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Economic inequality

Index Economic inequality

Economic inequality is the difference found in various measures of economic well-being among individuals in a group, among groups in a population, or among countries. [1]

317 relations: A Theory of Justice, Ad valorem tax, Adam Smith, Affordable housing, Aggregate demand, Aid to Families with Dependent Children, Alberto Alesina, Americans, Anna Wheeler (author), Annual Review of Political Science, Anthony Giddens, Argentina, Aristotle Onassis, Arthur Cecil Pigou, Arthur Lyon Bowley, Assortative mating, August Bebel, Austrian School, Automation, Ban Ki-moon, BBC News, Bill Gates, Billionaire, Bowling Alone, Branko Milanović, Brazil, Capital accumulation, Capital deepening, Capital in the Twenty-First Century, Capitalism, Capitalist mode of production, China, Class conflict, Classical liberalism, CNN, Colin Clark (economist), Collective bargaining, Communist revolution, Communist society, Competition, Computer, Consolidation (business), Conspicuous consumption, Consumption (economics), Correlation and dependence, Coup d'état, Credit Suisse, Crime statistics, Cross-sectional data, Cycle of poverty, ..., David Landes, David Schmidtz, Development as Freedom, Diminishing returns, Distribution of wealth, Distributive efficiency, Duke University, Ecological Economics (journal), Economic development, Economic liberalism, Economic migrant, Economic Policy Institute, Economic stratification, Economics in One Lesson, Education, Elk, Emmanuel Saez, Equal opportunity, Equality before the law, Equality of outcome, Equity (economics), Ethnic hatred, European debt crisis, Evangelii gaudium, Final good, Financial crisis of 2007–2008, Financial transaction tax, Finland, Forbes, Forbes 400, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Free market, Free trade, Friedrich Engels, From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs, Gender inequality, Gender Inequality Index, Gender pay gap, Gender role, General Social Survey, Gentrification, Georgism, Gilded Age, Gini coefficient, Globalization, Government, Great Divergence, Greeks, Growth elasticity of poverty, Happiness, Harvard Business School, Harvard University Press, Health care, Henry George, High school movement, Higher education, Homicide, House, Household debt, HuffPost, Human development (humanity), Human Development Index, Human overpopulation, Income, Income distribution, Income inequality in India, Income inequality in the United States, Income inequality metrics, Income tax, Index (economics), Indonesia, Industrial Revolution, Inequity aversion, Informal sector, Infrastructure, Inheritance, Institute for Policy Studies, International inequality, International Monetary Fund, Investment, IQ and the Wealth of Nations, Israel, Italy, James K. Galbraith, Japan, Jared Bernstein, Jeff Bezos, Jeffrey Sachs, John A. Hobson, John Nichols (journalist), John Rawls, John Whitefield Kendrick, Joseph Stiglitz, Journal of Futures Studies, Juliet Schor, Karl Marx, Kate Pickett, Keeping up with the Joneses, Keynesian economics, Knowledge and Decisions, Kuznets curve, Labour economics, Labour market flexibility, Lane Kenworthy, Left-wing politics, Legislature, Liberalism in the United States, Libertarianism, Life expectancy, List of countries by distribution of wealth, List of countries by incarceration rate, List of countries by life expectancy, Los Angeles Times, Ludwig von Mises, Marginal propensity to consume, Marginal utility, Market (economics), Market abuse, Market economy, Market failure, Marx's theory of alienation, Marxian economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Max Roser, Means of production, Medicaid, Medicare (United States), Medicare Part D, Mental disorder, Meritocracy, Millennium Development Goals, Milton Friedman, Mississippi, MIT Press, Monopolization, Monopoly, Mother Jones (magazine), Moyers & Company, Neoclassical economics, Neoliberalism, Nepotism, New Hampshire, New York (state), New Zealanders, NPR, Obesity, Oded Galor, OECD, Ohio Organizing Collaborative, On-the-job training, Organic composition of capital, Overseas Development Institute, Oxfam, Oxford University Press, Panel data, Paradise Papers, Patent, Paul Krugman, Pension, Peter R. Orszag, Plutocracy, Polarization (economics), PolitiFact, Pope Francis, Poverty, Poverty in the United States, Poverty reduction, Princeton University Press, Profit motive, Progressive tax, Property income, Provinces and territories of Canada, Psychological stress, Rafael di Tella, Raghuram Rajan, Ralph Nader, Redistribution of income and wealth, Regressive tax, Regulation, Rent-seeking, Reserve army of labour, Reuters, Richard G. Wilkinson, Risk, Risk aversion, Robert A. Dahl, Robert Barro, Robert D. Putnam, Robert H. Frank, Robert J. Shiller, Robert Nozick, Robert Owen, Robert Z. Lawrence, Robin Hood tax, Rosa Luxemburg, Russia, Salon (website), Secretary-General of the United Nations, Simon Kuznets, Social capital, Social inequality, Social justice, Social liberalism, Social mobility, Social ownership, Social programs in the United States, Social safety net, Social Security (United States), Social status, Social stratification, Socialism, South Africa, Sovereign state, State school, Stavros Niarchos, Stolper–Samuelson theorem, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, Tamkang University, Tax evasion, Tax incidence, Tax rate, Teenage pregnancy, The Economist, The Guardian, The New York Times, The Spirit Level (book), The Theory of Moral Sentiments, The Washington Post, The World's Billionaires, Theories of poverty, Thomas B. Edsall, Thomas Piketty, Thomas Sowell, Three Rivers Press, To each according to his contribution, Tony Atkinson, Total war, Trade union, Transfer payment, Trust (emotion), Turkey, Tyler Cowen, U.S. state, Unearned income, UNICEF, United Kingdom, United Nations Development Programme, United Nations University, United States, University of Washington, Utah, Utilitarianism, Utility, Vice (magazine), Vladimir Lenin, Wage, Wage labour, Wage ratio, Walter Scheidel, Warren Buffett, Wealth, Wealth concentration, Welfare, Welfare state, William Thompson (philosopher), Workforce, World Bank. Expand index (267 more) »

