyramid, eltonian pyramid, energy pyramid, or sometimes food pyramid) is a graphical representation designed to show the biomass or bio productivity at each trophic level in a given ecosystem.
In ecology, resilience is the capacity of an ecosystem to respond to a perturbation or disturbance by resisting damage and recovering quickly.
Ecological succession is the process of change in the species structure of an ecological community over time.
Ecophysiology (from Greek οἶκος, oikos, "house(hold)"; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia), environmental physiology or physiological ecology is a biological discipline that studies the adaptation of an organism's physiology to environmental conditions.
Ecosophy or ecophilosophy (a portmanteau of ecological philosophy) is a philosophy of ecological harmony or equilibrium.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
Ecosystem diversity deals with the variations in ecosystems within a geographical location and its overall impact on human existence and the environment.
An ecosystem engineer is any organism that creates, significantly modifies, maintains or destroys a habitat.
Ecosystem health is a metaphor used to describe the condition of an ecosystem.
Ecosystem management is a process that aims to conserve major ecological services and restore natural resources while meeting the socioeconomic, political and cultural needs of current and future generations.
Ecosystem services are the many and varied benefits that humans freely gain from the natural environment and from properly-functioning ecosystems.
An ecotone is a transition area between two biomes.
Ecotopes are the smallest ecologically distinct landscape features in a landscape mapping and classification system.
An electrochemical gradient is a gradient of electrochemical potential, usually for an ion that can move across a membrane.
The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.
Ellen Henrietta Swallow Richards (December 3, 1842 – March 30, 1911) was an industrial and safety engineer, environmental chemist, and university faculty member in the United States during the 19th century.
In philosophy, systems theory, science, and art, emergence occurs when "the whole is greater than the sum of the parts," meaning the whole has properties its parts do not have.
Emigration is the act of leaving a resident country or place of residence with the intent to settle elsewhere.
Enactivism argues that cognition arises through a dynamic interaction between an acting organism and its environment.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
An energy budget is a balance sheet of energy income against expenditure.
Enthalpy is a property of a thermodynamic system.
A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution.
An environmental gradient is a gradual change in abiotic factors through space (or time).
Environmental assessment (EA) is the assessment of the environmental consequences (positive and negative) of a plan, policy, program, or actual projects prior to the decision to move forward with the proposed action.
The environmental movement (sometimes referred to as the ecology movement), also including conservation and green politics, is a diverse scientific, social, and political movement for addressing environmental issues.
Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical, biological and information sciences (including ecology, biology, physics, chemistry, plant science, zoology, mineralogy, oceanology, limnology, soil science, geology and physical geography (geodesy), and atmospheric science) to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems.
Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad philosophy, ideology, and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the impact of changes to the environment on humans, animals, plants and non-living matter.
Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) was a German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor, marine biologist, and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coined many terms in biology, including anthropogeny, ecology, phylum, phylogeny, and Protista. Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the influential but no longer widely held recapitulation theory ("ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny") claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarises its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny.
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
Essentialism is the view that every entity has a set of attributes that are necessary to its identity and function.
An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.
Ethology is the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, usually with a focus on behaviour under natural conditions, and viewing behaviour as an evolutionarily adaptive trait.
In geometry, Euclidean space encompasses the two-dimensional Euclidean plane, the three-dimensional space of Euclidean geometry, and certain other spaces.
Johannes Eugenius Bülow Warming (3 November 1841 – 2 April 1924), known as Eugen Warming, was a Danish botanist and a main founding figure of the scientific discipline of ecology.
Eusociality (from Greek εὖ eu "good" and social), the highest level of organization of animal sociality, is defined by the following characteristics: cooperative brood care (including care of offspring from other individuals), overlapping generations within a colony of adults, and a division of labor into reproductive and non-reproductive groups.
Euthenics is the study of the improvement of human functioning and well-being by improvement of living conditions.
