223 relations: Agricultural subsidy, Agriculture in New Zealand, Air New Zealand, Airways New Zealand, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Auckland, Auckland CBD, Auckland Region, Australia, Australian dollar, Bank for International Settlements, Bank of New Zealand, Bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers, Bay of Plenty, Bill English, Black Monday (1987), Campaign Against Foreign Control of Aotearoa, Canada, Canterbury, New Zealand, Central bank, Central Intelligence Agency, Central Otago, Chatham Islands, Child poverty in New Zealand, China, Chorus Limited, City of Glasgow Bank, Closer Economic Relations, Clutha River, Clyde Dam, Colony of New Zealand, Commerce Commission, Consumerism, Controller and Auditor-General of New Zealand, CoreLogic, Corruption Perceptions Index, Crown Retail Deposit Guarantee Scheme, Current account, Digital subscriber line, Dunedin, Early 1990s recession, Economy of Australia, Economy of Oceania, Electricity Authority (New Zealand), Electricity market, Electronics, Energy in New Zealand, European Economic Community, European Union, Exchange rate, ..., Excise, Fifth Labour Government of New Zealand, Finance, Finance company collapses, 2006-12 (New Zealand), Financial crisis, Financial crisis of 2007–2008, Fiscal year, Fitch Ratings, Fixed exchange-rate system, Flag carrier, Flax in New Zealand, Floating exchange rate, Food processing, Fourth Labour Government of New Zealand, Free market, Free-trade area, Geothermal energy, Gisborne District, Globalization, Goods and Services Tax (New Zealand), Government budget balance, Government debt, Government of New Zealand, Gross domestic product, Gross national income, Hapū, Hawke's Bay Region, Helen Clark, Hydroelectricity, Inland Revenue Department (New Zealand), Interest rate, International Monetary Fund, Internet in New Zealand, Iranian Revolution, Jack Marshall, Japan, Jonathan Boston, Julius Vogel, Keith Holyoake, Kilowatt hour, KiwiRail, KiwiSaver, Leaky homes crisis, List of countries by GDP (nominal), List of countries by GDP (PPP), Machine industry, Manawatu-Wanganui, Market economy, Marlborough Region, Māori people, Michael Cullen (politician), Mining in New Zealand, Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (New Zealand), Ministry of Transport, Monetary policy, Moody's Investors Service, Mother of all Budgets, Narrow-gauge railway, National Business Review, Nelson, New Zealand, New Zealand, New Zealand Company, New Zealand Customs Service, New Zealand dollar, New Zealand electricity market, New Zealand Exchange, New Zealand general election, 1990, New Zealand Institute of Economic Research, New Zealand pound, New Zealand Railways Corporation, New Zealand Railways Department, New Zealand state highway network, New Zealand Steel, New Zealand Superannuation Fund, New Zealand Trade and Enterprise, New Zealand Treasury, New Zealand wool boom, New Zealand–China Free Trade Agreement, Norman Kirk, North Island, North Island Main Trunk, NZ Transport Agency, OECD, Official cash rate, Otago, Otago Daily Times, Otago Gold Rush, Overseas Investment Office, Pound sterling, Preferential trading area, Prostitution, Purchasing power parity, Radio in New Zealand, Rail transport in New Zealand, Railway electrification system, Rates (tax), Regions of New Zealand, Renewable energy, Reserve Bank of New Zealand, Robert Muldoon, Roger Douglas, Rogernomics, Ruth Richardson, Ruthanasia, Scoop (website), Seal hunting, Singapore, Social Progress Index, South Canterbury Finance, South Island, South Korea, Southland, New Zealand, Spark New Zealand, Standard & Poor's, Standard of living, State-owned enterprise, State-owned enterprises of New Zealand, Statistics New Zealand, Sterling area, Stuff.co.nz, Suicide, Surtax, Sustainable energy, Taranaki, Tasman District, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, Telecommunications in New Zealand, Television in New Zealand, Territorial authorities of New Zealand, Tertiary sector of the economy, Textile manufacturing, The Dominion Post (Wellington), The Guardian, The Heritage Foundation, The New Zealand Herald, The New Zealand Productivity Commission, The Wall Street Journal, The World Factbook, Think Big, Tiwai Point Aluminium Smelter, Tourism in New Zealand, Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement, Transport in New Zealand, Transport Licensing Act 1931, Treaty of Waitangi, Ultra-Fast Broadband, United Kingdom, United States, United States Chamber of Commerce, Universidad Francisco Marroquín, User pays, Vodafone New Zealand, Waikato, Wairarapa, Wellington Region, West Coast, New Zealand, Whaling in New Zealand, Wind power, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Yom Kippur War, 1973 oil crisis, 1979 energy crisis, 1980s oil glut, 1984 New Zealand constitutional crisis, 1997 Asian financial crisis, 2008 Chinese milk scandal, 2010 New Zealand budget, 2011 Christchurch earthquake, 2015 New Zealand budget, 2degrees, 3News Ireland. Expand index (173 more) » « Shrink index
An agricultural subsidy is a governmental subsidy paid to agribusinesses, agricultural organizations and farms to supplement their income, manage the supply of agricultural commodities, and influence the cost and supply of such commodities.