A Theory of Justice

A Theory of Justice is a work of political philosophy and ethics by John Rawls, in which the author attempts to solve the problem of distributive justice (the socially just distribution of goods in a society) by utilising a variant of the familiar device of the social contract.

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Ad valorem tax

An ad valorem tax (Latin for "according to value") is a tax whose amount is based on the value of a transaction or of property.

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Adam Smith

Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.

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Affordable housing

Affordable housing is housing which is deemed affordable to those with a median household income as rated by the national government or a local government by a recognized housing affordability index.

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Aggregate demand

In macroeconomics, aggregate demand (AD) or domestic final demand (DFD) is the total demand for final goods and services in an economy at a given time.

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Aid to Families with Dependent Children

Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) was a federal assistance program in effect from 1935 to 1996 created by the Social Security Act (SSA) and administered by the United States Department of Health and Human Services that provided financial assistance to children whose families had low or no income.

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Alberto Alesina

Alberto Francesco Alesina (born April 29, 1957) is an Italian political economist.

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Americans are citizens of the United States of America.

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Anna Wheeler (author)

Anna Wheeler (c. 1780–1848), also known by her maiden name of Anna Doyle, was an Irish born British writer and advocate of political rights for women and the benefits of contraception.

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Annual Review of Political Science

Annual Review of Political Science is an annual peer-reviewed academic journal published by Annual Reviews, covering significant developments in the field of political science, including political theory and philosophy, international relations, political economy, political behavior, American and comparative politics, public administration and policy, and methodology.

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Anthony Giddens

Anthony Giddens, Baron Giddens (born 18 January 1938) is a British sociologist who is known for his theory of structuration and his holistic view of modern societies.

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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.

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Aristotle Onassis

Aristotle Socrates Onassis (Αριστοτέλης Ωνάσης, Aristotelis Onasis; 20 January 1906 – 15 March 1975), commonly called Ari or Aristo Onassis, was a Greek shipping magnate who amassed the world's largest privately owned shipping fleet and was one of the world's richest and most famous men.

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Arthur Cecil Pigou

Arthur Cecil Pigou (18 November 1877 – 7 March 1959) was an English economist.

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Arthur Lyon Bowley

Sir Arthur Lyon Bowley (Bristol, 6 November 1869 – Surrey, 21 January 1957) was an English statistician and economist who worked on economic statistics and pioneered the use of sampling techniques in social surveys.

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Assortative mating

Assortative mating is a mating pattern and a form of sexual selection in which individuals with similar phenotypes mate with one another more frequently than would be expected under a random mating pattern.

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August Bebel

Ferdinand August Bebel (22 February 1840 – 13 August 1913) was a German socialist politician, writer, and orator.

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Austrian School

The Austrian School is a school of economic thought that is based on methodological individualism—the concept that social phenomena result from the motivations and actions of individuals.

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Automation is the technology by which a process or procedure is performed without human assistance.

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Ban Ki-moon

Ban Ki-moon (born 13 June 1944) is a South Korean politician and diplomat who was the eighth Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 2007 to December 2016.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Bill Gates

William Henry Gates III (born October 28, 1955) is an American business magnate, investor, author, philanthropist, humanitarian, and principal founder of Microsoft Corporation.

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A billionaire, in countries that use the short scale number naming system, is a person with a net worth of at least one billion (1,000,000,000, i.e. a thousand million) units of a given currency, usually major currencies such as the United States dollar, the euro or the pound sterling.

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Bowling Alone

Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community is a 2000 nonfiction book by Robert D. Putnam.

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Branko Milanović

Branko Milanović (Бранко Милановић; born October 24, 1953) is a Serbian-American economist.

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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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Capital accumulation

Capital accumulation (also termed the accumulation of capital) is the dynamic that motivates the pursuit of profit, involving the investment of money or any financial asset with the goal of increasing the initial monetary value of said asset as a financial return whether in the form of profit, rent, interest, royalties or capital gains.

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Capital deepening

Capital deepening is a situation where the capital per worker is increasing in the economy.

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Capital in the Twenty-First Century

Capital in the Twenty-First Century is a 2013 book by French economist Thomas Piketty.

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Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.

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Capitalist mode of production

Capitalist mode of production may refer to.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Class conflict

Class conflict, frequently referred to as class warfare or class struggle, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes.

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Classical liberalism

Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.

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Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.

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Colin Clark (economist)

Colin Grant Clark (2 November 1905 – 4 September 1989) was a British and Australian economist and statistician who worked in both the United Kingdom and Australia.

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Collective bargaining

Collective bargaining is a process of negotiation between employers and a group of employees aimed at agreements to regulate working salaries, working conditions, benefits, and other aspects of workers' compensation and rights for workers.

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Communist revolution

A communist revolution is a proletarian revolution often, but not necessarily inspired by the ideas of Marxism that aims to replace capitalism with communism, typically with socialism as an intermediate stage.