Evapotranspiration (ET) is the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration from the Earth's land and ocean surface to the atmosphere.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.
Evolutionary ecology lies at the intersection of ecology and evolutionary biology.
The title of this article should be "Facultative Aerobic Organism," as "facultative anaerobe" is a misnomer.
In human demography and population biology, fecundity is the potential for reproduction of an organism or population, measured by the number of gametes (eggs), seed set, or asexual propagules.
Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop.
Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.
Ferric refers to iron-containing materials or compounds.
Field research or fieldwork is the collection of information outside a laboratory, library or workplace setting.
Fig wasps are wasps of the superfamily Chalcidoidea which spend their larval stage inside figs.
Generally, a fishery is an entity engaged in raising or harvesting fish which is determined by some authority to be a fishery.
The flight zone of an animal is the area surrounding an animal that if encroached upon by a potential predator or threat, including humans, will cause alarm and escape behavior.
A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).
Food energy is chemical energy that animals (including humans) derive from food through the process of cellular respiration.
A food web (or food cycle) is a natural interconnection of food chains and a graphical representation (usually an image) of what-eats-what in an ecological community.
Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests, woodlands, and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human and environment benefits.
Frederic Edward Clements (September 16, 1874 – July 26, 1945) was an American plant ecologist and pioneer in the study of vegetation succession.
Freshwater ecosystems are a subset of Earth's aquatic ecosystems.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Fungus-growing ants (tribe Attini) comprise all the known fungus-growing ant species participating in ant-fungus mutualism.
George Evelyn Hutchinson (January 30, 1903 – May 17, 1991), was a British ecologist sometimes described as the "father of modern ecology." He contributed for more than sixty years to the fields of limnology, systems ecology, radiation ecology, entomology, genetics, biogeochemistry, a mathematical theory of population growth, art history, philosophy, religion, and anthropology.
The Gaia hypothesis, also known as the Gaia theory or the Gaia principle, proposes that living organisms interact with their inorganic surroundings on Earth to form a synergistic and self-regulating, complex system that helps to maintain and perpetuate the conditions for life on the planet.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Genetic diversity is the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Geomorphology (from Ancient Greek: γῆ, gê, "earth"; μορφή, morphḗ, "form"; and λόγος, lógos, "study") is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface.
George Perkins Marsh (March 15, 1801 – July 23, 1882), an American diplomat and philologist, is considered by some to be America's first environmentalist and by recognizing the irreversible impact of man's actions on the earth, a precursor to the sustainability concept, although "conservationist" would be more accurate.
Germination is the process by which an organism grows from a seed or similar structure.
Gilbert White FRS (18 July 1720 – 26 June 1793) was a "parson-naturalist", a pioneering English naturalist and ornithologist.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
This glossary of ecology is a list of definitions of terms and topics in ecology and related fields.
Gravitropism (also known as geotropism) is a coordinated process of differential growth by a plant or fungus in response to gravity pulling on it.
The Great Oxygenation Event, the beginning of which is commonly known in scientific media as the Great Oxidation Event (GOE, also called the Oxygen Catastrophe, Oxygen Crisis, Oxygen Holocaust, Oxygen Revolution, or Great Oxidation) was the biologically induced appearance of dioxygen (O2) in Earth's atmosphere.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
Group selection is a proposed mechanism of evolution in which natural selection acts at the level of the group, instead of at the more conventional level of the individual.
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
Hagfish, the class '''Myxini''' (also known as Hyperotreti), are eel-shaped, slime-producing marine fish (occasionally called slime eels).
A halophyte is a plant that grows in waters of high salinity, coming into contact with saline water through its roots or by salt spray, such as in saline semi-deserts, mangrove swamps, marshes and sloughs and seashores.
Henry Allan Gleason (1882–1975) was an American ecologist, botanist, and taxonomist, known for his endorsement of the individualistic or open community concept of ecological succession, and his opposition to Frederic Clements's concept of the climax state of an ecosystem.
