291 relations: A Discourse on the Love of Our Country, A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful, A Vindication of Natural Society, A Vindication of the Rights of Men, Absolute monarchy, Academic degree, Adam Smith, Admiral, Age of Enlightenment, Aliens Act 1793, Allen Bathurst, 1st Earl Bathurst, American Revolutionary War, Anglo-Irish people, Anglo-Normans, Appeasement, Arcot State, Armand Louis de Gontaut, Arthur Young (agriculturist), Ballitore, Bath, Somerset, BBC, Beaconsfield, Benjamin Disraeli, Biographia Literaria, Blue plaque, Board of Agriculture (1793–1822), Board of Trade, Bourgeoisie, Brendan Simms, Bristol (UK Parliament constituency), British Empire, Calais, Cambridge University Press, Carnatic region, Catholic Church, Catholic emancipation, Charles Burney, Charles James Fox, Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham, Charles X of France, Chief Secretary for Ireland, Chinatown, London, Christopher Hitchens, Christopher Nugent (physician), Church of Ireland, Civil List and Secret Service Money Act 1782, Coldstream Guards, College Historical Society, Colleges of St Omer, Bruges and Liège, Confessions (Rousseau), ..., Conor Cruise O'Brien, Conservative Party (UK), Continental Europe, Corn Laws, County Cork, Crossing the Rubicon, Das Kapital, David Bromwich, David Garrick, David Hume, Defamation, Denis Diderot, Dictionary of National Biography, Dublin, Earl Fitzwilliam, Earl of Beaconsfield, Earl Verney, East India Company, EBSCO Industries, Editor-in-chief, Edmund Nagle, Edward Coke, Edward Gibbon, ELH, Estate (land), First Partition of Poland, Frances Crewe, Lady Crewe, Francis Basset, 1st Baron de Dunstanville and Basset, Francis Wrigley Hirst, Frederick Montagu, Frederick North, Lord North, Free market, Free trade, Freemasonry, French Laurence, French Revolution, Friedrich Hayek, G. M. Young, George Canning, George Damer, 2nd Earl of Dorchester, George Grenville, George III of the United Kingdom, George Santayana, Gerrard Street, London, Glorious Revolution, Gordon Riots, Government of the United Kingdom, Grandee, Gregorian calendar, Hanna Fenichel Pitkin, Harvard University Press, Hedge school, Henry Brougham, 1st Baron Brougham and Vaux, Henry Cruger, Henry Dundas, 1st Viscount Melville, Henry II of England, Henry Sacheverell, Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke, High crimes and misdemeanors, House of Burke, House of Commons of Great Britain, House of Hanover, Human rights, Immanuel Kant, Impeachment, Impeachment of Warren Hastings, India, Isaac Barré, J. C. D. Clark, James Mackintosh, James Maitland, 8th Earl of Lauderdale, James Prior (surgeon), Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Jesse Norman, John Adams (died 1817), John Baker Holroyd, 1st Earl of Sheffield, John Dalberg-Acton, 1st Baron Acton, John Dalrymple, 6th Earl of Stair, John Dawnay, 4th Viscount Downe, John Knox Laughton, John Milton, John Morley, John Russell, 6th Duke of Bedford, John Stuart Mill, Joseph de Maistre, Joseph Sobran, Joshua Reynolds, Julian calendar, Jury, Karl Marx, Kingdom of Great Britain, Kingdom of Ireland, Kissing hands, Knight, Legislature, Leo Strauss, Letters of Junius, Letters on a Regicide Peace, Libel Act 1792, List of abolitionist forerunners, List of political theorists, Lord John Cavendish, Lord William Bentinck, Louis XVI of France, Magna Carta, Maharaja, Maiden speech, Malton (UK Parliament constituency), Manchester University Press, Manifesto, Marie Antoinette, Mary Leadbeater, Mary Wollstonecraft, Middle Temple, Modern Language Association, More Irish than the Irish themselves, Motion (parliamentary procedure), Munster Blackwater, Nano Nagle, National Assembly (France), Norman invasion of Ireland, Oath of Allegiance (United Kingdom), Oath of Supremacy, Old Style and New Style dates, Oliver Goldsmith, On American Taxation, Pamphlet, Parliament of Great Britain, Parliamentary Private Secretary, Paul