In New Zealand, agriculture is the largest sector of the tradable economy, contributing about two-thirds of exported goods in 2006-7.
Air New Zealand Limited is the flag carrier airline of New Zealand.
Airways New Zealand (Airways Corporation of New Zealand Limited) is the sole Air Traffic Service provider in New Zealand.
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a forum for 21 Pacific Rim member economies.
Auckland is a city in New Zealand's North Island.
The Auckland central business district (CBD), also called the city centre by Auckland Council, is the geographical and economic heart of the Auckland metropolitan area.
The Auckland Region is one of the sixteen regions of New Zealand, named for the city of Auckland, the country's largest urban area.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Australian dollar (sign: $; code: AUD) is the currency of the Commonwealth of Australia, including its external territories Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island, as well as the independent Pacific Island states of Kiribati, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu.
The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) is an international financial institution owned by central banks which "fosters international monetary and financial cooperation and serves as a bank for central banks".
Bank of New Zealand (BNZ) is one of New Zealand's big four banks and has been operating in the country since the first office was opened in Auckland in October 1861 followed shortly after by the first branch in Dunedin in December 1861.
The filing for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection by financial services firm Lehman Brothers on September 15, 2008, remains the largest bankruptcy filing in U.S. history, with Lehman holding over in assets.
The Bay of Plenty (Te Moana-a-Toi) is a large bight in the northern coast of New Zealand's North Island.
Sir Simon William English (born 30 December 1961) is a former New Zealand politician of the National Party who served as the 39th Prime Minister of New Zealand from 2016 to 2017.
In finance, Black Monday refers to Monday, October 19, 1987, when stock markets around the world crashed.
The Campaign Against Foreign Control of Aotearoa (CAFCA) is a research and lobbying organisation combatting what it considers the sell-out of New Zealand companies and assets to overseas interests.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Canterbury (Waitaha) is a region of New Zealand, located in the central-eastern South Island.
A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Central Otago is an informal name for the inland part of the Otago region in the South Island of New Zealand.
The Chatham Islands form an archipelago in the Pacific Ocean about east of the South Island of New Zealand.
Child poverty affects around 285,000 children in New Zealand, as reported by the Child Poverty Action Group (Aotearoa New Zealand) (CPAG).
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chorus is a provider of telecommunications infrastructure throughout New Zealand.
The City of Glasgow Bank is now largely known for its spectacular collapse in October 1878, ruining all but 254 of its 1,200 shareholders, whose liability was not limited.
Closer Economic Relations (CER) is a free trade agreement between the governments of New Zealand and Australia.
The Clutha River / Mata-Au is the second longest river in New Zealand and the longest in the South Island.
The Clyde Dam, New Zealand's third largest hydroelectric dam, is built on the Clutha River near the town of Clyde.
The Colony of New Zealand was a British colony that existed in New Zealand from 1841 to 1907.
The Commerce Commission is a New Zealand government agency charged with enforcing legislation that promotes competition in the country's markets and prohibits misleading and deceptive conduct by traders.