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.
Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
A heterotroph (Ancient Greek ἕτερος héteros.
A heuristic technique (εὑρίσκω, "find" or "discover"), often called simply a heuristic, is any approach to problem solving, learning, or discovery that employs a practical method, not guaranteed to be optimal, perfect, logical, or rational, but instead sufficient for reaching an immediate goal.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
Holism (from Greek ὅλος holos "all, whole, entire") is the idea that systems (physical, biological, chemical, social, economic, mental, linguistic) and their properties should be viewed as wholes, not just as a collection of parts.
Home economics, domestic science or home science is a field of study that deals with home and economics.
Homeorhesis, derived from the Greek for "similar flow", is a concept encompassing dynamical systems which return to a trajectory, as opposed to systems which return to a particular state, which is termed homeostasis.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
In biology and medicine, a host is an organism that harbours a parasitic, a mutualistic, or a commensalist guest (symbiont), the guest typically being provided with nourishment and shelter.
Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest is an area of land in the towns of Woodstock and Thornton in the White Mountains of New Hampshire that functions as an outdoor laboratory for ecological studies.
Human ecology is an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary study of the relationship between humans and their natural, social, and built environments.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
Hypoxia refers to low oxygen conditions.
In philosophy, idealism is the group of metaphysical philosophies that assert that reality, or reality as humans can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial.
Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
Biology is the study of life and its processes.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Industrial ecology (IE) is the study of material and energy flows through industrial systems.
In the context of an evolving information society, the term information ecology marks a connection between ecological ideas with the dynamics and properties of the increasingly dense, complex and important digital informational environment and has been gaining acceptance in a growing number of disciplines.
Insular biogeography or island biogeography is a field within biogeography that examines the factors that affect the species richness of isolated natural communities.
Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combining of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project).
An invasive species is a species that is not native to a specific location (an introduced species), and that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
James Hutton (3 June 1726 – 26 March 1797) was a Scottish geologist, physician, chemical manufacturer, naturalist, and experimental agriculturalist.
Field Marshal Jan Christiaan Smuts (24 May 1870 11 September 1950) was a prominent South African and British Commonwealth statesman, military leader and philosopher.
Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (1 August 1744 – 18 December 1829), often known simply as Lamarck, was a French naturalist.
John Charles Avise (born 1948) is an American evolutionary geneticist, conservationist, ecologist and natural historian.
The Journal of Biogeography is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in biogeography that was established in 1974.
Julia Clifford Lathrop (June 29, 1858 – April 15, 1932) was an American social reformer in the area of education, social policy, and children's welfare.
A juvenile is an individual organism that has not yet reached its adult form, sexual maturity or size.
Kelps are large brown algae seaweeds that make up the order Laminariales.
Kin selection is the evolutionary strategy that favours the reproductive success of an organism's relatives, even at a cost to the organism's own survival and reproduction.
was a Japanese ecologist and anthropologist.
A landscape is the visible features of an area of land, its landforms and how they integrate with natural or man-made features.
Landscape ecology is the science of studying and improving relationships between ecological processes in the environment and particular ecosystems.
Leeches are segmented parasitic or predatory worm-like animals that belong to the phylum Annelida and comprise the subclass Hirudinea.
A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi in a symbiotic relationship.
Life history theory is an analytical frameworkVitzthum, V. (2008).
Linnaean taxonomy can mean either of two related concepts.
This is a list of ecologists who have pages on Wikipedia, in alphabetical order by surname.
A logistic function or logistic curve is a common "S" shape (sigmoid curve), with equation: where.
A Malthusian growth model, sometimes called a simple exponential growth model, is essentially exponential growth based on a constant rate.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
Marine ecosystems are among the largest of Earth's aquatic ecosystems.
Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions.
In mathematics, a matrix (plural: matrices) is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns.
