197 relations: Aerospace, Agrarian society, Agriculture, Agriculture in the Soviet Union, Alexei Kosygin, Andrei Platonov, Arms industry, Balance of payments, Baltic states, Bank, Barter, Beryozka, Black market, Bolsheviks, Bureaucratic collectivism, Calendar year, Cambridge University Press, Capital expenditure, Capital good, Cement, Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Central Intelligence Agency, Cereal, Chemical industry, Chervonets, China, Cholera, Cigarette, Climate, Coal, Cold War, Collective farming, Collectivization in the Soviet Union, Comecon, Communication, Communism, Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Cossacks, Cotton, Council of People's Commissars, Cuba, Daniel Yergin, Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, Developing country, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Dnieper Hydroelectric Station, Eastern Bloc, Economic liberalization, Economic stability, ..., Economy of Japan, Economy of Russia, Economy of the United States, Electronics, Enterprises in the Soviet Union, Era of Stagnation, European Economic Community, Final good, Finance, Five-year plans for the national economy of the Soviet Union, Flax, Food processing, Ford Model A (1927–31), Fuel, G. N. Georgano, GAZ, Georgy Malenkov, Germany, Gold, Gosbank, Gosplan, Gossnab, Government budget, Government of the Soviet Union, Great Break (USSR), Great Depression, Hallmark, Heavy industry, History of Russia (1991–present), History of the Soviet Union, History of the Soviet Union (1927–1953), History of the Soviet Union (1964–82), Homestead (buildings), Hydropower, Idel-Ural, Industrial engineering, Industrialisation, Infant mortality, International Monetary Fund, International trade, Iron, Iron ore, Japan, Jawaharlal Nehru, Job security, Joseph Stalin, Journal of Political Economy, Khutor, Kolkhoz, Komsomol, Land development, Leonid Brezhnev, Light industry, Lumber, Machine, Machine (mechanical), Malaria, Manganese, Marginal product of labor, Market economy, Marshall Goldman, Material balance planning, Means of production, Melvyn P. Leffler, Metal, Metallurgy, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mineral, Mining, Ministry of Finance (Soviet Union), Mixed economy, Moscow, Motor vehicle, Natural gas, NEPman, New Economic Policy, Nikita Khrushchev, Nixon shock, Novelist, Odd Arne Westad, Operation Barbarossa, Paul Kennedy, Perestroika, Petroleum, Planned economy, Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Potato, Pound sterling, Price, Prime Minister of Russia, Princeton University Press, Privatization, Product (business), Productivity, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Routledge, Russia, Russian Civil War, Russian Empire, Russian famine of 1921–22, Russian Revolution, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Second economy of the Soviet Union, Secondary sector of the economy, Sergey Kara-Murza, Service (economics), Siberia, Sovereign default, Soviet famine of 1932–33, Soviet ruble, Soviet Union, Soviet-type economic planning, Soviet–Afghan War, Sovkhoz, Stalinism, State capitalism, State ownership, State socialism, Steel, Sugar beet, Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, Telecommunication, The Myth of the Plan, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers, The World Factbook, Transcaucasia, Transport, Typhus, Ukraine, Unemployment, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United States, United States National Security Council, University of Massachusetts Press, War communism, White House, Wholesaling, Wood, World War I, World War II, Yegor Gaidar, Yuri Andropov, 10th Congress of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks), 1965 Soviet economic reform, 1973 Soviet economic reform, 1979 Soviet economic reform, 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Expand index (147 more) » « Shrink index
Aerospace is the human effort in science, engineering and business to fly in the atmosphere of Earth (aeronautics) and surrounding space (astronautics).
An agrarian society (or agricultural society) is any society whose economy is based on producing and maintaining crops and farmland.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Agriculture in the Soviet Union was mostly collectivized, with some limited cultivation of private plots.
Alexei Nikolayevich Kosygin (p; – 18 December 1980) was a Soviet-Russian statesman during the Cold War.
Andrei Platonov (Андре́й Плато́нов,; – January 5, 1951) was the pen name of Andrei Platonovich Klimentov (Андре́й Плато́нович Климе́нтов), a Soviet Russian writer, playwright, and poet, whose works anticipate existentialism.
The arms industry, also known as the defense industry or the arms trade, is a global industry responsible for the manufacturing and sales of weapons and military technology.