Consumerism is a social and economic order and ideology that encourages the acquisition of goods and services in ever-increasing amounts.
The Controller and Auditor-General (the Auditor-General) is an Officer of the New Zealand Parliament responsible for auditing public bodies.
CoreLogic, Inc. is an Irvine, CA-based corporation providing financial, property and consumer information, analytics and business intelligence.
Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1995, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys." The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit".
The Crown Retail Deposit Guarantee Scheme was an opt-in deposit insurance scheme, established under the Public Finance Act 1989 in New Zealand during the Great Recession, 2008 to 2011.
In economics, a country's current account is one of the two components of its balance of payments, the other being the capital account (also known as the financial account).
Digital subscriber line (DSL; originally digital subscriber loop) is a family of technologies that are used to transmit digital data over telephone lines.
Dunedin (Ōtepoti) is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, and the principal city of the Otago region.
The early 1990s recession describes the period of economic downturn affecting much of the Western world in the early 1990s.
The economy of Australia is one of the largest mixed-market economies in the world, with a GDP of A$1.69 trillion as of 2017.
The economy of Oceania comprises more than 14 separate countries and their associated economies.
The New Zealand Electricity Authority (Te Mana Hiko) is an independent Crown entity responsible for the regulation of the New Zealand electricity market.
In economic terms, electricity (both power and energy) is a commodity capable of being bought, sold, and traded.
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
Despite abundant natural resources and a relatively small population, New Zealand is a net importer of energy, in the form of petroleum products.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
In finance, an exchange rate is the rate at which one currency will be exchanged for another.
The Fifth Labour Government of New Zealand was the government of New Zealand between 10 December 1999 and 19 November 2008.
Finance is a field that is concerned with the allocation (investment) of assets and liabilities (known as elements of the balance statement) over space and time, often under conditions of risk or uncertainty.
Between May 2006 and the end of 2012 there were sixty-seven finance company collapses in New Zealand; including companies entering into liquidation, receivership or moratoria.
A financial crisis is any of a broad variety of situations in which some financial assets suddenly lose a large part of their nominal value.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
A fiscal year (or financial year, or sometimes budget year) is the period used by governments for accounting and budget purposes, which vary between countries.
Fitch Ratings Inc.
A fixed exchange rate, sometimes called a pegged exchange rate, is a type of exchange rate regime where a currency's value is fixed against either the value of another single currency, to a basket of other currencies, or to another measure of value, such as gold.
A flag carrier is a transportation company, such as an airline or shipping company, that, being locally registered in a given sovereign state, enjoys preferential rights or privileges accorded by the government for international operations.
New Zealand flax describes the common New Zealand perennial plants Phormium tenax and Phormium colensoi, known by the Māori names harakeke and wharariki respectively.
A floating exchange rate (also called a fluctuating or flexible exchange rate) is a type of exchange-rate regime in which a currency's value is allowed to fluctuate in response to foreign-exchange market mechanisms.
Food processing is the transformation of cooked ingredients, by physical or chemical means into food, or of food into other forms.
The Fourth Labour Government of New Zealand governed New Zealand from 26 July 1984 to 2 November 1990.
In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.
A free-trade area is the region encompassing a trade bloc whose member countries have signed a free-trade agreement (FTA).
Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth.
The Gisborne District (Te Tai Rāwhiti) is an area of northeastern New Zealand governed by the Gisborne District Council.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
Goods and Services Tax (GST) is a value-added tax or consumption tax for goods and services consumed in New Zealand.
A government budget is a financial statement presenting the government's proposed revenues and spending for a financial year.
Government debt (also known as public interest, public debt, national debt and sovereign debt) is the debt owed by a government.
The Government of New Zealand (Te Kāwanatanga o Aotearoa), or New Zealand Government (ceremonially referred to as Her Majesty's Government in New Zealand on the Seal of New Zealand), is the administrative complex through which authority is exercised in New Zealand.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
The gross national income (GNI) is the total domestic and foreign output claimed by residents of a country, consisting of gross domestic product (GDP), plus factor incomes earned by foreign residents, minus income earned in the domestic economy by nonresidents (Todaro & Smith, 2011: 44) (all figures in millions of US dollars).