The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) is an extension of Kleiber's law and posits that the metabolic rate of organisms is the fundamental biological rate that governs most observed patterns in ecology.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Metaphysics (Greek: τὰ μετὰ τὰ φυσικά; Latin: Metaphysica) is one of the principal works of Aristotle and the first major work of the branch of philosophy with the same name.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Methanogens are microorganisms that produce methane as a metabolic byproduct in anoxic conditions.
A microbiota is an "ecological community of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms" found in and on all multicellular organisms studied to date from plants to animals.
Microcosms are artificial, simplified ecosystems that are used to simulate and predict the behaviour of natural ecosystems under controlled conditions.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Molecular ecology is a field of evolutionary biology that is concerned with applying molecular population genetics, molecular phylogenetics, and more recently genomics to traditional ecological questions (e.g., species diagnosis, conservation and assessment of biodiversity, species-area relationships, and many questions in behavioral ecology).
Molecular Ecology is a twice monthly scientific journal covering investigations that use molecular genetic techniques to address questions in ecology, evolution, behavior, and conservation.
Molecular genetics is the field of biology that studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level and thus employs methods of both molecular biology and genetics.
Monism attributes oneness or singleness (Greek: μόνος) to a concept e.g., existence.
Monogamy is a form of relationship in which an individual has only one partner during their lifetime — alternately, only one partner at any one time (serial monogamy) — as compared to non-monogamy (e.g., polygamy or polyamory).
Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugars, are the most basic units of carbohydrates.
Montane ecosystems refers to any ecosystem found in mountains.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Mutualism or interspecific cooperation is the way two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits from the activity of the other.
Mysticism is the practice of religious ecstasies (religious experiences during alternate states of consciousness), together with whatever ideologies, ethics, rites, myths, legends, and magic may be related to them.
The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber), also known as the sand puppy, is a burrowing rodent native to parts of East Africa.
Natural capital is the world's stock of natural resources, which includes geology, soils, air, water and all living organisms.
Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals, fungi and plants in their environment; leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study.
Natural resources are resources that exist without actions of humankind.
Natural resource management refers to the management of natural resources such as land, water, soil, plants and animals, with a particular focus on how management affects the quality of life for both present and future generations (stewardship).
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
Negative feedback (or balancing feedback) occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances.
The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).
The neritic zone is the relatively shallow part of the ocean above the drop-off of the continental shelf, approximately in depth.
Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.
Niche construction is the process by which an organism alters its own (or another species') local environment.
The Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) is an African crocodile, the largest freshwater predator in Africa, and may be considered the second-largest extant reptile and crocodilian in the world, after the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus).
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen in the Earth's atmosphere is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other molecules available to living organisms.
In mathematics and science, a nonlinear system is a system in which the change of the output is not proportional to the change of the input.
In the applied sciences, normative science is a type of information that is developed, presented, or interpreted based on an assumed, usually unstated, preference for a particular policy or class of policies.
Novel ecosystems are human-built, modified, or engineered niches of the Anthropocene.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
A nutrient cycle (or ecological recycling) is the movement and exchange of organic and inorganic matter back into the production of matter.
An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.
The Oligocene is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present (to). As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain.
Omnivore is a consumption classification for animals that have the capability to obtain chemical energy and nutrients from materials originating from plant and animal origin.
On the Origin of Species (or more completely, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life),The book's full original title was On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
An orogeny is an event that leads to a large structural deformation of the Earth's lithosphere (crust and uppermost mantle) due to the interaction between plate tectonics.
Orographic lift occurs when an air mass is forced from a low elevation to a higher elevation as it moves over rising terrain.
Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of an organism's body fluids, detected by osmoreceptors, to maintain the homeostasis of the organism's water content; that is, it maintains the fluid balance and the concentration of electrolytes (salts in solution) to keep the fluids from becoming too diluted or concentrated.
Osmotic pressure is the minimum pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of its pure solvent across a semipermeable membrane.
Outgassing (sometimes called offgassing, particularly when in reference to indoor air quality) is the release of a gas that was dissolved, trapped, frozen or absorbed in some material.
