200 relations: Aleksey Khomyakov, Alexandria, Anathema, Ancient church councils (pre-ecumenical), Ancient Church of the East, Anglican Communion, Anglicanism, Antioch, Antipope John XXIII, Archbishop of America, Arianism, Assyrian Church of the East, Atheism, Barlaam of Seminara, Basiliscus, Biblical canon, Buddhist councils, Byzantine Empire, Byzantine Iconoclasm, Canon law, Canon law of the Catholic Church, Cardinal (Catholic Church), Catholic Church, Chalcedonian Christianity, Chalcedonian Definition, Chaldean Catholic Church, Christendom, Christian Church, Christian denomination, Christian fundamentalism, Christology, Church of England, Church of God (Seventh-Day), Church of the East, College of Bishops, Common Worship, Conciliarism, Congregationalist polity, Constantine V, Constantinople, Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Council, Council of Chalcedon, Council of Constance, Council of Ephesus, Council of Florence, Council of Hieria, Council of Jerusalem, Council of Pisa, Council of Siena, ..., Council of Trent, Council of Vienne, Councils of Arabia, Councils of Carthage, Counter-Reformation, Daniel Wilson (bishop), Development of the Christian biblical canon, Dinkha IV, Diocese of Calcutta of the Church of North India, Dogma, Dominican Order, Dositheos II of Jerusalem, Dyophysitism, Eastern Catholic Churches, Eastern Orthodox Church, Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, Ecumenism, Encyclical of the Eastern Patriarchs, Encyclopædia Britannica, Episcopal see, Ersatz good, Eutyches, Excommunication, Exegesis, Faith, Fifth Council of Constantinople, Fifth Council of the Lateran, First Council of Constantinople, First Council of Lyon, First Council of Nicaea, First Council of the Lateran, First seven ecumenical councils, First Vatican Council, Fourth Council of Constantinople (Catholic Church), Fourth Council of Constantinople (Eastern Orthodox), Fourth Council of the Lateran, Franciscans, Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, Full communion, George Dragas, George Metallinos, Gregory Palamas, Heresy in Christianity, Hesychasm, Hierotheos (Vlachos), History of Christianity, Holy Roman Emperor, Holy Spirit, Holy Synod, Homoousion, Hypostatic union, Icon, Ignatios of Constantinople, Imperialism, Investiture Controversy, Jan Hus, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jerusalem, John Romanides, Knights Templar, Latter Day Saint movement, Leo V the Armenian, List of denominations in the Latter Day Saint movement, List of Patriarchs of the Church of the East, Liturgy, Lutheran World Federation, Lutheranism, Magisterial Reformation, Mark of Ephesus, Mary, mother of Jesus, Materialism, Medieval Greek, Mendicant orders, Methodism, Miaphysitism, Monoenergism, Monophysitism, Monothelitism, Nafpaktos, Nestorian Schism, Nestorianism, New Testament, Nicene Creed, Nontrinitarianism, Oriental Orthodoxy, Origen, Orthodoxy, Pan-Orthodox Council, Papal conclave, Papal infallibility, Papal legate, Papal primacy, Patriarch, Pelagianism, Pentarchy, Peter Mogila, Photios I of Constantinople, Pneumatomachi, Pope, Pope Dioscorus I of Alexandria, Pope Gregory VII, Pope Gregory XII, Pope Honorius I, Pope John Paul II, Prophet, Protestantism, Quartodecimanism, Quinisext Council, Rationalism, Reason, Revelation, Roman emperor, Roman Empire, Roman province, Sacraments of the Catholic Church, Schism, Second Council of Constantinople, Second Council of Ephesus, Second Council of Lyon, Second Council of Nicaea, Second Council of the Lateran, Second Vatican Council, Sergius I of Constantinople, Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, Simony, Society of the Holy Cross, State church of the Roman Empire, Symeon of Thessalonica, Synod, Synod of Ancyra, Synod of Arles, Synod of Elvira, Synod of Jassy, Synod of Jerusalem (1672), Synod of Neo-Caesarea, Synods of Antioch, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Theodore Balsamon, Theodosius II, Theodotus I of Constantinople, Theotokos, Third Council of Constantinople, Third Council of the Lateran, Thirty-nine Articles, Three-Chapter Controversy, Transubstantiation, Unitarianism, Vincent of Lérins, Western Christianity, Western Schism. Expand index (150 more) » « Shrink index
Aleksey Stepanovich Khomyakov (Алексе́й Степа́нович Хомяко́в) (May 13 (O.S. May 1) 1804 in Moscow – October 5 (O.S. September 23), 1860 in Moscow) was a Russian theologian, philosopher, poet and amateur artist.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Anathema, in common usage, is something or someone that is detested or shunned.