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Communist society

In Marxist thought, communist society or the communist system is the type of society and economic system postulated to emerge from technological advances in the productive forces, representing the ultimate goal of the political ideology of Communism.

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Competition is, in general, a contest or rivalry between two or more entities, organisms, animals, individuals, economic groups or social groups, etc., for territory, a niche, for scarce resources, goods, for mates, for prestige, recognition, for awards, for group or social status, or for leadership and profit.

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A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.

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Consolidation (business)

In business, consolidation or amalgamation is the merger and acquisition of many smaller companies into a few much larger ones.

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Conspicuous consumption

Conspicuous consumption is the spending of money on and the acquiring of luxury goods and services to publicly display economic power—of the income or of the accumulated wealth of the buyer.

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Consumption (economics)

Consumption is the process in which consumers (customers or buyers) purchase items on the market.

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Correlation and dependence

In statistics, dependence or association is any statistical relationship, whether causal or not, between two random variables or bivariate data.

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Coup d'état

A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.

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Credit Suisse

Credit Suisse Group AG is a Swiss multinational investment bank and financial services company founded and based in Switzerland.

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Crime statistics

There are several methods for measuring the prevalence of crime.

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Cross-sectional data

Cross-sectional data, or a cross section of a study population, in statistics and econometrics is a type of data collected by observing many subjects (such as individuals, firms, countries, or regions) at the same point of time, or without regard to differences in time.

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Cycle of poverty

In economics, the cycle of poverty is the "set of factors or events by which poverty, once started, is likely to continue unless there is outside intervention".

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David Landes

David Saul Landes (usually cited as David S. Landes; April 29, 1924 – August 17, 2013) was a professor of economics and of history at Harvard University.

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David Schmidtz

David Schmidtz (born 1955) is a Canadian-American philosopher currently serving as Kendrick Professor of Philosophy (College of Social and Behavioral Sciences), Eller Chair of Service-Dominant Logic (College of Management), and Head of the Department of Political Economy and Moral Science at the University of Arizona.

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Development as Freedom

Development as Freedom is a 1999 book by economist Amartya Sen, which focuses on international development.

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Diminishing returns

In economics, diminishing returns is the decrease in the marginal (incremental) output of a production process as the amount of a single factor of production is incrementally increased, while the amounts of all other factors of production stay constant.

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Distribution of wealth

--> The distribution of wealth is a comparison of the wealth of various members or groups in a society.

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Distributive efficiency

In welfare economics, distributive efficiency occurs when goods and services are received by those who have the greatest need for them.

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Duke University

Duke University is a private, non-profit, research university located in Durham, North Carolina.

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Ecological Economics (journal)

Ecological Economics is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by Elsevier on behalf of the International Society for Ecological Economics.

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Economic development

economic development wikipedia Economic development is the process by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people.

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Economic liberalism

Economic liberalism is an economic system organized on individual lines, which means the greatest possible number of economic decisions are made by individuals or households rather than by collective institutions or organizations.

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Economic migrant

An economic migrant is someone who emigrates from one region to another to seek an improvement in living standards because the living conditions or job opportunities in the migrant's own region are not sufficient.

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Economic Policy Institute

The Economic Policy Institute is a 501(c)(3) non-profit American think tank based in Washington, D.C. that carries out economic research and analyzes the economic impact of policies and proposals.

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Economic stratification

Economic stratification refers to the condition within a society where social classes are separated, or stratified, along economic lines.

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Economics in One Lesson

Economics in One Lesson is an introduction to free market economics written by Henry Hazlitt and first published in 1946.

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Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.

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The elk or wapiti (Cervus canadensis) is one of the largest species within the deer family, Cervidae, in the world, and one of the largest land mammals in North America and Eastern Asia.

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Emmanuel Saez

Emmanuel Saez (born November 26, 1972) is a French and American economist who is Professor of Economics at the University of California, Berkeley.

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Equal opportunity

Equal opportunity arises from the similar treatment of all people, unhampered by artificial barriers or prejudices or preferences, except when particular distinctions can be explicitly justified.

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Equality before the law

Equality before the law, also known as: equality under the law, equality in the eyes of the law, or legal equality, is the principle that each independent being must be treated equally by the law (principle of isonomy) and that all are subject to the same laws of justice (due process).

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Equality of outcome

Equality of outcome, equality of condition, or equality of results is a political concept which is central to some political ideologies and is used regularly in political discourse, often in contrast to the term equality of opportunity.

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Equity (economics)

Equity or economic equality is the concept or idea of fairness in economics, particularly in regard to taxation or welfare economics.

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Ethnic hatred

Ethnic hatred, inter-ethnic hatred, racial hatred, or ethnic tension refers to feelings and acts of prejudice and hostility towards an ethnic group in various degrees.

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European debt crisis

The European debt crisis (often also referred to as the Eurozone crisis or the European sovereign debt crisis) is a multi-year debt crisis that has been taking place in the European Union since the end of 2009.

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Evangelii gaudium

Evangelii gaudium (English: The Joy of the Gospel) is a 2013 apostolic exhortation by Pope Francis on "the church's primary mission of evangelization in the modern world." In its opening paragraph, Pope Francis urged the entire Church "to embark on a new chapter of evangelism".

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Final good

In economics, any commodity which is produced and subsequently consumed by the consumer, to satisfy his current wants or needs, is a consumer good or final good.