Biology – The natural science that involves the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Earth science: Earth science – all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Paleoecology (also spelled palaeoecology) is the study of interactions between organisms and/or interactions between organisms and their environments across geologic timescales.
Panarchy (from pan and archy), coined by Paul Emile de Puydt in 1860, is a form of governance that would encompass all others.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
The "Park Grass Experiment" is a biological study originally set up to test the effect of fertilizers and manures on hay yields.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
Pedogenesis (from the Greek pedo-, or pedon, meaning 'soil, earth,' and genesis, meaning 'origin, birth') (also termed soil development, soil evolution, soil formation, and soil genesis) is the process of soil formation as regulated by the effects of place, environment, and history.
The pedosphere (from Greek πέδον pedon "soil" or "earth" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") is the outermost layer of the Earth that is composed of soil and subject to soil formation processes.
In geology, permafrost is ground, including rock or (cryotic) soil, at or below the freezing point of water for two or more years.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
A phenomenon (Greek: φαινόμενον, phainómenon, from the verb phainein, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural phenomena) is any thing which manifests itself.
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
A phenotypic trait, or simply trait, is a distinct variant of a phenotypic characteristic of an organism; it may be either inherited or determined environmentally, but typically occurs as a combination of the two.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.
Phylogeography is the study of the historical processes that may be responsible for the contemporary geographic distributions of individuals.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Phytoplankton are the autotrophic (self-feeding) components of the plankton community and a key part of oceans, seas and freshwater basin ecosystems.
Pinnipeds, commonly known as seals, are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals.
Pinus halepensis, commonly known as the Aleppo pine, is a pine native to the Mediterranean region.
Plantesamfund - Grundtræk af den økologiske Plantegeografi, published in Danish in 1895 by Eugen Warming, and in English in 1909 as Oecology of Plants: An Introduction to the Study of Plant Communities, by Warming and Martin Vahl, was the first book to be published having the word ecology in its title.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
A poikilotherm is an animal whose internal temperature varies considerably.
Polar deserts are the regions of the Earth that fall under an Ice cap climate (EF under the Köppen classification).
Political ecology is the study of the relationships between political, economic and social factors with environmental issues and changes.
Pollination is the transfer of pollen from a male part of a plant to a female part of a plant, enabling later fertilisation and the production of seeds, most often by an animal or by wind.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.
A pond is a body of standing water, either natural or artificial, that is usually smaller than a lake.
In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.
Population density (in agriculture: standing stock and standing crop) is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume; it is a quantity of type number density.
Population ecology is a sub-field of ecology that deals with the dynamics of species populations and how these populations interact with the environment.
In biology or human geography, population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population.
In physics, potential energy is the energy possessed by an object because of its position relative to other objects, stresses within itself, its electric charge, or other factors.
Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
Primary producers take energy from other organisms and turn it into energy that is used.
Global oceanic and terrestrial photoautotroph abundance, from September 1997 to August 2000. As an estimate of autotroph biomass, it is only a rough indicator of primary-production potential, and not an actual estimate of it. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and ORBIMAGE. In ecology, primary production is the synthesis of organic compounds from atmospheric or aqueous carbon dioxide.
The Prodoxidae are a family of moths, generally small in size and nondescript in appearance.
Promiscuity is the practice of having casual sex frequently with different partners or being indiscriminate in the choice of sexual partners.
In biology, a propagule is any material that functions in propagating an organism to the next stage in its life cycle, such as by dispersal.
Rachel Louise Carson (May 27, 1907 – April 14, 1964) was an American marine biologist, author, and conservationist whose book Silent Spring and other writings are credited with advancing the global environmental movement.
In physics, and in particular as measured by radiometry, radiant energy is the energy of electromagnetic and gravitational radiation.
A rain shadow is a dry area on the leeward side of a mountainous area (away from the wind).