In Māoridom and New Zealand, a hapū ("subtribe", or "clan") functions as "the basic political unit within Māori society".
Hawke's Bay Region (Te Matau-a-Māui) is a region of New Zealand on the east coast of the North Island.
Helen Elizabeth Clark (born 26 February 1950) is a New Zealand politician who served as the 37th Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1999 to 2008, and was the Administrator of the United Nations Development Programme from 2009 to 2017.
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.
Inland Revenue (IRD; former known name: Inland Revenue Department; Māori: Te Tari Taake) is the public service department of New Zealand charged with advising the government on tax policy, collecting and disbursing payments for social support programmes, and collecting tax.
An interest rate is the amount of interest due per period, as a proportion of the amount lent, deposited or borrowed (called the principal sum).
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
Internet access is widely available in New Zealand.
The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.
Sir John Ross Marshall New Zealand Army Orders 1952/405 (5 March 1912 – 30 August 1988), generally known as Jack Marshall, was a New Zealand politician of the National Party.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jonathan Boston (born 1957) is a New Zealand academic and Professor of Policy Studies at the Victoria University of Wellington School of Government.
Sir Julius Vogel (24 February 1835 – 12 March 1899) was the eighth Premier of New Zealand.
Sir Keith Jacka Holyoake (11 February 1904 – 8 December 1983) was the 26th Prime Minister of New Zealand, serving for a brief period in 1957 and then from 1960 to 1972, and also the 13th Governor-General of New Zealand, serving from 1977 to 1980.
The kilowatt hour (symbol kWh, kW⋅h or kW h) is a unit of energy equal to 3.6 megajoules.
KiwiRail Holdings Limited is a New Zealand State-owned enterprise responsible for rail operations in New Zealand.
The KiwiSaver scheme is a New Zealand voluntary long-term savings scheme which came into operation from Monday, 2 July 2007.
The leaky homes crisis is an ongoing construction and legal crisis in New Zealand concerning a number of timber framed buildings constructed from 1994 to 2004 that suffered from weather-tightness problems.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.
This article includes a list of countries by their forecasted estimated gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity, abbreviated GDP (PPP).
The machine industry or machinery industry is a subsector of the industry, that produces and maintains machines for consumers, the industry, and most other companies in the economy.
Manawatu-Wanganui is a region in the lower half of the North Island of New Zealand, whose main population centres are the cities of Palmerston North and Whanganui.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
The Marlborough Region, commonly known simply as Marlborough, is one of the regions of New Zealand, located in the northeast of the South Island.
The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand.
Sir Michael John Cullen (born 5 February 1945) is a former New Zealand politician.
Mining in New Zealand began when the Māori quarried rock such as argillite in times prior to European colonisation.
The Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment (MBIE; Hīkina Whakatutuki) is the public service department of New Zealand charged with "delivering policy, services, advice and regulation" which contribute to New Zealand's economic productivity and business growth.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (MFAT) (Māori: Manatū Aorere) is the public service department of New Zealand charged with advising the government on foreign and trade policy, and promoting New Zealand's interests in trade and international relations.
A Ministry of Transport or Transportation is a ministry responsible for transportation within a country.
Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country, typically the central bank or currency board, controls either the cost of very short-term borrowing or the monetary base, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.
Moody's Investors Service, often referred to as Moody's, is the bond credit rating business of Moody's Corporation, representing the company's traditional line of business and its historical name.
The Mother of all Budgets was the nickname given to the 1991 New Zealand budget.
A narrow-gauge railway (narrow-gauge railroad in the US) is a railway with a track gauge narrower than the standard.
The National Business Review (or NBR) is a weekly, national New Zealand newspaper and online publication aimed at the business sector.
Nelson (Whakatū) is a city on the eastern shores of Tasman Bay.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
The New Zealand Company was a 19th-century English company that played a key role in the colonisation of New Zealand.
The Customs Service (In Māori, Te Mana Arai o Aotearoa) is a state sector organisation of New Zealand whose role is to provide border control and protect the community from potential risks arising from international trade and travel, as well as collecting duties and taxes on imports to the country.