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Financial crisis of 2007–2008

The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.

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Financial transaction tax

A financial transaction tax is a levy on a specific type of financial transaction for a particular purpose.

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Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.

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Forbes is an American business magazine.

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Forbes 400

The Forbes 400 or 400 Richest Americans is a list published by Forbes magazine of the wealthiest 400 American residents, ranked by net worth.

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Franklin D. Roosevelt

Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.

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Free market

In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.

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Free trade

Free trade is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.

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Friedrich Engels

Friedrich Engels (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.;, sometimes anglicised Frederick Engels; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist and businessman.

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From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs

"From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs" is a slogan popularised by Karl Marx in his 1875 Critique of the Gotha Program.

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Gender inequality

Gender inequality is the idea and situation that women and men are not equal.

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Gender Inequality Index

The Gender Inequality Index (GII) is an index for measurement of gender disparity that was introduced in the 2010 Human Development Report 20th anniversary edition by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

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Gender pay gap

The gender pay gap is the average difference between the remuneration for men and women who are working.

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Gender role

A gender role, also known as a sex role, is a social role encompassing a range of behaviors and attitudes that are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for people based on their actual or perceived sex or sexuality.

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General Social Survey

The General Social Survey (GSS) is a sociological survey created and regularly collected since 1972 by the National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago.

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Gentrification is a process of renovation of deteriorated urban neighborhoods by means of the influx of more affluent residents.

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Georgism, also called geoism and single tax (archaic), is an economic philosophy holding that, while people should own the value they produce themselves, economic value derived from land (including natural resources and natural opportunities) should belong equally to all members of society.

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Gilded Age

The Gilded Age in United States history is the late 19th century, from the 1870s to about 1900.

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Gini coefficient

In economics, the Gini coefficient (sometimes expressed as a Gini ratio or a normalized Gini index) is a measure of statistical dispersion intended to represent the income or wealth distribution of a nation's residents, and is the most commonly used measurement of inequality.

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Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.

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A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.

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Great Divergence

The Great Divergence is a term made popular by Kenneth Pomeranz's book by that title, (also known as the European miracle, a term coined by Eric Jones in 1981) referring to the process by which the Western world (i.e. Western Europe and the parts of the New World where its people became the dominant populations) overcame pre-modern growth constraints and emerged during the 19th century as the most powerful and wealthy world civilization, eclipsing Medieval India, Qing China, the Islamic World, and Tokugawa Japan.

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The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.

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Growth elasticity of poverty

Growth elasticity of poverty (GEP) is the percentage reduction in poverty rates associated with a percentage change in mean (per capita) income.

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In psychology, happiness is a mental or emotional state of well-being which can be defined by positive or pleasant emotions ranging from contentment to intense joy.

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Harvard Business School

Harvard Business School (HBS) is the graduate business school of Harvard University in Boston, Massachusetts.

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Harvard University Press

Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.

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Health care

Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.

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Henry George

Henry George (September 2, 1839 – October 29, 1897) was an American political economist and journalist.

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High school movement

The high school movement is a term used in educational history literature to describe the era from 1910 to 1940 during which secondary schools sprouted across the United States.

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Higher education

Higher education (also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education) is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education.

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Homicide is the act of one human killing another.

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A house is a building that functions as a home.

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Household debt

Household debt is defined as the combined debt of all people in a household.

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HuffPost (formerly The Huffington Post and sometimes abbreviated HuffPo) is a liberal American news and opinion website and blog that has both localized and international editions.

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Human development (humanity)

Human development is the science that seeks to understand how and why the people of all ages and circumstances change or remain the same over time.

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Human Development Index

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.

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Human overpopulation

Human overpopulation (or population overshoot) occurs when the ecological footprint of a human population in a specific geographical location exceeds the carrying capacity of the place occupied by that group.

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Income is the consumption and savings opportunity gained by an entity within a specified timeframe, which is generally expressed in monetary terms.

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Income distribution

In economics, income distribution is how a nation’s total GDP is distributed amongst its population.

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Income inequality in India

As of Nov 2016, India is the second-most unequal country in the world.

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Income inequality in the United States

Income inequality in the United States has increased significantly since the 1970s after several decades of stability, meaning the share of the nation's income received by higher income households has increased.

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Income inequality metrics

Income inequality metrics or income distribution metrics are used by social scientists to measure the distribution of income, and economic inequality among the participants in a particular economy, such as that of a specific country or of the world in general.

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Income tax

An income tax is a tax imposed on individuals or entities (taxpayers) that varies with respective income or profits (taxable income).

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Index (economics)

In economics and finance, an index is a statistical measure of changes in a representative group of individual data points.

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Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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Inequity aversion

Inequity aversion (IA) is the preference for fairness and resistance to incidental inequalities.

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Informal sector

The informal sector, informal economy, or grey economy is the part of an economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government.

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Infrastructure is the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function.

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Inheritance is the practice of passing on property, titles, debts, rights, and obligations upon the death of an individual.

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Institute for Policy Studies

The Institute for Policy Studies (IPS) is an American progressive think tank was started in 1963 and is presently based in Washington, D.C. It has been directed by John Cavanagh since 1998.

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International inequality

International inequality refers to the idea of inequality between countries. This can be compared to global inequality which is inequality between people across countries.

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International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.

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In general, to invest is to allocate money (or sometimes another resource, such as time) in the expectation of some benefit in the future – for example, investment in durable goods, in real estate by the service industry, in factories for manufacturing, in product development, and in research and development.