Church councils are formal meetings of bishops and representatives of several churches who are brought together to regulate points of doctrine or discipline.
The Ancient Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܥܬܝܩܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ʿĒdtā ʿAttīqtā d'Maḏnəḥā, كنيسة المشرق القديمة, Kanīsa al-Mašriq al-Qadīma), officially the Ancient Holy Apostolic Catholic Church of the East, is an Eastern Christian denomination founded by Thoma Darmo in 1968.
The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion with 85 million members, founded in 1867 in London, England.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
Antioch on the Orontes (Antiókheia je epi Oróntou; also Syrian Antioch)Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, "Antioch on Daphne"; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη, "Antioch the Great"; Antiochia ad Orontem; Անտիոք Antiok; ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ Anṭiokya; Hebrew: אנטיוכיה, Antiyokhya; Arabic: انطاكية, Anṭākiya; انطاکیه; Antakya.
Baldassarre Cossa (c. 1370 – 22 December 1419) was Pisan antipope John XXIII (1410–1415) during the Western Schism.
The Archdiocese of America, better known as the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America, is a jurisdiction of the Eastern Orthodox Church under the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.
Arianism is a nontrinitarian Christological doctrine which asserts the belief that Jesus Christ is the Son of God who was begotten by God the Father at a point in time, a creature distinct from the Father and is therefore subordinate to him, but the Son is also God (i.e. God the Son).
The Assyrian Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܖ̈ܝܐ ʻĒdtā d-Madenḥā d-Ātorāyē), officially the Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East (ʻEdtā Qaddīštā wa-Šlīḥāitā Qātolīqī d-Madenḥā d-Ātorāyē), is an Eastern Christian Church that follows the traditional christology and ecclesiology of the historical Church of the East.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Barlaam of Seminara (Bernardo Massari, as a layman), c. 1290–1348, or Barlaam of Calabria (Βαρλαὰμ Καλαβρός) was a southern Italian scholar (Aristotelian scholastic) and clergyman of the 14th century, as well as a Humanist, a philologist, and a theologian.
Basiliscus (Flavius Basiliscus Augustus; Βασιλίσκος; d. 476/477) was Eastern Roman or Byzantine Emperor from 475 to 476.
A biblical canon or canon of scripture is a set of texts (or "books") which a particular religious community regards as authoritative scripture.
Since the death of the historical Buddha, Siddhartha Gautama, Buddhist monastic communities have periodically convened to settle doctrinal and disciplinary disputes and to revise and correct the contents of the sutras.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Byzantine Iconoclasm (Εἰκονομαχία, Eikonomachía, literally, "image struggle" or "struggle over images") refers to two periods in the history of the Byzantine Empire when the use of religious images or icons was opposed by religious and imperial authorities within the Eastern Church and the temporal imperial hierarchy.
Canon law (from Greek kanon, a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members.
The canon law of the Catholic Church is the system of laws and legal principles made and enforced by the hierarchical authorities of the Catholic Church to regulate its external organization and government and to order and direct the activities of Catholics toward the mission of the Church.
A cardinal (Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, literally Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church) is a senior ecclesiastical leader, considered a Prince of the Church, and usually an ordained bishop of the Roman Catholic Church.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Chalcedonian Christianity is the Christian denominations adhering to christological definitions and ecclesiological resolutions of the Council of Chalcedon, the Fourth Ecumenical Council held in 451.
The Chalcedonian Definition (also called the Chalcedonian Creed) was adopted at the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451.
The Chaldean Catholic Church (ܥܕܬܐ ܟܠܕܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝܬܐ, ʿīdtha kaldetha qāthuliqetha; Arabic: الكنيسة الكلدانية al-Kanīsa al-kaldāniyya; translation) is an Eastern Catholic particular church (sui juris) in full communion with the Holy See and the rest of the Catholic Church, with the Chaldean Patriarchate having been originally formed out of the Church of the East in 1552.
Christendom has several meanings.
"Christian Church" is an ecclesiological term generally used by Protestants to refer to the whole group of people belonging to Christianity throughout the history of Christianity.
A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organisation, leadership and doctrine.
Christian fundamentalism began in the late 19th and early 20th centuries among British and American Protestants at merriam-webster.com.