The balance of payments, also known as balance of international payments and abbreviated B.O.P. or BoP, of a country is the record of all economic transactions between the residents of the country and of the world in a particular period (over a quarter of a year or more commonly over a year).
The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates credit.
In trade, barter is a system of exchange where participants in a transaction directly exchange goods or services for other goods or services without using a medium of exchange, such as money.
Beriozka (Russian: Берёзка, lit. "little birch tree") was a twin chain of state-run retail stores in the Russian SFSR that sold goods for foreign currency.
A black market, underground economy, or shadow economy is a clandestine market or transaction that has some aspect of illegality or is characterized by some form of noncompliant behavior with an institutional set of rules.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
Bureaucratic collectivism is a theory of class society.
Generally speaking, a calendar year begins on the New Year's Day of the given calendar system and ends on the day before the following New Year's Day, and thus consists of a whole number of days.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Capital expenditure or capital expense (capex) is the money a company spends to buy, maintain, or improve its fixed assets, such as buildings, vehicles, equipment, or land.
A capital good is a durable good (one that does not quickly wear out) that is used in the production of goods or services.
A cement is a binder, a substance used for construction that sets, hardens and adheres to other materials, binding them together.
The Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was de jure the highest body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) between Party Congresses.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.
The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals.
The following text is translated from the Russian Wikipedia version. Chervonets is the traditional Russian name for large foreign, and domestic gold coins.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
A cigarette is a narrow cylinder containing tobacco that is rolled into thin paper for smoking.
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Collective farming and communal farming are various types of "agricultural production in which multiple farmers run their holdings as a joint enterprise." That type of collective is often an agricultural cooperative in which member-owners jointly engage in farming activities.
The Soviet Union enforced the collectivization (Коллективизация) of its agricultural sector between 1928 and 1940 (in West - between 1948 and 1952) during the ascendancy of Joseph Stalin.
The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (English abbreviation COMECON, CMEA, or CAME) was an economic organization from 1949 to 1991 under the leadership of the Soviet Union that comprised the countries of the Eastern Bloc along with a number of communist states elsewhere in the world.
Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.
The Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (съезд КПСС) was the gathering of the delegates of the Communist Party and its predecessors.
Cossacks (козаки́, translit, kozaky, казакi, kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok Pronunciations.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
The Council of People's Commissars (Совет народных комиссаров or Совнарком, translit. Soviet narodnykh kommissarov or Sovnarkom, also as generic SNK) was a government institution formed shortly after the October Revolution in 1917.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
Daniel Howard Yergin (born February 6, 1947) is an American author, speaker, energy expert, and economic historian.
The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA; جمهوری دمکراتی افغانستان,; دافغانستان دمکراتی جمهوریت), renamed in 1987 to the Republic of Afghanistan (جمهوری افغانستان;; د افغانستان جمهوریت), commonly known as Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Afġānistān), existed from 1978 to 1992 and covers the period when the socialist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) ruled Afghanistan.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
The Dnieper Hydroelectric Station (ДніпроГЕС - DniproHES, ДнепроГЭС - DneproGES, also known as Dneprostroi Dam) is the largest hydroelectric power station on the Dnieper River, located in Zaporizhia, Ukraine.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
Economic liberalization (or economic liberalisation) is the lessening of government regulations and restrictions in an economy in exchange for greater participation by private entities; the doctrine is associated with classical liberalism.
Economic stability is the absence of excessive fluctuations in the macroeconomy.
The economy of Japan is a highly developed and market-oriented economy.
Russia has an upper-middle income, World Bank mixed economy with state ownership in strategic areas of the economy.
The economy of the United States is a highly developed mixed economy.
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
Enterprises in the Soviet Union were legal entities engaged in some kind of economic activity, such as production, distribution, the provision of services, or any other economic operation.
The Era of Stagnation (Период застоя, Stagnation Period, also called the Brezhnevian Stagnation) was the period in the history of the Soviet Union which began during the rule of Leonid Brezhnev (1964–1982) and continued under Yuri Andropov (1982–1984) and Konstantin Chernenko (1984–1985).
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
In economics, any commodity which is produced and subsequently consumed by the consumer, to satisfy his current wants or needs, is a consumer good or final good.
