174 relations: Abiotic component, Acid rain, Agroecosystem, Air pollution, Algal bloom, Amino acid, Ammonia, Ammonium, Animal, Aquatic ecosystem, Arthur Roy Clapham, Arthur Tansley, Bacteria, Bark (botany), Biodiversity, Biodiversity banking, Biodiversity loss, Biogeochemistry, Biomass (ecology), Biome, Biosphere, Biotic component, Calcium, Carbohydrate, Carbon, Carbon cycle, Carbon dioxide, Carnivore, Cell wall, Charles Sutherland Elton, Chemistry, Climate, Climate change, Close to nature forestry, Community (ecology), Competitive exclusion principle, Complex system, Coral reef, Cyanobacteria, Decomposition, Deforestation, Denitrification, Detritus, Disturbance (ecology), Drainage basin, Earth science, Ecocide, Ecological footprint, Ecological land classification, Ecological resilience, ..., Ecological succession, Ecology, Ecosystem ecology, Ecosystem engineer, Ecosystem health, Ecosystem management, Ecosystem services, Ecotope, Energy, Environment (systems), Eugene Odum, Exoskeleton, F. Stuart Chapin III, Feedback, Fertilizer, Food chain, Food web, Forest ecology, Fossil fuel, Freshwater ecosystem, Functional group (ecology), Fungus, G. Evelyn Hutchinson, Gene Likens, Geology, Glacier, Global warming, Greenhouse effect, Habitat, Herbivore, Holdridge life zones, Howard T. Odum, Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, Human, Human ecology, Human impact on the environment, Hypha, Introduced species, Ion, Keystone species, Leaching (agriculture), Legume, Lignin, Limiting similarity, Limnology, Livelihood, Long Term Ecological Research Network, Magnesium, Manganese, Marine ecosystem, Marine pollution, Mesocosm, Methane, Microbivory, Microclimate, Microcosm (experimental ecosystem), Microorganism, Microplastics, Natural resource management, Nature-based solutions, Nitrate, Nitric oxide, Nitrification, Nitrite, Nitrogen, Nitrogen cycle, Nitrogen fixation, Nitrous oxide, Novel ecosystem, Nutrient cycle, Olympic Peninsula, Order of magnitude, Organic matter, Organism, Overfishing, Oxygen, Parent material, Phosphorus, Photosynthesis, Phototroph, Plant cuticle, Plant litter, Pleistocene, Pollination, Pollution, Potassium, Primary production, Primary succession, Productivity (ecology), Protoplasm, Raymond Lindeman, Regionalisation, Resistance (ecology), Resource (biology), Secondary succession, Siberia, Simon A. Levin, Social responsibility, Soil, Soil carbon, Soil organic matter, Soil retrogression and degradation, Species, Springer Science+Business Media, Stephen R. Carpenter, Sugar, Sulfur, Sun, Sustainability, Symbiosis, Temperate rainforest, Terrestrial ecosystem, Topography, Tourism, Trophic level, Vegetation, Vladimir Vernadsky, Washington (state), Water pollution, Watershed management, Weathering, Wetland, White Mountains (New Hampshire), Wilderness. Expand index (124 more) » « Shrink index
In biology and ecology, abiotic components or abiotic factors are non-living chemical and physical parts of the environment that affect living organisms and the functioning of ecosystems.
Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it has elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH).
An agroecosystem is the basic unit of study in agroecology, and is somewhat arbitrarily defined as a spatially and functionally coherent unit of agricultural activity, and includes the living and nonliving components involved in that unit as well as their interactions.
Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.
An algal bloom is a rapid increase or accumulation in the population of algae in freshwater or marine water systems, and is recognized by the discoloration in the water from their pigments.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
The ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion with the chemical formula.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
An aquatic ecosystem is an ecosystem in a body of water.
Arthur Roy Clapham, CBE FRS (24 May 1904 – 18 December 1990), was a British botanist.
Sir Arthur George Tansley FLS, FRS (15 August 1871 – 25 November 1955) was an English botanist and a pioneer in the science of ecology.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bark is the outermost layers of stems and roots of woody plants.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
Biodiversity banking, also known as biodiversity trading or conservation banking, biodiversity mitigation banks, compensatory habitat, set-asides, biodiversity offsets, are conservation activities that compensate for the loss of biodiversity with the goal of biodiversity maintenance through a framework which allows biodiversity to be reliably measured, and market based solutions applied to improving biodiversity.