Christology (from Greek Χριστός Khristós and -λογία, -logia) is the field of study within Christian theology which is primarily concerned with the ontology and person of Jesus as recorded in the canonical Gospels and the epistles of the New Testament.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
The Churches of God (7th Day) movement is composed of a number of sabbath-keeping churches, among which the General Conference of the Church of God, or simply CoG7, is the best-known organization.
The Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ Ēdṯāʾ d-Maḏenḥā), also known as the Nestorian Church, was an Eastern Christian Church with independent hierarchy from the Nestorian Schism (431–544), while tracing its history to the late 1st century AD in Assyria, then the satrapy of Assuristan in the Parthian Empire.
College of Bishops is a term used in the Catholic Church to denote the collection of those bishops who are in communion with the Pope.
Common Worship is the name given to the series of services authorised by the General Synod of the Church of England and launched on the first Sunday of Advent in 2000.
Conciliarism was a reform movement in the 14th-, 15th- and 16th-century Catholic Church which held that supreme authority in the Church resided with an Ecumenical council, apart from, or even against, the pope.
Congregationalist polity, or congregational polity, often known as congregationalism, is a system of ecclesiastical polity in which every local church congregation is independent, ecclesiastically sovereign, or "autonomous".
Constantine V (Κωνσταντῖνος Ε΄; July, 718 AD – September 14, 775 AD), denigrated by his enemies as Kopronymos or Copronymus, meaning the dung-named, was Byzantine emperor from 741 to 775.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: Ϯⲉⲕ̀ⲕⲗⲏⲥⲓⲁ ̀ⲛⲣⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛⲟⲣⲑⲟⲇⲟⲝⲟⲥ, ti.eklyseya en.remenkimi en.orthodoxos, literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church) is an Oriental Orthodox Christian church based in Egypt, Northeast Africa and the Middle East.
A council is a group of people who come together to consult, deliberate, or make decisions.
The Council of Chalcedon was a church council held from October 8 to November 1, AD 451, at Chalcedon.
The Council of Constance is the 15th-century ecumenical council recognized by the Catholic Church, held from 1414 to 1418 in the Bishopric of Constance.
The Council of Ephesus was a council of Christian bishops convened in Ephesus (near present-day Selçuk in Turkey) in AD 431 by the Roman Emperor Theodosius II.
The Seventeenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church was convoked as the Council of Basel by Pope Martin V shortly before his death in February 1431 and took place in the context of the Hussite wars in Bohemia and the rise of the Ottoman Empire.
The iconoclast Council of Hieria was a Christian council of 754 which viewed itself as ecumenical, but was later rejected by the medieval Catholic Church (what would later fracture into the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic communions).
The Council of Jerusalem or Apostolic Council was held in Jerusalem around AD 50.
The Council of Pisa was a controversial ecumenical council of the Catholic Church held in 1409.
In the Catholic Church, the Council of Siena (1423–1424) marked a somewhat inconclusive stage in the Conciliar movement that was attempting reforms in the Church.
The Council of Trent (Concilium Tridentinum), held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent (or Trento, in northern Italy), was an ecumenical council of the Catholic Church.
The Council of Vienne was the fifteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church that met between 1311 and 1312 in Vienne.
The Councils of Arabia were two councils of the early Christian Church held in Bostra, in Arabia Petraea; one in 246 and the other in 247.
The Councils of Carthage, or Synods of Carthage, were church synods held during the 3rd, 4th, and 5th centuries in the city of Carthage in Africa.
The Counter-Reformation, also called the Catholic Reformation or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648).
Daniel Wilson (2 July 1778 – 2 January 1858) was an English Bishop of Calcutta.
The Christian biblical canons are the books Christians regard as divinely inspired and which constitute a Christian Bible.
Mar Dinkha IV (Classical Syriac: and مار دنخا الرابع), born Dinkha Khanania (15 September 1935 – 26 March 2015), was the Catholicos-Patriarch of the Assyrian Church of the East.
The Diocese of Calcutta, Church of North India was established in 1813 as part of the Church of England.
The term dogma is used in pejorative and non-pejorative senses.
The Order of Preachers (Ordo Praedicatorum, postnominal abbreviation OP), also known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216.
Dositheos II Notaras of Jerusalem (Δοσίθεος Β΄ Ιεροσολύμων; Arachova 31 May 1641 – Constantinople 8 February 1707) was the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem between 1669 and 1707 and a theologian of the Orthodox Church.
In Christian theology, dyophysitism (Greek: δυοφυσιτισμός, from δυο (dyo), meaning "two" and φύσις (physis), meaning "nature") is the Christological position that two natures, divine and human, exist in the person of Jesus Christ.