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IQ and the Wealth of Nations

IQ and the Wealth of Nations is a 2002 book by psychologist Richard Lynn and political scientist Tatu Vanhanen.

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Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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James K. Galbraith

James Kenneth Galbraith (born January 29, 1952) is an American economist who writes frequently for the popular press on economic topics.

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Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Jared Bernstein

Jared Bernstein (born 1955) is a Senior Fellow at the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities.

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Jeff Bezos

Jeffrey Preston Bezos (born Jorgensen; January 12, 1964) is an American technology entrepreneur, investor, philanthropist, and the founder, chairman, and chief executive officer of Amazon, the world's largest online retailer.

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Jeffrey Sachs

Jeffrey David Sachs (born November 5, 1954) is an American economist and director of the Earth Institute at Columbia University, where he holds the title of University Professor, the highest rank Columbia bestows on its faculty.

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John A. Hobson

John Atkinson Hobson (commonly known as John A. Hobson or J. A. Hobson; 6 July 1858 – 1 April 1940), was an English economist, social scientist and critic of imperialism, widely popular as a lecturer and writer.

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John Nichols (journalist)

John Harrison Nichols (born February 3, 1959) is a liberal / progressive American journalist and author.

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John Rawls

John Bordley Rawls (February 21, 1921 – November 24, 2002) was an American moral and political philosopher in the liberal tradition.

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John Whitefield Kendrick

John Whitefield Kendrick (July 27, 1917, Brooklyn – November 17, 2009, Arlington, Virginia) was a pioneer in productivity measurement and economic accounting.

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Joseph Stiglitz

Joseph Eugene Stiglitz (born February 9, 1943) is an American economist and a professor at Columbia University.

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Journal of Futures Studies

The Journal of Futures Studies (JFS) is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal in the discipline of futures studies.

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Juliet Schor

Juliet Schor (born 1955) is Professor of sociology at Boston College.

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Karl Marx

Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.

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Kate Pickett

Kate Pickett (born 1965), FRSA is a British epidemiologist who is Professor of Epidemiology in the Department of Health Sciences at the University of York and was a National Institute for Health Research Career Scientist from 2007-2012.

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Keeping up with the Joneses

Keeping up with the Joneses is an idiom in many parts of the English-speaking world referring to the comparison to one's neighbor as a benchmark for social class or the accumulation of material goods.

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Keynesian economics

Keynesian economics (sometimes called Keynesianism) are the various macroeconomic theories about how in the short run – and especially during recessions – economic output is strongly influenced by aggregate demand (total demand in the economy).

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Knowledge and Decisions

Knowledge and Decisions is a non-fiction book by American economist Thomas Sowell.

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Kuznets curve

In economics, a Kuznets curve graphs the hypothesis that as an economy develops, market forces first increase and then decrease economic inequality.

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Labour economics

Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the markets for wage labour.

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Labour market flexibility

The degree of labour market flexibility is the speed with which labour markets adapt to fluctuations and changes in society, the economy or production.

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Lane Kenworthy

Lane Kenworthy is an American professor of sociology and political science.

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Left-wing politics

Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.

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A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.

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Liberalism in the United States

Liberalism in the United States is a broad political philosophy centered on what many see as the unalienable rights of the individual.

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Libertarianism (from libertas, meaning "freedom") is a collection of political philosophies and movements that uphold liberty as a core principle.

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Life expectancy

Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.

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List of countries by distribution of wealth

This is a list of countries by distribution of wealth, including Gini coefficients.

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List of countries by incarceration rate

This is a list of countries by incarceration rate.

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List of countries by life expectancy

This is a collection of lists of countries by average life expectancy at birth.

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Los Angeles Times

The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.

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Ludwig von Mises

Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (29 September 1881 – 10 October 1973) was an Austrian-American theoretical Austrian School economist.

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Marginal propensity to consume

In economics, the marginal propensity to consume (MPC) is a metric that quantifies induced consumption, the concept that the increase in personal consumer spending (consumption) occurs with an increase in disposable income (income after taxes and transfers).

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Marginal utility

In economics, utility is the satisfaction or benefit derived by consuming a product; thus the marginal utility of a good or service is the change in the utility from an increase in the consumption of that good or service.

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Market (economics)

A market is one of the many varieties of systems, institutions, procedures, social relations and infrastructures whereby parties engage in exchange.

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Market abuse

Market abuse may arise in circumstances where financial market investors have been unreasonably disadvantaged, directly or indirectly, by others who.

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Market economy

A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.

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Market failure

In economics, market failure is a situation in which the allocation of goods and services by a free market is not efficient, often leading to a net social welfare loss.

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Marx's theory of alienation

Karl Marx's theory of alienation describes the estrangement (Entfremdung) of people from aspects of their Gattungswesen ("species-essence") as a consequence of living in a society of stratified social classes.

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Marxian economics

Marxian economics, or the Marxian school of economics, refers to a school of economic thought tracing its foundations to the critique of classical political economy first expounded upon by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.

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Max Roser

Max Roser is an economist and media critic.

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Means of production

In economics and sociology, the means of production (also called capital goods) are physical non-human and non-financial inputs used in the production of economic value.

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Medicaid in the United States is a joint federal and state program that helps with medical costs for some people with limited income and resources.

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Medicare (United States)

In the United States, Medicare is a national health insurance program, now administered by the Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services of the U.S. federal government but begun in 1966 under the Social Security Administration.