The New Zealand dollar (sign: $; code: NZD, also abbreviated NZ$) (Tāra o Aotearoa) is the currency and legal tender of New Zealand, the Cook Islands, Niue, the Ross Dependency, Tokelau, and a British territory, the Pitcairn Islands.
New Zealand's electricity market (NZEM) is regulated by the Electricity Industry Participation Code administered by the Electricity Authority (EA).
NZX Limited builds and operates capital, risk and commodity markets and the infrastructure required to support them.
The 1990 New Zealand general election was held on 27 October to determine the composition of the 43rd New Zealand parliament.
The New Zealand Institute of Economic Research (NZIER) is the largest independent think tank in New Zealand.
The pound (symbol £, or NZ£ for distinction) was the currency of New Zealand from 1840 until 1967, when it was replaced by the New Zealand dollar.
New Zealand Railways Corporation (NZRC) is the state-owned enterprise that owns the land beneath KiwiRail's railway network on behalf of the Crown.
The New Zealand Railways Department, NZR or NZGR (New Zealand Government Railways) and often known as the "Railways", was a government department charged with owning and maintaining New Zealand's railway infrastructure and operating the railway system.
The New Zealand state highway network is the major national highway network in New Zealand.
New Zealand Steel Limited is the owner of the Glenbrook Steel Mill, the steel mill located 40 kilometres south east of Auckland in Glenbrook, New Zealand.
The New Zealand Superannuation Fund is a sovereign wealth fund in New Zealand.
New Zealand Trade and Enterprise (NZTE) is New Zealand’s economic development and trade promotion agency.
The New Zealand Treasury (Kaitohutohu Kaupapa Rawa) is the central public service department of New Zealand charged with advising the Government on economic policy, assisting with improving the performance of New Zealand's economy, and managing financial resources.
The New Zealand Wool Boom of 1951, one of the greatest economic booms in the history of New Zealand, resulted directly from United States policy in the 1950–53 Korean War.
The New Zealand–China Free Trade Agreement is a bilateral free trade agreement signed between the People's Republic of China and New Zealand in April 2008.
Norman Eric Kirk (6 January 1923 – 31 August 1974) was a New Zealand politician who served as the 29th Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1972 until his sudden death in 1974.
The North Island (Māori: Te Ika-a-Māui) is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, separated from the slightly larger but much less populous South Island by Cook Strait.
The North Island Main Trunk (NIMT) is the main railway line in the North Island of New Zealand, connecting the capital city Wellington with the country's largest city, Auckland.
The NZ Transport Agency (NZTA; Waka Kotahi) is a New Zealand Crown entity tasked with promoting safe and functional transport by land, including the responsibility for driver and vehicle licensing, investigating rail accidents and administering the New Zealand state highway network.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
The official cash rate (OCR) is the term used in Australia and New Zealand for the bank rate and is the rate of interest which the central bank charges on overnight loans to commercial banks.
Otago is a region of New Zealand in the south of the South Island administered by the Otago Regional Council.
The Otago Daily Times (ODT) is a newspaper published by Allied Press Ltd in Dunedin, New Zealand.
The Otago Gold Rush (often called the Central Otago Gold Rush) was a gold rush that occurred during the 1860s in Central Otago, New Zealand.
The Overseas Investment Office is the New Zealand government agency responsible for regulating foreign direct investment into New Zealand.
The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
A preferential trade area (also preferential trade agreement, PTA) is a trading bloc that gives preferential access to certain products from the participating countries.
Prostitution is the business or practice of engaging in sexual activity in exchange for payment.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
Radio in New Zealand began in 1922, and is now dominated by almost 30 radio networks and station groups.
Rail transport in New Zealand is primarily provided by KiwiRail and focused on bulk freight, with a small number of tourist orientated passenger services, such as the, and.
A railway electrification system supplies electric power to railway trains and trams without an on-board prime mover or local fuel supply.
Rates are a type of property tax system in the United Kingdom, and in places with systems deriving from the British one, the proceeds of which are used to fund local government.