The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, and in some historical cases Uniate Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian particular churches sui iuris in full communion with the Pope in Rome, as part of the worldwide Catholic Church.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
The Ecumenical Patriarch (Η Αυτού Θειοτάτη Παναγιότης, ο Αρχιεπίσκοπος Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Νέας Ρώμης και Οικουμενικός Πατριάρχης, "His Most Divine All-Holiness the Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome, and Ecumenical Patriarch") is the Archbishop of Constantinople–New Rome and ranks as primus inter pares (first among equals) among the heads of the several autocephalous churches that make up the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Ecumenism refers to efforts by Christians of different Church traditions to develop closer relationships and better understandings.
The Encyclical of the Eastern Patriarchs was a letter issued in May, 1848 by the four eastern patriarchs of the Eastern Orthodox Church, who met at Council in Constantinople.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The seat or cathedra of the Bishop of Rome in the Basilica of San Giovanni in Laterano An episcopal see is, in the usual meaning of the phrase, the area of a bishop's ecclesiastical jurisdiction.
An ersatz good is a substitute good, especially one that is considered inferior to the good it replaces.
Eutyches (Εὐτυχής; c. 380 – c. 456) was a presbyter and archimandrite at Constantinople.
Excommunication is an institutional act of religious censure used to deprive, suspend, or limit membership in a religious community or to restrict certain rights within it, in particular receiving of the sacraments.
Exegesis (from the Greek ἐξήγησις from ἐξηγεῖσθαι, "to lead out") is a critical explanation or interpretation of a text, particularly a religious text.
In the context of religion, one can define faith as confidence or trust in a particular system of religious belief, within which faith may equate to confidence based on some perceived degree of warrant, in contrast to the general sense of faith being a belief without evidence.
Fifth Council of Constantinople is a name given to a series of six patriarchal councils held in the Byzantine capital Constantinople between 1341 and 1351, to deal with a dispute concerning the mystical doctrine of Hesychasm.
The Fifth Council of the Lateran (1512–1517) is the Eighteenth Ecumenical Council to be recognized by the Roman Catholic Church and the last one before the Protestant Reformation.
The First Council of Constantinople (Πρώτη σύνοδος της Κωνσταντινουπόλεως commonly known as Β΄ Οικουμενική, "Second Ecumenical"; Concilium Constantinopolitanum Primum or Concilium Constantinopolitanum A) was a council of Christian bishops convened in Constantinople in AD 381 by the Roman Emperor Theodosius I. This second ecumenical council, an effort to attain consensus in the church through an assembly representing all of Christendom, except for the Western Church,Richard Kieckhefer (1989).
The First Council of Lyon (Lyon I) was the thirteenth ecumenical council, as numbered by the Catholic Church, taking place in 1245.
The First Council of Nicaea (Νίκαια) was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea (now İznik, Bursa province, Turkey) by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325.
The Council of 1123 is reckoned in the series of Ecumenical councils by the Catholic Church.
In the history of Christianity, the first seven ecumenical councils, include the following: the First Council of Nicaea in 325, the First Council of Constantinople in 381, the Council of Ephesus in 431, the Council of Chalcedon in 451, the Second Council of Constantinople in 553, the Third Council of Constantinople from 680–681 and finally, the Second Council of Nicaea in 787.
The First Vatican Council (Concilium Vaticanum Primum) was convoked by Pope Pius IX on 29 June 1868, after a period of planning and preparation that began on 6 December 1864.
The Fourth Council of Constantinople was the eighth Catholic Ecumenical Council held in Constantinople from October 5, 869, to February 28, 870.
The Fourth Council of Constantinople was held in 879–880.
The Fourth Council of the Lateran was convoked by Pope Innocent III with the papal bull Vineam domini Sabaoth of 19 April 1213, and the Council gathered at Rome's Lateran Palace beginning 11 November 1215.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.
Frederick II (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250; Fidiricu, Federico, Friedrich) was King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225.
Full communion is a communion or relationship of full understanding among different Christian denominations that they share certain essential principles of Christian theology.
The Reverend Father Protopresbyter George Dion Dragas (born 1944) is an Orthodox Christian priest, theologian, and writer.
Protopresbyter (Archpriest) Fr.
Gregory Palamas (Γρηγόριος Παλαμάς; c. 1296 – 1357 or 1359) was a prominent theologian and ecclesiastical figure of the late Byzantine period.