Loss of biodiversity or biodiversity loss is the extinction of species (human, plant or animal) worldwide, and also the local reduction or loss of species in a certain habitat.
Biogeochemistry is the scientific discipline that involves the study of the chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes and reactions that govern the composition of the natural environment (including the biosphere, the cryosphere, the hydrosphere, the pedosphere, the atmosphere, and the lithosphere).
Biomass is the mass of living biological organisms in a given area or ecosystem at a given time.
A biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in.
The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.
Biotic components or biotic factors, can be described as any living component that affects another organism, or shapes the ecosystem.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
A carnivore, meaning "meat eater" (Latin, caro, genitive carnis, meaning "meat" or "flesh" and vorare meaning "to devour"), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.
A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane.
Charles Sutherland Elton (29 March 1900 – 1 May 1991) was an English zoologist and animal ecologist.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
Close to nature forestry is a management approach treating forest as an ecological system performing multiple functions.
In ecology, a community is a group or association of populations of two or more different species occupying the same geographical area and in a particular time, also known as a biocoenosis The term community has a variety of uses.
In ecology, the competitive exclusion principle, sometimes referred to as Gause's law, is a proposition named for Georgy Gause that two species competing for the same limiting resource cannot coexist at constant population values.
A complex system is a system composed of many components which may interact with each other.
Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals.
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
Decomposition is the process by which organic substances are broken down into simpler organic matter.
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.
Denitrification is a microbially facilitated process where nitrate is reduced and ultimately produces molecular nitrogen (N2) through a series of intermediate gaseous nitrogen oxide products.
In biology, detritus is dead particulate organic material (as opposed to dissolved organic material).
In biology, a disturbance is a temporary change in environmental conditions that causes a pronounced change in an ecosystem.
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.
Earth science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of natural science related to the planet Earth.
Ecocide, or ecocatastrophe, is the extensive damage to, destruction of or loss of ecosystem(s) of a given territory, whether by human agency or by other, to such an extent that peaceful enjoyment by the inhabitants of that territory has been or will be severely diminished.
The ecological footprint measures human demand on nature, i.e., the quantity of nature it takes to support people or an economy.
Ecological land classification is a cartographical delineation or regionalisation of distinct ecological areas, identified by their geology, topography, soils, vegetation, climate conditions, living species, habitats, water resources, and sometimes also anthropic factors.
In ecology, resilience is the capacity of an ecosystem to respond to a perturbation or disturbance by resisting damage and recovering quickly.
Ecological succession is the process of change in the species structure of an ecological community over time.
Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.
Ecosystem ecology is the integrated study of living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic) components of ecosystems and their interactions within an ecosystem framework.
An ecosystem engineer is any organism that creates, significantly modifies, maintains or destroys a habitat.
Ecosystem health is a metaphor used to describe the condition of an ecosystem.
Ecosystem management is a process that aims to conserve major ecological services and restore natural resources while meeting the socioeconomic, political and cultural needs of current and future generations.
Ecosystem services are the many and varied benefits that humans freely gain from the natural environment and from properly-functioning ecosystems.
Ecotopes are the smallest ecologically distinct landscape features in a landscape mapping and classification system.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
In science and engineering, a system is the part of the universe that is being studied, while the environment is the remainder of the universe that lies outside the boundaries of the system.
Eugene Pleasants Odum (September 17, 1913 – August 10, 2002) was an American biologist at the University of Georgia known for his pioneering work on ecosystem ecology.
An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletós "skeleton") is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human.
Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).
A food web (or food cycle) is a natural interconnection of food chains and a graphical representation (usually an image) of what-eats-what in an ecological community.
Forest ecology is the scientific study of the interrelated patterns, processes, flora, fauna and ecosystems in forests.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
Freshwater ecosystems are a subset of Earth's aquatic ecosystems.
A functional group is merely a set of species, or collection of organisms, that share alike characteristics within a community.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
George Evelyn Hutchinson (January 30, 1903 – May 17, 1991), was a British ecologist sometimes described as the "father of modern ecology." He contributed for more than sixty years to the fields of limnology, systems ecology, radiation ecology, entomology, genetics, biogeochemistry, a mathematical theory of population growth, art history, philosophy, religion, and anthropology.