New Zealand is divided into sixteen regions for local government purposes.
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
The Reserve Bank of New Zealand (RBNZ, Te Pūtea Matua) is the central bank of New Zealand.
Sir Robert David Muldoon (25 September 19215 August 1992), also known as Rob Muldoon, was a New Zealand politician who served as the 31st Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1975 to 1984, as Leader of the National Party.
Sir Roger Owen Douglas (born 5 December 1937) is a retired New Zealand politician who served as a minister in two Labour governments.
The term Rogernomics, a portmanteau of "Roger" and "economics", was coined by journalists at the New Zealand Listener by analogy with Reaganomics to describe the neoliberal economic policies followed by Roger Douglas after his appointment in 1984 as Minister of Finance in the Fourth Labour Government of New Zealand.
Ruth Richardson (born 13 December 1950) served as New Zealand's Minister of Finance from 1990 to 1993, and is known for her strong pursuit of free-market policies (her opponents sometimes called it "Ruthanasia").
Ruthanasia, a portmanteau of "Ruth" and "euthanasia", is the pejorative name (typically used by opponents) given to the period of free-market policies conducted during the first term of the fourth National government in New Zealand, from 1990 to 1993.
Scoop.co.nz is a New Zealand internet news site run by Scoop Media Limited, part of the Scoop Media Cartel.
Seal hunting, or sealing, is the personal or commercial hunting of seals.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
The Social Progress Index (SPI) measures the extent to which countries provide for the social and environmental needs of their citizens.
South Canterbury Finance was New Zealand's largest locally owned finance company when it collapsed in August 2010, triggering a $1.6 billion bail-out of investors deposits by the New Zealand Government.
The South Island (Māori: Te Waipounamu) is the larger of the two major islands of New Zealand, the other being the smaller but more populous North Island.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
Southland (Murihiku) is New Zealand's southernmost region.
Spark New Zealand (formerly Telecom New Zealand) is a New Zealand telecommunications company providing fixed line telephone services, a mobile network, an internet service provider, and a major ICT provider to NZ businesses (through its Spark Digital division).
Standard & Poor's Financial Services LLC (S&P) is an American financial services company.
Standard of living refers to the level of wealth, comfort, material goods, and necessities available to a certain socioeconomic class in a certain geographic area, usually a country.
A state-owned enterprise (SOE) is a business enterprise where the state has significant control through full, majority, or significant minority ownership.
State-owned enterprises (SOEs) in New Zealand are registered companies listed under Schedules 1 and 2 of the State-Owned Enterprises Act 1986.
Statistics New Zealand (Tatauranga Aotearoa), branded as Stats NZ, is the public service department of New Zealand charged with the collection of statistics related to the economy, population and society of New Zealand.
The sterling area (or sterling bloc, legally scheduled territories) was a group of countries that either pegged their currencies to the pound sterling, or actually used the pound as their own currency.
Stuff.co.nz is a New Zealand news website published by Fairfax Digital, a division of Fairfax New Zealand Ltd, a subsidiary of Australian company Fairfax Media Ltd.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
A surtax may be a tax levied upon a tax, or a tax levied upon income.
Sustainable energy is energy that is consumed at insignificant rates compared to its supply and with manageable collateral effects, especially environmental effects.
Taranaki is a region in the west of New Zealand's North Island, administered by the Taranaki Regional Council.
Tasman District is a local government district in the north of the South Island of New Zealand.
Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand is an online encyclopedia created by the Ministry for Culture and Heritage of the New Zealand Government.
Telecommunications in New Zealand are fairly typical for an industrialised country.
Television in New Zealand was introduced in 1960 as a state-run service.
Territorial authorities are the second tier of local government in New Zealand, below regional councils.
The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory.
Textile manufacturing is a major industry.
The Dominion Post is a metropolitan morning newspaper published in Wellington, New Zealand, owned by the Australian Fairfax group, owners of The Age, Melbourne, and The Sydney Morning Herald.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Heritage Foundation (abbreviated to Heritage) is an American conservative public policy think tank based in Washington, D.C. The foundation took a leading role in the conservative movement during the presidency of Ronald Reagan, whose policies were taken from Heritage's policy study Mandate for Leadership.