Finance is a field that is concerned with the allocation (investment) of assets and liabilities (known as elements of the balance statement) over space and time, often under conditions of risk or uncertainty.
The five-year plans for the development of the national economy of the Soviet Union (USSR) (Пятиле́тние пла́ны разви́тия наро́дного хозя́йства СССР, Pjatiletnije plany razvitiya narodnogo khozyaystva SSSR) consisted of a series of nationwide centralized economic plans in the Soviet Union, beginning in the late 1920s.
Flax (Linum usitatissimum), also known as common flax or linseed, is a member of the genus Linum in the family Linaceae.
Food processing is the transformation of cooked ingredients, by physical or chemical means into food, or of food into other forms.
The Ford Model A (also colloquially called the A-Model Ford or the A, and A-bone among rodders and customizers), was the second huge success for the Ford Motor Company, after its predecessor, the Model T. First produced on October 20, 1927, but not sold until December 2, it replaced the venerable Model T, which had been produced for 18 years.
A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work.
George Nicholas "Nick" Georgano (1932-22 October 2017 Alvis Archive Blog, 24 Oct. 2017 The Society of Automotive History) was a British author, specialising in motoring history.
GAZ or Gorkovsky Avtomobilny Zavod (Gorky Automobile Plant) is a Russian automotive manufacturer located in Nizhny Novgorod.
Georgy Maximilianovich Malenkov (– 14 January 1988) was a Soviet politician who succeeded Joseph Stalin as Premier of the Soviet Union, holding this position from 1953 to 1955.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Gosbank (Госбанк, Государственный банк СССР, Gosudarstvenny bank SSSR—the State Bank of the USSR) was the central bank of the Soviet Union and the only bank whatsoever in the entire Union from the 1930s to 1987.
The State Planning Committee, commonly known as Gosplan (Russian: Госпла́н), was the agency responsible for central economic planning in the Soviet Union.
Gossnab of USSR, State Supplies of the USSR (Госснаб СССР) was active in 1948-1953, 1965-1991.
A government budget is an annual financial statement presenting the government's proposed revenues and spending for a financial year that is often passed by the legislature, approved by the chief executive or president and presented by the Finance Minister to the nation.
The Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Правительство СССР, Pravitel'stvo SSSR) was the main body of the executive branch of government in the Soviet Union.
The Great Turn or Great Break (Великий перелом) was the radical change in the economic policy of the Soviet Union in 1928/1929, which primarily consisted in abandoning the New Economic Policy (NEP) of 1921 onwards and the acceleration of collectivization and industrialization.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
A hallmark is an official mark or series of marks struck on items made of metal, mostly to certify the content of noble metals—such as platinum, gold, silver and in some nations, palladium.
Heavy industry is industry that involves one or more characteristics such as large and heavy products; large and heavy equipment and facilities (such as heavy equipment, large machine tools, and huge buildings); or complex or numerous processes.
The history of Russia from 1991 to the present began with the dissolution of the Soviet Union on 26 December 1991, and the establishment of the Russian Federation.
The "History of Soviet Russia and the Soviet Union" reflects a period of change for both Russia and the world.
The history of the Soviet Union between 1927 and 1953 covers the period in Soviet history from establishment of Stalinism through victory in the Second World War and down to the death of Joseph Stalin in 1953.
The history of the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982, referred to as the Brezhnev Era, covers the period of Leonid Brezhnev's rule of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).
A homestead is a dwelling, especially a farmhouse, and adjacent outbuildings, typically on a large agricultural holding such as a ranch or station.
Hydropower or water power (from ύδωρ, "water") is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes.
Idel-Ural (Идел-Урал, Идель-Урал) literally Volga-Ural is a historical region in Eastern Europe, in what is today Russia.
Industrial engineering is a branch of engineering which deals with the optimization of complex processes, systems, or organizations.
Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.
Infant mortality refers to deaths of young children, typically those less than one year of age.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jawaharlal Nehru (14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence.
Job security is the probability that an individual will keep their job; a job with a high level of job security is such that a person with the job would have a small chance of becoming unemployed.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
The Journal of Political Economy is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press.
A khutor (p) or khutir (ху́тiр, khutir, pl. ху́тори, khutory) is a type of rural locality in some countries of Eastern Europe; in the past the term mostly referred to a single-homestead settlement.