When heresy is used today with reference to Christianity, it denotes the formal denial or doubt of a core doctrine of the Christian faithJ.D Douglas (ed).
Hesychasm is a mystical tradition of contemplative prayer in the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Metropolitan Hierotheos (Μητροπολίτης Ιερόθεος, born Georgios Vlachos. Γεώργιος Βλάχος) is a Greek metropolitan and theologian.
The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion, Christendom, and the Church with its various denominations, from the 1st century to the present.
The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).
Holy Spirit (also called Holy Ghost) is a term found in English translations of the Bible that is understood differently among the Abrahamic religions.
In several of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches and Eastern Catholic Churches, the patriarch or head bishop is elected by a group of bishops called the Holy Synod.
Homoousion (from, homós, "same" and, ousía, "being") is a Christian theological doctrine pertaining to the Trinitarian understanding of God.
Hypostatic union (from the Greek: ὑπόστασις hypóstasis, "sediment, foundation, substance, subsistence") is a technical term in Christian theology employed in mainstream Christology to describe the union of Christ's humanity and divinity in one hypostasis, or individual existence.
An icon (from Greek εἰκών eikōn "image") is a religious work of art, most commonly a painting, from the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, and certain Eastern Catholic churches.
Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.
The Investiture controversy or Investiture contest was a conflict between church and state in medieval Europe over the ability to appoint local church officials through investiture.
Jan Hus (– 6 July 1415), sometimes Anglicized as John Hus or John Huss, also referred to in historical texts as Iohannes Hus or Johannes Huss) was a Czech theologian, Roman Catholic priest, philosopher, master, dean, and rectorhttps://www.britannica.com/biography/Jan-Hus Encyclopedia Britannica - Jan Hus of the Charles University in Prague who became a church reformer, an inspirer of Hussitism, a key predecessor to Protestantism and a seminal figure in the Bohemian Reformation. After John Wycliffe, the theorist of ecclesiastical reform, Hus is considered the first church reformer, as he lived before Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli. His teachings had a strong influence on the states of Western Europe, most immediately in the approval of a reformed Bohemian religious denomination, and, more than a century later, on Martin Luther himself. He was burned at the stake for heresy against the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church, including those on ecclesiology, the Eucharist, and other theological topics. After Hus was executed in 1415, the followers of his religious teachings (known as Hussites) rebelled against their Roman Catholic rulers and defeated five consecutive papal crusades between 1420 and 1431 in what became known as the Hussite Wars. Both the Bohemian and the Moravian populations remained majority Hussite until the 1620s, when a Protestant defeat in the Battle of the White Mountain resulted in the Lands of the Bohemian Crown coming under Habsburg dominion for the next 300 years and being subject to immediate and forced conversion in an intense campaign of return to Roman Catholicism.
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
John Savvas Romanides (Ιωάννης Σάββας Ρωμανίδης; 2 March 1927, Piraeus1 November 2001, Athens) was an Orthodox Christian priest, author and professor who had a distinctive influence on post-war Greek Orthodox theology.
The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Salomonici), also known as the Order of Solomon's Temple, the Knights Templar or simply as Templars, were a Catholic military order recognised in 1139 by papal bull Omne Datum Optimum of the Holy See.
The Latter Day Saint movement (also called the LDS movement, LDS restorationist movement, or Smith–Rigdon movement) is the collection of independent church groups that trace their origins to a Christian primitivist movement founded by Joseph Smith in the late 1820s.
Leo V the Armenian (Λέων ὁ ἐξ Ἀρμενίας, Leōn ho ex Armenias; 775 – 24 December 820) was Emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 813 to 820.
The denominations in the Latter Day Saint movement are sometimes collectively referred to as Mormonism.
The Patriarch of the Church of the East (Patriarch of Babylon or Patriarch of the East) is the patriarch, or leader and head bishop (sometimes referred to as Catholicos or universal leader) of the Chaldean Church. The position dates to the early centuries of Christianity within the Sassanid Empire, and the church has been known by a variety of names, including the Church of the East, Nestorian Church, the Persian Church, the Sassanid Church, or East Syrian. In the 16th and 17th century the Church, by now restricted to Mosul region experienced a series of splits, resulting in a series of competing patriarchs and lineages. Today, the three principal churches that emerged from these splits, the Assyrian Church of the East, Ancient Church of the East and the Chaldean Catholic Church, each have their own patriarch, the Patriarch of the Assyrian Church of the East, the Patriarch of the Ancient Church of the East and the Patriarch of Babylon of the Chaldeans, respectively.
Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group, according to its beliefs, customs and traditions.
The Lutheran World Federation (LWF; Lutherischer Weltbund) is a global communion of national and regional Lutheran churches headquartered in the Ecumenical Centre in Geneva, Switzerland.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
The Magisterial Reformation is a phrase that "draws attention to the manner in which the Lutheran and Calvinist reformers related to secular authorities, such as princes, magistrates, or city councils", i.e. "the magistracy".
Mark of Ephesus (born Manuel Eugenikos) was a hesychast theologian of the late Palaiologan period of the Byzantine Empire who became famous for his rejection of the Council of Ferrara-Florence (1438–1439).
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.
Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions.
Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th–6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453.
Mendicant orders are, primarily, certain Christian religious orders that have adopted a lifestyle of poverty, traveling, and living in urban areas for purposes of preaching, evangelism, and ministry, especially to the poor.
Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley, an Anglican minister in England.
Miaphysitism is a Christological formula holding that in the person of Jesus Christ, divine nature and human nature are united (μία, mia – "one" or "unity") in a compound nature ("physis"), the two being united without separation, without mixture, without confusion and without alteration.
Monoenergism (μονοενεργητισμός) was a notion in early medieval Christian theology, representing the belief that Christ had only one "energy" (energeia).
Monophysitism (or; Greek: μονοφυσιτισμός; Late Koine Greek from μόνος monos, "only, single" and φύσις physis, "nature") is the Christological position that, after the union of the divine and the human in the historical incarnation, Jesus Christ, as the incarnation of the eternal Son or Word (Logos) of God, had only a single "nature" which was either divine or a synthesis of divine and human.
Monothelitism or monotheletism (from Greek μονοθελητισμός "doctrine of one will") is a particular teaching about how the divine and human relate in the person of Jesus, known as a Christological doctrine, that formally emerged in Armenia and Syria in 629.
Nafpaktos (Ναύπακτος) is a town and a former municipality in Aetolia-Acarnania, West Greece, Greece, situated on a bay on the north coast of the Gulf of Corinth, west of the mouth of the river Mornos.
The Nestorian Schism (431–544), in church history, involved a split between the Christian churches of Sassanid Persia, which affiliated with Nestorius, and churches that rejected him.
Nestorianism is a Christological doctrine that emphasizes a distinction between the human and divine natures of the divine person, Jesus.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
The Nicene Creed (Greek: or,, Latin: Symbolum Nicaenum) is a statement of belief widely used in Christian liturgy.
Nontrinitarianism is a form of Christianity that rejects the mainstream Christian doctrine of the Trinity—the teaching that God is three distinct hypostases or persons who are coeternal, coequal, and indivisibly united in one being, or essence (from the Greek ousia).
Oriental Orthodoxy is the fourth largest communion of Christian churches, with about 76 million members worldwide.
Origen of Alexandria (184 – 253), also known as Origen Adamantius, was a Hellenistic scholar, ascetic, and early Christian theologian who was born and spent the first half of his career in Alexandria.
Orthodoxy (from Greek ὀρθοδοξία orthodoxía "right opinion") is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion.
The Pan-Orthodox Council officially referred to as the Holy and Great Council of the Orthodox Church, §6: «Ἡ Ἁγία καί Μεγάλη Σύνοδος τῆς Ὀρθοδόξου Ἐκκλησίας θά συγκληθῇ ὑπό τοῦ Οἰκουμενικοῦ Πατριάρχου ἐν Κωνσταντινουπόλει ἐν ἔτει 2016, ἐκτός ἀπροόπτου.» was a synod of set representative bishops of the universally recognised autocephalous local churches of Eastern Orthodox Christianity held in Kolymvari, Crete.
A papal conclave is a meeting of the College of Cardinals convened to elect a Bishop of Rome, also known as the Pope.
Papal infallibility is a dogma of the Catholic Church that states that, in virtue of the promise of Jesus to Peter, the Pope is preserved from the possibility of error "when, in the exercise of his office as shepherd and teacher of all Christians, in virtue of his supreme apostolic authority, he defines a doctrine concerning faith or morals to be held by the whole Church." This doctrine was defined dogmatically at the First Ecumenical Council of the Vatican of 1869–1870 in the document Pastor aeternus, but had been defended before that, existing already in medieval theology and being the majority opinion at the time of the Counter-Reformation.
A woodcut showing Henry II of England greeting the pope's legate. A papal legate or Apostolic legate (from the Ancient Roman title legatus) is a personal representative of the pope to foreign nations, or to some part of the Catholic Church.