Langford, Paymaster General Act 1782, Paymaster of the Forces, Peace treaty, Penal Laws (Ireland), Peter Hitchens, Petition of Right, Philip Francis (politician), Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield, Piers Brendon, Pillory, Political history, Political philosophy, Politician, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Privy Council of the United Kingdom, Providentialism, Quakers, Rector of the University of Glasgow, Reductio ad absurdum, Reflections on the Revolution in France, Repeal of Certain Laws Act 1772, Representation (politics), Representations, Revelation, Revolution Controversy, Revolution Society, Richard Bourke (academic), Richard Brinsley Sheridan, Richard Burke Jr., Richard Cobden, Richard Hurd (bishop), Richard Price, Richard Rigby, Rights of Man, Robert Cunninghame Graham of Gartmore, Robert Dodsley, Robert Nugent, 1st Earl Nugent, Rockingham Whigs, Roger Scruton, Rotten and pocket boroughs, Royal Society of Arts, Royalist, Russell Kirk, Saint-Omer, Samuel Johnson, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Samuel Whitbread (1764–1815), Savile Finch, Secretary of State (United Kingdom), Settler, Sir George Savile, 8th Baronet, Sir Henry Lippincott, 1st Baronet, Sir Thomas Gascoigne, 8th Baronet, Social, Social contract, Social group, Society of Jesus, Sociological theory, Sodomy, Stanford University Press, Sublime (literary), Sublime (philosophy), Tea Act, The Annual Register, The Historical Journal, The Journal of Modern History, The Prelude, The Right Honourable, The Watchman (periodical), Thirteen Colonies, Thomas Babington Macaulay, Thomas Paine, Thomas Sowell, Thoughts and Details on Scarcity, Thoughts on the Cause of the Present Discontents, Titian, Tories (British political party), Totalitarianism, Transubstantiation, Trinity College Dublin, Tyranny of the majority, United States Declaration of Independence, University, University of Georgia Press, Vendée, War in the Vendée, Ward (law), Warren Hastings, Wendover (UK Parliament constituency), Western philosophy, Whiggism, Whigs (British political party), William Blackstone, William Cavendish, 5th Duke of Devonshire, William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland, William Ewart Gladstone, William Fitzwilliam, 4th Earl Fitzwilliam, William Gerard Hamilton, William Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville, William Hazlitt, William Pitt the Younger, William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham, William Warburton, William Weddell, William Windham, William Wordsworth, Winston Churchill, Women's March on Versailles, Work of art, Yuval Levin, 19th-century philosophy. 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A Discourse on the Love of Our Country is a speech and pamphlet delivered by Richard Price in England in 1789, in support of the French Revolution, equating it with the Glorious Revolution a century earlier in England.
A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful is a 1757 treatise on aesthetics written by Edmund Burke.
A Vindication of Natural Society: A View of the Miseries and Evils Arising to Mankind is a work by Edmund Burke published in 1756.
A Vindication of the Rights of Men, in a Letter to the Right Honourable Edmund Burke; Occasioned by His Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790) is a political pamphlet, written by the 18th-century British liberal feminist Mary Wollstonecraft, which attacks aristocracy and advocates republicanism.
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, normally at a college or university.
Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.
Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navies, and in many navies is the highest rank.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
The Aliens Act 1793 (33 Geo 3 c 4) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain regulating immigration into the country.