A kolkhoz (p) was a form of collective farm in the Soviet Union.
The All-Union Leninist Young Communist League (Всесою́зный ле́нинский коммунисти́ческий сою́з молодёжи (ВЛКСМ)), usually known as Komsomol (Комсомо́л, a syllabic abbreviation of the Russian kommunisticheskiy soyuz molodyozhi), was a political youth organization in the Soviet Union.
Land development is altering the landscape in any number of ways such as.
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (a; Леоні́д Іллі́ч Бре́жнєв, 19 December 1906 (O.S. 6 December) – 10 November 1982) was a Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982 as the General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), presiding over the country until his death and funeral in 1982.
Light industry is industries that usually are less capital-intensive than heavy industry and is more consumer-oriented than business-oriented, as it typically produces smaller consumer goods.
Lumber (American English; used only in North America) or timber (used in the rest of the English speaking world) is a type of wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production.
A machine uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an intended action.
Machines employ power to achieve desired forces and movement (motion).
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
In economics, the marginal product of labor (MPL) is the change in output that results from employing an added unit of labor.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
Marshall Irwin Goldman (July 26, 1930 – August 2, 2017) was an expert on the economy of the former Soviet Union.
Material balances are a method of economic planning where material supplies are accounted for in natural units (as opposed to using monetary accounting) and used to balance the supply of available inputs with targeted outputs.
In economics and sociology, the means of production (also called capital goods) are physical non-human and non-financial inputs used in the production of economic value.
Melvyn Paul Leffler (born May 31, 1945 in Brooklyn, New York) is an American historian and educator, currently Edward Stettinius Professor of History at the University of Virginia.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
The Ministry of Finance of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (Министерство финансов СССР), formed on 15 March 1946, was one of the most important government offices in the Soviet Union.
A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system blending elements of market economies with elements of planned economies, free markets with state interventionism, or private enterprise with public enterprise.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
A motor vehicle is a self-propelled vehicle, commonly wheeled, that does not operate on rails, such as trains or trams and used for the transportation of passengers, or passengers and property.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
The NEPmen (Нэпманы, Nepmani) were businesspeople in the young Soviet Union who took advantage of the opportunities for private trade and small-scale manufacturing provided under the New Economic Policy (NEP, 1921-1928).
The New Economic Policy (NEP, Russian новая экономическая политика, НЭП) was an economic policy of Soviet Russia proposed by Vladimir Lenin in 1921 as a temporary expedient.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
The Nixon shock was a series of economic measures undertaken by United States President Richard Nixon in 1971, the most significant of which was the unilateral cancellation of the direct international convertibility of the United States dollar to gold.
A novelist is an author or writer of novels, though often novelists also write in other genres of both fiction and non-fiction.
Odd Arne Westad FBA (born 5 January 1960) is a Norwegian historian specializing in the Cold War and contemporary East Asian history.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
Paul Michael Kennedy (born 17 June 1945) is a British historian specialising in the history of international relations, economic power and grand strategy.
Perestroika (a) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s until 1991 and is widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.
The Politburo (p, full: Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, abbreviated Политбюро ЦК КПСС, Politbyuro TsK KPSS) was the highest policy-making government authority under the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.
The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
In ordinary usage, a price is the quantity of payment or compensation given by one party to another in return for one unit of goods or services.
The Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation (translit), colloquially referred to as the Prime Minister (translit) is the head of the Russian government and the second most powerful figure of the Russian Federation.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.
In marketing, a product is anything that can be offered to a market that might satisfy a want or need.
Productivity describes various measures of the efficiency of production.
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a broadcasting organization that broadcasts and reports news, information, and analysis to countries in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East where it says that "the free flow of information is either banned by government authorities or not fully developed".
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian famine of 1921–22, also known as Povolzhye famine, was a severe famine in Russia which began in early spring of 1921 and lasted through 1922.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
The second economy in the Soviet Union was the informal sector in the economy of the Soviet Union.
The secondary sector of the economy includes industries that produce a finished, usable product or are involved in construction.
Sergey Georgyevich Kara-Murza (Серге́й Гео́ргиевич Кара́-Мурза; born January 23, 1939 in Moscow) is a Soviet and Russian chemist, historian, political philosopher and sociologist.