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Medicare Part D

Medicare Part D, also called the Medicare prescription drug benefit, is an optional United States federal-government program to help Medicare beneficiaries pay for self-administered prescription drugs through prescription drug insurance premiums (the cost of almost all professionally administered prescriptions is covered under optional Part B of United States Medicare).

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Mental disorder

A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.

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Meritocracy (merit, from Latin mereō, and -cracy, from Ancient Greek κράτος "strength, power") is a political philosophy which holds that certain things, such as economic goods or power, should be vested in individuals on the basis of talent, effort and achievement, rather than factors such as sexuality, race, gender or wealth.

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Millennium Development Goals

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were the eight international development goals for the year 2015 that had been established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration.

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Milton Friedman

Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist who received the 1976 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his research on consumption analysis, monetary history and theory, and the complexity of stabilization policy.

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Mississippi is a state in the Southern United States, with part of its southern border formed by the Gulf of Mexico.

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MIT Press

The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).

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In US antitrust law, monopolization is an illegal and the main categories of prohibited behavior include exclusive dealing, price discrimination, refusing to supply an essential facility, product tying and predatory pricing.

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A monopoly (from Greek μόνος mónos and πωλεῖν pōleîn) exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity.

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Mother Jones (magazine)

Mother Jones (abbreviated MoJo) is a progressive American magazine that focuses on news, commentary, and investigative reporting on topics including politics, the environment, human rights, and culture.

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Moyers & Company

Moyers & Company is a commentary and interview television show hosted by Bill Moyers, and broadcast via syndication on public television stations in the United States.

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Neoclassical economics

Neoclassical economics is an approach to economics focusing on the determination of goods, outputs, and income distributions in markets through supply and demand.

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Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism refers primarily to the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism.

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Nepotism is based on favour granted to relatives in various fields, including business, politics, entertainment, sports, religion and other activities.

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New Hampshire

New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.

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New York (state)

New York is a state in the northeastern United States.

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New Zealanders

New Zealanders, colloquially known as Kiwis, are people associated with New Zealand, sharing a common history, culture, and language (New Zealand English).

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National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.

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Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.

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Oded Galor

Oded Galor (born 1953) is an Israeli economist.

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The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.

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Ohio Organizing Collaborative

The Ohio Organizing Collaborative (OOC) is a 501c3 non-profit statewide organization focused on uniting community organizers and organizing groups across Ohio with similar interests.

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On-the-job training

On-the-job training (sometimes called direct instruction) is one-on-one training located at the job site.

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Organic composition of capital

The organic composition of capital (OCC) is a concept created by Karl Marx in his critique of political economy and used in Marxian economics as a theoretical alternative to neo-classical concepts of factors of production, production functions, capital productivity and capital-output ratios.

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Overseas Development Institute

The Overseas Development Institute (ODI) is an independent think tank on international development and humanitarian issues, founded in 1960.

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Oxfam is a confederation of 20 independent charitable organizations focusing on the alleviation of global poverty, founded in 1942 and led by Oxfam International.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Panel data

In statistics and econometrics, panel data or longitudinal data are multi-dimensional data involving measurements over time.

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Paradise Papers

The Paradise Papers are a set of 13.4 million confidential electronic documents relating to offshore investments that were leaked to the German reporters Frederik Obermaier and Bastian Obermayer from the newspaper Süddeutsche Zeitung.

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A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state or intergovernmental organization to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention.

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Paul Krugman

Paul Robin Krugman (born February 28, 1953) is an American economist who is currently Distinguished Professor of Economics at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, and a columnist for The New York Times.

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A pension is a fund into which a sum of money is added during an employee's employment years, and from which payments are drawn to support the person's retirement from work in the form of periodic payments.

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Peter R. Orszag

Peter Richard Orszag (born December 16, 1968) is an American banker and economist, and a Vice Chairman of investment banking and Managing Director at Lazard, where he also serves as Global Co-Head of Healthcare.

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A plutocracy (πλοῦτος,, 'wealth' + κράτος,, 'rule') or plutarchy is a society that is ruled or controlled by people of great wealth or income.

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Polarization (economics)

Economists refer to the polarization of the labor force when middle-class jobs—requiring a moderate level of skills, like autoworkers’ jobs—seem to disappear relative to those at the bottom, requiring few skills, and those at the top, requiring greater skill levels.

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PolitiFact.com is a blog operated by the editorial board of theTampa Bay Times, in which reporters and editors from the Times and affiliated media seek to fact-check statements by members of Congress, the White House, lobbyists, and interest groups.

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Pope Francis

Pope Francis (Franciscus; Francesco; Francisco; born Jorge Mario Bergoglio; 17 December 1936) is the 266th and current Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State.

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Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money.

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Poverty in the United States

Poverty is a state of deprivation, lacking the usual or socially acceptable amount of money or material possessions.

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Poverty reduction

Poverty reduction, or poverty alleviation, is a set of measures, both economic and humanitarian, that are intended to permanently lift people out of poverty.

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Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

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Profit motive

In economics, the profit motive is the motivation of firms that operate so as to maximize their profits.

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Progressive tax

A progressive tax is a tax in which the tax rate increases as the taxable amount increases.

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Property income

Property income refers to profit or income received by virtue of owning property.

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Provinces and territories of Canada

The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution.

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Psychological stress

In psychology, stress is a feeling of strain and pressure.

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Rafael di Tella

Rafael di Tella (born 4 January 1965) is an Argentine fencer, economist and academic.