Papal primacy, also known as the primacy of the Bishop of Rome, is an ecclesiastical doctrine concerning the respect and authority that is due to the pope from other bishops and their episcopal sees.
The highest-ranking bishops in Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Catholic Church (above major archbishop and primate), and the Church of the East are termed patriarchs (and in certain cases also popes).
Pelagianism is the belief that original sin did not taint human nature and that mortal will is still capable of choosing good or evil without special divine aid.
Pentarchy (from the Greek Πενταρχία, pentarchía, from πέντε pénte, "five", and ἄρχειν archein, "to rule") is a model of Church organization historically championed in the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Metropolitan Peter (secular name Pyotr Simeonovich Mogila, Петро Симеонович Могила, Piotr Mohyła, Petru Movilă, Петр Симеонович Могила; 21 December 1596 –) was an influential Orthodox theologian and reformer, Metropolitan of Kiev, Halych and All Rus' from 1633 until his death.
Photios I (Φώτιος Phōtios), (c. 810/820 – 6 February 893), also spelled PhotiusFr.
The Pneumatomachi (Greek: Πνευματομάχοι), also known as Macedonians or Semi-Arians in Constantinople and the Tropici in Alexandria, were an anti-Nicene Creed sect which flourished in the countries adjacent to the Hellespont during the latter half of the fourth, and the beginning of the fifth century.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Pope Dioscorus I of Alexandria, 25th Pope of Alexandria & Patriarch of the See of St. Mark.
Gregory VII (Gregorius VII; 1015 – 25 May 1085), born Hildebrand of Sovana (Ildebrando da Soana), was Pope from 22 April 1073 to his death in 1085.
Pope Gregory XII (Gregorius XII; – 18 October 1417), born Angelo Corraro, Corario," or Correr, was Pope from 30 November 1406 to 4 July 1415 when he was forced to resign to end the Western Schism.
Pope Honorius I (died 12 October 638) was Pope from 27 October 625 to his death in 638.
Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
In religion, a prophet is an individual regarded as being in contact with a divine being and said to speak on that entity's behalf, serving as an intermediary with humanity by delivering messages or teachings from the supernatural source to other people.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
The term "Quartodecimanism" (from the Vulgate Latin quarta decima in Leviticus 23:5, meaning fourteenth) refers to the custom of early Christians celebrating Passover beginning with the eve of the 14th day of Nisan (or Aviv in the Hebrew Bible calendar), which at dusk is biblically the "Lord's passover".
The Quinisext Council (often called the Council in Trullo, Trullan Council, or the Penthekte Synod) was a church council held in 692 at Constantinople under Justinian II.
In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".
Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
In religion and theology, revelation is the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities.
The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the Tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.
There are seven sacraments of the Catholic Church, which according to Catholic theology were instituted by Jesus and entrusted to the Church.
A schism (pronounced, or, less commonly) is a division between people, usually belonging to an organization, movement, or religious denomination.
The Second Council of Constantinople is the fifth of the first seven ecumenical councils recognized by both the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church.
The Second Council of Ephesus was a Christological church synod in 449 AD convened by Emperor Theodosius II under the presidency of Pope Dioscorus I of Alexandria.
The Second Council of Lyon was the fourteenth ecumenical council of the Catholic Church, convoked on 31 March 1272 and convened in Lyon, France, in 1274.
The Second Council of Nicaea is recognized as the last of the first seven ecumenical councils by the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church.
The Second Council of the Lateran is believed to have been the tenth ecumenical council held by the Roman Catholic Church.
The Second Vatican Council, fully the Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican and informally known as addressed relations between the Catholic Church and the modern world.
Sergius I (d. 9 December 638 in Constantinople) was the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople from 610 to 638.
Sigismund of Luxembourg (15 February 1368 in Nuremberg – 9 December 1437 in Znaim, Moravia) was Prince-elector of Brandenburg from 1378 until 1388 and from 1411 until 1415, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1387, King of Germany from 1411, King of Bohemia from 1419, King of Italy from 1431, and Holy Roman Emperor for four years from 1433 until 1437, the last male member of the House of Luxembourg.
Simony is the act of selling church offices and roles.
The Society of the Holy Cross (SSC, Societas Sanctae Crucis) is an international Anglo-Catholic society of male priests with members in the Anglican Communion and the Continuing Anglican Movement, who live under a common rule of life that informs their Priestly ministry and charism.