Gene Elden Likens (born January 6, 1935) is an American limnologist and ecologist.
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
The greenhouse effect is the process by which radiation from a planet's atmosphere warms the planet's surface to a temperature above what it would be without its atmosphere.
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.
The Holdridge life zones system is a global bioclimatic scheme for the classification of land areas.
Howard Thomas Odum (also known as Tom or just H.T.) (September 1, 1924 – September 11, 2002) was an American ecologist.
Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest is an area of land in the towns of Woodstock and Thornton in the White Mountains of New Hampshire that functions as an outdoor laboratory for ecological studies.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Human ecology is an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary study of the relationship between humans and their natural, social, and built environments.
Human impact on the environment or anthropogenic impact on the environment includes changes to biophysical environments and ecosystems, biodiversity, and natural resources caused directly or indirectly by humans, including global warming, environmental degradation (such as ocean acidification), mass extinction and biodiversity loss, ecological crises, and ecological collapse.
A hypha (plural hyphae, from Greek ὑφή, huphḗ, "web") is a long, branching filamentous structure of a fungus, oomycete, or actinobacterium.
An introduced species (alien species, exotic species, non-indigenous species, or non-native species) is a species living outside its native distributional range, which has arrived there by human activity, either deliberate or accidental.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
A keystone species is a species that has a disproportionately large effect on its environment relative to its abundance.
In agriculture, leaching refers to the loss of water-soluble plant nutrients from the soil, due to rain and irrigation.
A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).
Lignin is a class of complex organic polymers that form important structural materials in the support tissues of vascular plants and some algae. Lignins are particularly important in the formation of cell walls, especially in wood and bark, because they lend rigidity and do not rot easily. Chemically, lignins are cross-linked phenolic polymers.
Limiting similarity (informally "limsim") is a concept in theoretical ecology and community ecology that proposes the existence of a maximum level of niche overlap between two given species that will allow continued coexistence.
Limnology (from Greek λίμνη, limne, "lake" and λόγος, logos, "knowledge"), is the study of inland aquatic ecosystems.
A person's livelihood refers to their "means of securing the basic necessities -food, water, shelter and clothing- of life".
The Long Term Ecological Research Network (LTER) consists of a group of over 1800 scientists and students studying ecological processes over extended temporal and spatial scales.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
Marine ecosystems are among the largest of Earth's aquatic ecosystems.
Marine pollution occurs when harmful, or potentially harmful, effects result from the entry into the ocean of chemicals, particles, industrial, agricultural, and residential waste, noise, or the spread of invasive organisms.
A mesocosm (meso- or 'medium' and -cosm 'world') is any outdoor experimental system that examines the natural environment under controlled conditions.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Microbivory (adj. microbivorous, microbivore) is a feeding behavior consisting of eating microbes, especially bacteria, and practiced by animals of the mesofauna, microfauna and meiofauna.
A microclimate is a local set of atmospheric conditions that differ from those in the surrounding areas, often with a slight difference but sometimes with a substantial one.
Microcosms are artificial, simplified ecosystems that are used to simulate and predict the behaviour of natural ecosystems under controlled conditions.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Microplastics are small pieces of plastic that pollute the environment.
Natural resource management refers to the management of natural resources such as land, water, soil, plants and animals, with a particular focus on how management affects the quality of life for both present and future generations (stewardship).
Nature-based solutions (NBS or NbS) refers to the sustainable management and use of nature for tackling environmental and societal challenges.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.
Nitrification is the biological oxidation of ammonia or ammonium to nitrite followed by the oxidation of the nitrite to nitrate.
The nitrite ion, which has the chemical formula, is a symmetric anion with equal N–O bond lengths.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
The nitrogen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which nitrogen is converted into multiple chemical forms as it circulates among the atmosphere, terrestrial, and marine ecosystems.
Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen in the Earth's atmosphere is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other molecules available to living organisms.
Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas or nitrous, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula.
Novel ecosystems are human-built, modified, or engineered niches of the Anthropocene.
A nutrient cycle (or ecological recycling) is the movement and exchange of organic and inorganic matter back into the production of matter.