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Raghuram Rajan

Raghuram Govind Rajan (born 3 February 1963) is an Indian economist and an international academic who is the Katherine Dusak Miller Distinguished Service Professor of Finance at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business.

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Ralph Nader

Ralph Nader (born February 27, 1934) is an American political activist, author, lecturer, and attorney, noted for his involvement in consumer protection, environmentalism and government reform causes.

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Redistribution of income and wealth

Redistribution of income and redistribution of wealth are respectively the transfer of income and of wealth (including physical property) from some individuals to others by means of a social mechanism such as taxation, charity, welfare, public services, land reform, monetary policies, confiscation, divorce or tort law.

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Regressive tax

A regressive tax is a tax imposed in such a manner that the tax rate decreases as the amount subject to taxation increases.

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Regulation is an abstract concept of management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends.

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In public choice theory and in economics, rent-seeking involves seeking to increase one's share of existing wealth without creating new wealth.

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Reserve army of labour

Reserve army of labour is a concept in Karl Marx's critique of political economy.

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Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.

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Richard G. Wilkinson

Richard Gerald Wilkinson (born 1943) is a British social epidemiologist, author and advocate.

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Risk is the potential of gaining or losing something of value.

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Risk aversion

In economics and finance, risk aversion is the behavior of humans (especially consumers and investors), when exposed to uncertainty, in attempting to lower that uncertainty.

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Robert A. Dahl

Robert Alan Dahl (December 17, 1915 Inwood, Iowa, U.S. – February 5, 2014 Hamden, Connecticut, U.S.) was a political theorist and Sterling Professor of Political Science at Yale University.

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Robert Barro

Robert Joseph Barro (born September 28, 1944) is an American macroeconomist and the Paul M. Warburg Professor of Economics at Harvard University.

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Robert D. Putnam

Robert David Putnam (born January 9, 1941) is an American political scientist.

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Robert H. Frank

Robert Harris Frank (born January 2, 1945) is the Henrietta Johnson Louis Professor of Management and a Professor of Economics at the Samuel Curtis Johnson Graduate School of Management at Cornell University.

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Robert J. Shiller

Robert James Shiller (born March 29, 1946) is an American Nobel Laureate, economist, academic, and best-selling author.

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Robert Nozick

Robert Nozick (November 16, 1938 – January 23, 2002) was an American philosopher.

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Robert Owen

Robert Owen (14 May 1771 – 17 November 1858) was a Welsh textile manufacturer, philanthropic social reformer, and one of the founders of utopian socialism and the cooperative movement.

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Robert Z. Lawrence

Robert Zachary Lawrence (born in 1949), a former South African national, is the Albert L. Williams Professor of International Trade and Investment at John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University.

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Robin Hood tax

The Robin Hood tax commonly refers to a package of financial transaction taxes (FTT) proposed by a campaigning group of civil society non-governmental organizations (NGOs).

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Rosa Luxemburg

Rosa Luxemburg (Róża Luksemburg; also Rozalia Luxenburg; 5 March 1871 – 15 January 1919) was a Polish Marxist theorist, philosopher, economist, anti-war activist, and revolutionary socialist who became a naturalized German citizen at the age of 28.

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Salon (website)

Salon is an American news and opinion website, created by David Talbot in 1995 and currently owned by the Salon Media Group.

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Secretary-General of the United Nations

The Secretary-General of the United Nations (UNSG or just SG) is the head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the six principal organs of the United Nations.

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Simon Kuznets

Simon Smith Kuznets (p; April 30, 1901 – July 8, 1985) was a Russo-American economist and statistician who received the 1971 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences "for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development." Kuznets made a decisive contribution to the transformation of economics into an empirical science and to the formation of quantitative economic history.

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Social capital

Social capital is a form of economic and cultural capital in which social networks are central; transactions are marked by reciprocity, trust, and cooperation; and market agents produce goods and services not mainly for themselves, but for a common good.

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Social inequality

Social inequality occurs when resources in a given society are distributed unevenly, typically through norms of allocation, that engender specific patterns along lines of socially defined categories of persons.

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Social justice

Social justice is a concept of fair and just relations between the individual and society.

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Social liberalism

Social liberalism (also known as modern liberalism or egalitarian liberalism) is a political ideology and a variety of liberalism that endorses a market economy and the expansion of civil and political rights while also believing that the legitimate role of the government includes addressing economic and social issues such as poverty, health care and education.

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Social mobility

Social mobility is the movement of individuals, families, households, or other categories of people within or between social strata in a society.

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Social ownership

Social ownership is any of various forms of ownership for the means of production in socialist economic systems, encompassing public ownership, employee ownership, cooperative ownership, citizen ownership of equity, common ownership and collective ownership.

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Social programs in the United States

Social programs in the United States are welfare subsidies designed to meet needs of the American population.

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Social safety net

The social safety net is a collection of services provided by the state or other institutions such as friendly societies.

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Social Security (United States)

In the United States, Social Security is the commonly used term for the federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program and is administered by the Social Security Administration.

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Social status

Social status is the relative respect, competence, and deference accorded to people, groups, and organizations in a society.

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Social stratification

Social stratification is a kind of social differentiation whereby a society groups people into socioeconomic strata, based upon their occupation and income, wealth and social status, or derived power (social and political).

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Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.

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South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.

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Sovereign state

A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.