In economics, a service is a transaction in which no physical goods are transferred from the seller to the buyer.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
A sovereign default is the failure or refusal of the government of a sovereign state to pay back its debt in full.
The Soviet famine of 1932–33 was a major famine that killed millions of people in the major grain-producing areas of the Soviet Union, including Ukraine, Northern Caucasus, Volga Region and Kazakhstan, the South Urals, and West Siberia.
The Soviet ruble (рубль; see below for other languages of the USSR) was the currency of the Soviet Union.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Soviet-type economic planning (STP) is the specific model of centralized economic planning employed by Marxist-Leninist socialist states modeled on the economy of the Soviet Union.
The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989.
A State farm or Soviet farm (a, abbreviated from советское хозяйство, "sovetskoye khozyaistvo (sovkhoz)"), is a state-owned farm.
Stalinism is the means of governing and related policies implemented from the 1920s to 1953 by Joseph Stalin (1878–1953).
State capitalism is an economic system in which the state undertakes commercial (i.e. for-profit) economic activity and where the means of production are organized and managed as state-owned business enterprises (including the processes of capital accumulation, wage labor and centralized management), or where there is otherwise a dominance of corporatized government agencies (agencies organized along business-management practices) or of publicly listed corporations in which the state has controlling shares.
State ownership (also called public ownership and government ownership) is the ownership of an industry, asset, or enterprise by the state or a public body representing a community as opposed to an individual or private party.
State socialism is a classification for any socialist political and economic perspective advocating state ownership of the means of production either as a temporary measure in the transition from capitalism to socialism, or as characteristic of socialism itself.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
A sugar beet is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of sucrose and which is grown commercially for sugar production.
The Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union was the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments.
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.
The Myth of the Plan: Lessons of Soviet Planning Experience is a critical analysis of the Soviet economic planning system.
The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000, by Paul Kennedy, first published in 1987, explores the politics and economics of the Great Powers from 1500 to 1980 and the reason for their decline.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
Transcaucasia (Закавказье), or the South Caucasus, is a geographical region in the vicinity of the southern Caucasus Mountains on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
Transport or transportation is the movement of humans, animals and goods from one location to another.
Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.
The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP or ESCAP), located in the United Nations Building in Rajadamnern Nok Avenue in Bangkok, Thailand, is one of the five regional commissions of the United Nations Economic and Social Council, under the administrative direction of the United Nations headquarters.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The White House National Security Council (NSC) is the principal forum used by the President of the United States for consideration of national security, military matters, and foreign policy matters with senior national security advisors and Cabinet officials and is part of the executive office of the president of the United States.
The University of Massachusetts Press is a university press that is part of the University of Massachusetts Amherst.
War communism or military communism (Военный коммунизм, Voyennyy kommunizm) was the economic and political system that existed in Soviet Russia during the Russian Civil War from 1918 to 1921.
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.
Wholesaling, jobbing, or distributing is the sale of goods or merchandise to retailers; to industrial, commercial, institutional, or other professional business users; or to other wholesalers and related subordinated services.
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yegor Timurovich Gaidar (Его́р Тиму́рович Гайда́р;; 19 March 1956 – 16 December 2009) was a Soviet and Russian economist, politician, and author, and was the Acting Prime Minister of Russia from 15 June 1992 to 14 December 1992.
Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (p; – 9 February 1984) was a Soviet politician and the fourth General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
The 10th Congress of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) was held during March 8–16, 1921 in Moscow.
The 1965 Soviet economic reform, sometimes called the Kosygin reform or Liberman reform, were a set of planned changes in the economy of the Soviet Union (USSR).
The 1973 Soviet economic reform was an economic reform initiated by Alexei Kosygin, the Chairman of the Council of Ministers.
The 1979 Soviet economic reform, or "Improving planning and reinforcing the effects of the economic mechanism on raising the effectiveness in production and improving the quality of work", was an economic reform initiated by Alexei Kosygin, the Chairman of the Council of Ministers.
The 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was held during the period 14–25 February 1956.
Economic History of the Soviet Union, Economic history of the Soviet Union, Economy of the U.S.S.R., Economy of the USSR, Economy of the soviet union, Soviet Collectivism, Soviet Union economy, Soviet collectivism, Soviet economic history, Soviet economy, Soviet industry, Soviet plan, Soviet planning, The Economy of the Soviet Union.