Randomness is the lack of pattern or predictability in events.
In biology, the range of a species is the geographical area within which that species can be found.
Raymond Laurel Lindeman (1915 – June 29, 1942) was an ecologist whose graduate research is often credited with being a seminal study in field of ecosystem ecology.
The Red Queen hypothesis, also referred to as Red Queen's, Red Queen's race or the Red Queen effect, is an evolutionary hypothesis which proposes that organisms must constantly adapt, evolve, and proliferate not merely to gain reproductive advantage, but also simply to survive while pitted against ever-evolving opposing organisms in an ever-changing environment.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Reduction potential (also known as redox potential, oxidation / reduction potential, ORP, pE, ε, or E_) is a measure of the tendency of a chemical species to acquire electrons and thereby be reduced.
Reductionism is any of several related philosophical ideas regarding the associations between phenomena which can be described in terms of other simpler or more fundamental phenomena.
Relative species abundance is a component of biodiversity and refers to how common or rare a species is relative to other species in a defined location or community.
In Biology and Ecology, a resource is a substance or object in the environment required by an organism for normal growth, maintenance, and reproduction.
Richard Bradley FRS (1688 – 5 November 1732) was an English naturalist specialising in botany.
Robert Helmer MacArthur (April 7, 1930 – November 1, 1972) was a Canadian-born American ecologist who made a major impact on many areas of community and population ecology.
Salamanders are a group of amphibians typically characterized by a lizard-like appearance, with slender bodies, blunt snouts, short limbs projecting at right angles to the body, and the presence of a tail in both larvae and adults.
Sandpipers are a large family, Scolopacidae, of waders or shorebirds.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
Scientific modelling is a scientific activity, the aim of which is to make a particular part or feature of the world easier to understand, define, quantify, visualize, or simulate by referencing it to existing and usually commonly accepted knowledge.
The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a marine mammal native to the coasts of the northern and eastern North Pacific Ocean.
Sea urchins or urchins are typically spiny, globular animals, echinoderms in the class Echinoidea.
Sensory ecology is a relatively new field focusing on the information organisms obtain about their environment.
A seral community (or sere) is an intermediate stage found in ecological succession in an ecosystem advancing towards its climax community.
Serotiny is an ecological adaptation exhibited by some seed plants, in which seed release occurs in response to an environmental trigger, rather than spontaneously at seed maturation.
Sexual selection is a mode of natural selection where members of one biological sex choose mates of the other sex to mate with (intersexual selection), and compete with members of the same sex for access to members of the opposite sex (intrasexual selection).
Silent Spring is an environmental science book by Rachel Carson.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Silviculture is the practice of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality of forests to meet diverse needs and values.
Slime mold or slime mould is an informal name given to several kinds of unrelated eukaryotic organisms that can live freely as single cells, but can aggregate together to form multicellular reproductive structures.
Social capital is a form of economic and cultural capital in which social networks are central; transactions are marked by reciprocity, trust, and cooperation; and market agents produce goods and services not mainly for themselves, but for a common good.
A social spider is a spider species whose individuals form relatively long-lasting aggregations.
A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
Soil ecology is the study of the interactions among soil biology, and between biotic and abiotic aspects of the soil environment.
Solar energy is radiant light and heat from the Sun that is harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies such as solar heating, photovoltaics, solar thermal energy, solar architecture, molten salt power plants and artificial photosynthesis.
Solar irradiance is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Species diversity is the number of different species that are represented in a given community (a dataset).
Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").
Spiritual ecology is an emerging field in religion, conservation, and academia recognizing that there is a spiritual facet to all issues related to conservation, environmentalism, and earth stewardship.
Steller's sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas) is an extinct sirenian discovered by Europeans in 1741.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
A superorganism or supraorganism (the latter is less frequently used but more etymologically correct) is a group of synergetically interacting organisms of the same species.
Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while at the same time sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services upon which the economy and society depend.
Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.