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State school

State schools (also known as public schools outside England and Wales)In England and Wales, some independent schools for 13- to 18-year-olds are known as 'public schools'.

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Stavros Niarchos

Stavros Spyros Niarchos (Σταύρος Σπύρος Νιάρχος,; 3 July 1909 – 16 April 1996) was a multi-billionaire Greek shipping tycoon.

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Stolper–Samuelson theorem

The Stolper–Samuelson theorem is a basic theorem in Heckscher–Ohlin trade theory.

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Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program

The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), formerly known as the Food Stamp Program, provides food-purchasing assistance for low- and no-income people living in the United States.

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Tamkang University

Tamkang University (TKU) is a private university in Taiwan, located in Tamsui District, New Taipei City, Taiwan.

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Tax evasion

Tax evasion is the illegal evasion of taxes by individuals, corporations, and trusts.

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Tax incidence

In economics, tax incidence or tax burden is the analysis of the effect of a particular tax on the distribution of economic welfare.

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Tax rate

In a tax system, the tax rate is the ratio (usually expressed as a percentage) at which a business or person is taxed.

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Teenage pregnancy

Teenage pregnancy, also known as adolescent pregnancy, is pregnancy in females under the age of 20.

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The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Spirit Level (book)

The Spirit Level: Why More Equal Societies Almost Always Do BetterUK Hardback edition: The Spirit Level: Why More Equal Societies Almost Always Do Better.

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The Theory of Moral Sentiments

The Theory of Moral Sentiments is a 1759 book by Adam Smith.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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The World's Billionaires

The World's Billionaires is an annual ranking by documented net worth of the world's wealthiest billionaires compiled and published in March annually by the American business magazine Forbes.

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Theories of poverty

Theories on the causes of poverty are the foundation upon which poverty reduction strategies are based.

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Thomas B. Edsall

Thomas Byrne Edsall (born August 22, 1941) is an American journalist and liberal / progressive academic, Joseph Pulitzer II and Edith Pulitzer Moore Professor, Columbia Graduate School of Journalism, 2006–2014; adjunct professor 2014–2017, Columbia University School of Journalism in New York City.

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Thomas Piketty

Thomas Piketty (born 7 May 1971) is a French economist whose work focuses on wealth and income inequality.

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Thomas Sowell

Thomas Sowell (born June 30, 1930) is an American economist and social theorist who is currently Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University.

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Three Rivers Press

Three Rivers Press is the trade paperback imprint of the Crown Publishing Group, a division of Random House.

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To each according to his contribution

"To each according to his contribution" is a principle of distribution considered to be one of the defining features of socialism.

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Tony Atkinson

Sir Anthony Barnes "Tony" Atkinson (4 September 1944 – 1 January 2017) was a British economist, senior research fellow of Nuffield College, Oxford, and Centennial Professor at the London School of Economics.

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Total war

Total war is warfare that includes any and all civilian-associated resources and infrastructure as legitimate military targets, mobilizes all of the resources of society to fight the war, and gives priority to warfare over non-combatant needs.

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Trade union

A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.

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Transfer payment

In economics, a transfer payment (or government transfer or simply transfer) is a redistribution of income and wealth (payment) made without goods or services being received in return.

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Trust (emotion)

In a social context, trust has several connotations.

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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Tyler Cowen

Tyler Cowen (born January 21, 1962) is an American economist, who is an economics professor at George Mason University, where he holds the Holbert C. Harris chair in the economics department.

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U.S. state

A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.

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Unearned income

Unearned income is a term coined by Henry George to refer to income gained through ownership of land and other monopoly.

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The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United Nations Development Programme

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.

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United Nations University

The (UNU), established in 1973, is the academic and research arm of the United Nations.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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University of Washington

The University of Washington (commonly referred to as UW, simply Washington, or informally U-Dub) is a public research university in Seattle, Washington.

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Utah is a state in the western United States.

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Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.

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Within economics the concept of utility is used to model worth or value, but its usage has evolved significantly over time.

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Vice (magazine)

Vice is a Canadian-American print magazine focused on arts, culture, and news topics.

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Vladimir Lenin

Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.

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A wage is monetary compensation (or remuneration, personnel expenses, labor) paid by an employer to an employee in exchange for work done.

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Wage labour

Wage labour (also wage labor in American English) is the socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer, where the worker sells his or her labour under a formal or informal employment contract.

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Wage ratio

In economics, the wage ratio refers to the ratio of the top salaries in a group (company, city, country, etc.) to the bottom salaries.

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Walter Scheidel

Walter Scheidel (born 9 July 1966) is an Austrian historian who teaches ancient history at Stanford University, California.

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Warren Buffett

Warren Edward Buffett (born August 30, 1930) is an American business magnate, investor, and philanthropist who serves as the chairman and CEO of Berkshire Hathaway.

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Wealth is the abundance of valuable resources or valuable material possessions.

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Wealth concentration

Wealth concentration is a process by which created wealth, under some conditions, can become concentrated by individuals or entities.

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Welfare is a government support for the citizens and residents of society.

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Welfare state

The welfare state is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the social and economic well-being of its citizens.

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William Thompson (philosopher)

William Thompson (1775 – 28 March 1833) was an Irish political and philosophical writer and social reformer, developing from utilitarianism into an early critic of capitalist exploitation whose ideas influenced the Cooperative, Trade Union and Chartist movements as well as Karl Marx.

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The workforce or labour force (labor force in American English; see spelling differences) is the labour pool in employment.

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World Bank

The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economic_inequality

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