Nicene Christianity became the state church of the Roman Empire with the Edict of Thessalonica in 380 AD, when Emperor Theodosius I made it the Empire's sole authorized religion.
Saint Symeon of Thessalonica (c. 1381–1429) was a monk, bishop and theologian in Greece.
A synod is a council of a church, usually convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application.
The Synod of Ancyra was an ecclesiastical council, or synod, convened in Ancyra (modern-day Ankara, the capital of Turkey), the seat of the Roman administration for the province of Galatia, in 314.
Arles (ancient Arelate) in the south of Roman Gaul (modern France) hosted several councils or synods referred to as Concilium Arelatense in the history of the early Christian church.
The Synod of Elvira (Concilium Eliberritanum, Concilio de Elvira) was an ecclesiastical synod held at Elvira in the Roman province of Hispania Baetica, now Granada in southern Spain.
The Synod of Jassy (also referred to as the Council of Jassy) was convened in Iași (Jassy), Moldavia (present day Romania), between 15 September - 27 October 1642, by the Ecumenical Patriarch Parthenius I of Constantinople, with the support of the Moldavian Prince Vasile Lupu.
The Synod of Jerusalem was convened by Orthodox Patriarch Dositheos Notaras in March 1672.
The Synod of Neo-Caesarea was a church synod held in Neocaesarea, Pontus, shortly after the Synod of Ancyra, probably about 314 or 315 (although Hefele inclines to put it somewhat later).
Beginning with three synods convened between 264 and 269 in the matter of Paul of Samosata, more than thirty councils were held in Antioch in ancient times.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), often informally known as the Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian, Christian restorationist church that is considered by its members to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ.
Theodore Balsamon (Θεόδωρος Βαλσαμῶν) was a canonist of the Eastern Orthodox Church and 12th-century Eastern Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch.
Theodosius II (Flavius Theodosius Junior Augustus; Θεοδόσιος Βʹ; 10 April 401 – 28 July 450),"Theodosius II" in The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, New York & Oxford, 1991, p. 2051.
Theodotos I Kassiteras, Latinized as Theodotus I Cassiteras (Θεόδοτος Α΄ Κασσιτεράς), (? – January 821) Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople from April 1, 815 to January 821.
Theotokos (Greek Θεοτόκος) is a title of Mary, mother of God, used especially in Eastern Christianity.
The Third Council of Constantinople, counted as the Sixth Ecumenical Council by the Eastern Orthodox and Catholic Churches, as well by certain other Western Churches, met in 680/681 and condemned monoenergism and monothelitism as heretical and defined Jesus Christ as having two energies and two wills (divine and human).
The Third Council of the Lateran met in March 1179 as the eleventh ecumenical council.
The Thirty-nine Articles of Religion (commonly abbreviated as the Thirty-nine Articles or the XXXIX Articles) are the historically defining statements of doctrines and practices of the Church of England with respect to the controversies of the English Reformation.
The Three-Chapter Controversy, a phase in the Chalcedonian controversy, was an attempt to reconcile the Non-Chalcedonian Christians of Syria (Syriac Orthodox Church) and Egypt (Coptic Orthodox Church) with the Great Church, following the failure of the Henotikon.
Transubstantiation (Latin: transsubstantiatio; Greek: μετουσίωσις metousiosis) is, according to the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church, the change of substance or essence by which the bread and wine offered in the sacrifice of the sacrament of the Eucharist during the Mass, become, in reality, the body and blood of Jesus Christ.
Unitarianism (from Latin unitas "unity, oneness", from unus "one") is historically a Christian theological movement named for its belief that the God in Christianity is one entity, as opposed to the Trinity (tri- from Latin tres "three") which defines God as three persons in one being; the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
Saint Vincent of Lérins (Vincentius) who died, was a Gallic monk and author of early Christian writings.
Western Christianity is the type of Christianity which developed in the areas of the former Western Roman Empire.
The Western Schism, also called Papal Schism, Great Occidental Schism and Schism of 1378, was a split within the Catholic Church lasting from 1378 to 1417 in which two, since 1410 even three, men simultaneously claimed to be the true pope.
Catholicism/Councils, Christian councils, Chronological list of Ecumenical councils, Council Father, Council of Bazil, Councils, General, Ecumenical Council, Ecumenical Councils, Ecumenical councils, Ecumenical synod, Eucumenical Council, General Council of the Church, General council (Christianity), Late Antique Christianity, List of ecumenical councils, OEcumenical Council, OEcumenical council, Oecumenical Council, Oecumenical council, Œcumenical Council, Œcumenical council.