Systems biology is the computational and mathematical modeling of complex biological systems.
Taiga (p; from Turkic), also known as boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces and larches.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest is a temperate climate terrestrial biome, with broadleaf tree ecoregions, and with conifer and broadleaf tree mixed coniferous forest ecoregions.
Temperate deciduous or temperate broad-leaf forests are dominated by trees that lose their leaves each year.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
A terrestrial ecosystem is a type of ecosystem found only on biomes also known as beds.
The Theory of Island Biogeography is a 1967 book by Robert MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson.
Theophrastus (Θεόφραστος Theόphrastos; c. 371 – c. 287 BC), a Greek native of Eresos in Lesbos,Gavin Hardy and Laurence Totelin, Ancient Botany, 2015, p. 8.
Theoretical ecology is the scientific discipline devoted to the study of ecological systems using theoretical methods such as simple conceptual models, mathematical models, computational simulations, and advanced data analysis.
A thermocline (also known as the thermal layer or the metalimnion in lakes) is a thin but distinct layer in a large body of fluid (e.g. water, such as an ocean or lake) or air (such as an atmosphere) in which temperature changes more rapidly with depth than it does in the layers above or below.
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
The trade winds are the prevailing pattern of easterly surface winds found in the tropics, within the lower portion of the Earth's atmosphere, in the lower section of the troposphere near the Earth's equator.
The tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) is a migratory bird found in North America in the family Hirundinidae.
Trends is a series of scientific journals owned by Elsevier that publish review articles in a range of areas of biology.
The trophic level of an organism is the position it occupies in a food chain.
Trophic species are a group of organisms that are aggregated according to their common trophic (feeding) positions in a food web or food chain.
Tropical rainforests are rainforests that occur in areas of tropical rainforest climate in which there is no dry season – all months have an average precipitation of at least 60 mm – and may also be referred to as lowland equatorial evergreen rainforest.
In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.
In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is any pattern of fluid motion characterized by chaotic changes in pressure and flow velocity.
In the semiotic theories of Jakob von Uexküll and Thomas A. Sebeok, umwelt (plural: umwelten; from the German Umwelt meaning "environment" or "surroundings") is the "biological foundations that lie at the very epicenter of the study of both communication and signification in the human animal".
Urban ecology is the scientific study of the relation of living organisms with each other and their surroundings in the context of an urban environment.
Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky (Влади́мир Ива́нович Верна́дский; Володи́мир Іва́нович Верна́дський; – 6 January 1945) was a Russian, Ukrainian, and Soviet mineralogist and geochemist who is considered one of the founders of geochemistry, biogeochemistry, and radiogeology, and was a founder of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences (now National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine).
Sir William David Ross KBE FBA (15 April 1877 – 5 May 1971), known as David Ross but usually cited as W. D. Ross, was a Scottish philosopher who is known for his work in ethics.
Warm-blooded animal species can maintain a body temperature higher than their environment.
A wasp is any insect of the order Hymenoptera and suborder Apocrita that is neither a bee nor an ant.
A water column is a conceptual column of water from the surface of a sea, river or lake to the bottom sediment.
A water filter removes impurities by lowering contamination of water using a fine physical barrier, a chemical process, or a biological process.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
A weevil is a type of beetle from the Curculionoidea superfamily.
The westerlies, anti-trades, or prevailing westerlies, are prevailing winds from the west toward the east in the middle latitudes between 30 and 60 degrees latitude.
A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem.
Whales are a widely distributed and diverse group of fully aquatic placental marine mammals.
Xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue in vascular plants, phloem being the other.
Zooplankton are heterotrophic (sometimes detritivorous) plankton.
Animal Ecology, Animal ecology, Bioecology, Bionomy, Eco-, Ecolog, Ecological, Ecological complexity, Ecological factors, Ecological science, Ecologically, Ecologies, Ecologist, Ecologocal, Ecospace, Oecology, Scientific natural history.