The Olympic Peninsula is the large arm of land in western Washington that lies across Puget Sound from Seattle, and contains Olympic National Park.
An order of magnitude is an approximate measure of the number of digits that a number has in the commonly-used base-ten number system.
Organic matter, organic material, or natural organic matter (NOM) refers to the large pool of carbon-based compounds found within natural and engineered, terrestrial and aquatic environments.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Overfishing is the removal of a species of fish from a body of water at a rate that the species cannot replenish in time, resulting in those species either becoming depleted or very underpopulated in that given area.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Parent material is the underlying geological material (generally bedrock or a superficial or drift deposit) in which soil horizons form.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Phototrophs (Gr: φῶς, φωτός.
A plant cuticle is a protecting film covering the epidermis of leaves, young shoots and other aerial plant organs without periderm.
Litterfall, plant litter, leaf litter, tree litter, soil litter, or duff, is dead plant material (such as leaves, bark, needles, twigs, and cladodes) that have fallen to the ground.
The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
Pollination is the transfer of pollen from a male part of a plant to a female part of a plant, enabling later fertilisation and the production of seeds, most often by an animal or by wind.
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Global oceanic and terrestrial photoautotroph abundance, from September 1997 to August 2000. As an estimate of autotroph biomass, it is only a rough indicator of primary-production potential, and not an actual estimate of it. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and ORBIMAGE. In ecology, primary production is the synthesis of organic compounds from atmospheric or aqueous carbon dioxide.
Primary succession is one of two types of biological and ecological succession of plant life, occurring in an environment in which new substrate devoid of vegetation and other organisms usually lacking soil, such as a lava flow or area left from retreated glacier, is deposited.
In ecology, productivity refers to the rate of generation of biomass in an ecosystem.
Protoplasm is the living content of a cell that is surrounded by a plasma membrane.
Raymond Laurel Lindeman (1915 – June 29, 1942) was an ecologist whose graduate research is often credited with being a seminal study in field of ecosystem ecology.
Regionalization is the tendency to form decentralized regions.
In the context of ecological stability, resistance is the property of communities or populations to remain "essentially unchanged" when subject to disturbance.
In Biology and Ecology, a resource is a substance or object in the environment required by an organism for normal growth, maintenance, and reproduction.
Secondary succession is one of the two types of ecological succession of plant life.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Simon Asher Levin (born April 22, 1941) is an American ecologist.
Social responsibility is an ethical framework and suggests that an entity, be it an organization or individual, has an obligation to act for the benefit of society at large.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
Soil carbon includes both inorganic carbon as carbonate minerals, and as soil organic matter.
Soil organic matter (SOM) is the organic matter component of soil, consisting of plant and animal residues at various stages of decomposition, cells and tissues of soil organisms, and substances synthesized by soil organisms.
Soil retrogression and degradation are two regressive evolution processes associated with the loss of equilibrium of a stable soil.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
Stephen Russell Carpenter is an American lake ecologist who focuses on lake Eutrophication which is the over-enrichment of lake ecosystems leading to toxic blooms of micro-organisms and fish kills.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
Sustainability is the process of change, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations.
Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.
Temperate rainforests are coniferous or broadleaf forests that occur in the temperate zone and receive heavy rainfall.
A terrestrial ecosystem is a type of ecosystem found only on biomes also known as beds.
Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids.
Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.
The trophic level of an organism is the position it occupies in a food chain.
Vegetation is an assemblage of plant species and the ground cover they provide.
Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky (Влади́мир Ива́нович Верна́дский; Володи́мир Іва́нович Верна́дський; – 6 January 1945) was a Russian, Ukrainian, and Soviet mineralogist and geochemist who is considered one of the founders of geochemistry, biogeochemistry, and radiogeology, and was a founder of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences (now National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine).
Washington, officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities.
Watershed management is the study of the relevant characteristics of a watershed aimed at the sustainable distribution of its resources and the process of creating and implementing plans, programs, and projects to sustain and enhance watershed functions that affect the plant, animal, and human communities within the watershed boundary.
Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water, and biological organisms.
A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem.
The White Mountains are a mountain range covering about a quarter of the state of New Hampshire and a small portion of western Maine in the United States.
Wilderness or wildland is a natural environment on Earth that has not been significantly modified by human activity.