The New Zealand Herald is a daily newspaper published in Auckland, New Zealand, owned by New Zealand Media and Entertainment.
The New Zealand Productivity Commission is an independent crown entity whose purpose is "to provide advice to the Government on improving productivity in a way that is directed to supporting the overall wellbeing of New Zealanders, having regard to a wide range of communities of interest and population groups in New Zealand society.”.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
Think Big was an interventionist state economic strategy of the Third National Government of New Zealand, promoted by the Prime Minister Robert Muldoon (1975–1984) and his National government in the early 1980s.
The Tiwai Point Aluminium Smelter is an aluminium smelter owned by Rio Tinto Group (79.36%) and the Sumitomo Group (20.64%), via a joint venture called New Zealand Aluminium Smelters Limited.
Tourism comprises an important sector of the '''New Zealand''' economy, directly contributing NZ$12.9 billion (or 5.6%) of the country's GDP in 2016, as well as supporting 188,000 full-time equivalent jobs (nearly 7.5% of New Zealand's workforce).
The Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement (TPSEP) is a trade agreement between four Pacific Rim countries concerning a variety of matters of economic policy.
Transport in New Zealand, with its mountainous topography and a relatively small population mostly located near its long coastline, has always faced many challenges.
The Transport Licensing Act 1931 was a New Zealand Act of Parliament regulating land transport.
The Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi) is a treaty first signed on 6 February 1840 by representatives of the British Crown and Māori chiefs (Rangatira) from the North Island of New Zealand.
The Ultra-Fast Broadband Initiative is a New Zealand Government program of building fibre-to-the-home networks covering 87% of the population by the end of 2022.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Chamber of Commerce (USCC) is a business-oriented American lobbying group.
Francisco Marroquín University (Spanish: Universidad Francisco Marroquín), also known by the abbreviation UFM, is a private, secular university in Guatemala City, Guatemala.
User pays, or beneficiary pays, is a pricing approach based on the idea that the most efficient allocation of resources occurs when consumers pay the full cost of the goods that they consume.
Vodafone New Zealand is a telecommunications company operating in New Zealand; it is a subsidiary of the London-listed company Vodafone Plc.
Waikato is a local government region of the upper North Island of New Zealand.
2008 Wairarapa is a geographical region of New Zealand.
The Wellington Region (also known as Greater Wellington) is a local government region of New Zealand that occupies the southern end of the North Island.
The West Coast (Te Tai Poutini) is a region of New Zealand on the west coast of the South Island, it is one of the more remote and most sparsely populated areas of the country.
Whaling in New Zealand dates back to the late 18th century, and ended in 1964 since it was no longer economic.
Wind power is the use of air flow through wind turbines to mechanically power generators for electricity.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War, or October War (or מלחמת יום כיפור,;,, or حرب تشرين), also known as the 1973 Arab–Israeli War, was a war fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, by a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel.
The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo.
The 1979 (or second) oil crisis or oil shock occurred in the world due to decreased oil output in the wake of the Iranian Revolution.
The 1980s oil glut was a serious surplus of crude oil caused by falling demand following the 1970s energy crisis.
The New Zealand constitutional crisis of 1984 was an important constitutional and political event in the history of New Zealand.
The Asian financial crisis was a period of financial crisis that gripped much of East Asia beginning in July 1997 and raised fears of a worldwide economic meltdown due to financial contagion.
The 2008 Chinese milk scandal was a widespread food safety incident in China.
The New Zealand budget for fiscal year 2010-2011 was presented to the New Zealand House of Representatives by Finance Minister Bill English on 20 May 2010.
A earthquake occurred in Christchurch on at 12:51 p.m. local time (23:51 UTC).
The New Zealand budget for fiscal year 2015/16 was presented to the New Zealand House of Representatives by Finance Minister Bill English on 21 May 2015.
2degrees is a telecommunications provider that operates in New Zealand.
3News Ireland (previously TV3 News) is the news hub which produces news and current affairs programming for the TV3 Group based in Ireland.