Allen Bathurst, 1st Earl Bathurst, (16 November 168416 September 1775), known as The Lord Bathurst from 1712 to 1772, was a British politician.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
Anglo-Irish is a term which was more commonly used in the 19th and early 20th centuries to identify a social class in Ireland, whose members are mostly the descendants and successors of the English Protestant Ascendancy.
The Anglo-Normans were the medieval ruling class in England, composed mainly of a combination of ethnic Anglo-Saxons, Normans and French, following the Norman conquest.
Appeasement in an international context is a diplomatic policy of making political or material concessions to an aggressive power in order to avoid conflict.
Nawabs of the Carnatic (also referred to as the Nawabs of Arcot) ruled the Carnatic region of South India between about 1690 and 1801.
Armand Louis de Gontaut, Duc de Lauzun, later duc de Biron, and usually referred to by historians of the French Revolution simply as Biron (13 April 174731 December 1793) was a French soldier and politician, known for the part he played in the American War of Independence and the French Revolutionary Wars.
Arthur Young (11 September 1741 – 12 April 1820) was an English writer on agriculture, economics, social statistics, and campaigner for the rights of agricultural workers.
Ballitore is a village in County Kildare, Ireland, sometimes spelt Ballytore.
Bath is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Somerset, England, known for its Roman-built baths.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Beaconsfield is a market town and civil parish within the South Bucks district in Buckinghamshire centred WNW of London and SSE of the county's administrative town, Aylesbury.
Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, (21 December 1804 – 19 April 1881) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who twice served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
Biographia Literaria, or in full Biographia Literaria; or Biographical Sketches of My Literary Life and Opinions, is an autobiography in discourse by Samuel Taylor Coleridge, which he published in 1817, in two volume of twenty-three chapters.
A blue plaque is a permanent sign installed in a public place in the United Kingdom and elsewhere to commemorate a link between that location and a famous person, event, or former building on the site, serving as a historical marker.
The Board of Agriculture was a British voluntary association and chartered society founded in 1793 to promote agricultural improvement.
The Board of Trade is a British government department concerned with commerce and industry, currently within the Department for International Trade.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
Brendan Peter Simms is a Professor of the History of International Relations in the Department of Politics and International Studies at the University of Cambridge.
Bristol was a two-member constituency, used to elect members to the House of Commons in the Parliaments of England (to 1707), Great Britain (1707–1800) and the United Kingdom (from 1801).
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
Calais (Calés; Kales) is a city and major ferry port in northern France in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The Carnatic region is the region of peninsular South India lying between the Eastern Ghats and the Western Ghats, in the modern Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and southern Andhra Pradesh.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Catholic emancipation or Catholic relief was a process in the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in the late 18th century and early 19th century that involved reducing and removing many of the restrictions on Roman Catholics introduced by the Act of Uniformity, the Test Acts and the penal laws.
Charles Burney FRS (7 April 1726 – 12 April 1814) was an English music historian, composer and musician.
Charles James Fox (24 January 1749 – 13 September 1806), styled The Honourable from 1762, was a prominent British Whig statesman whose parliamentary career spanned 38 years of the late 18th and early 19th centuries and who was the arch-rival of William Pitt the Younger.
Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham, (13 May 1730 – 1 July 1782), styled The Hon.
Charles X (Charles Philippe; 9 October 1757 – 6 November 1836) was King of France from 16 September 1824 until 2 August 1830.
The Chief Secretary for Ireland was a key political office in the British administration in Ireland.
Chinatown is an ethnic enclave in the City of Westminster, London, bordering the Soho to its north and west, Theatreland to the south and east.
Christopher Eric Hitchens (13 April 1949 – 15 December 2011) was an Anglo-American author, columnist, essayist, orator, religious and literary critic, social critic, and journalist.
Christopher Nugent (1698–1775) was an Irish physician in London.
The Church of Ireland (Eaglais na hÉireann; Ulster-Scots: Kirk o Airlann) is a Christian church in Ireland and an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion.
The Civil List and Secret Service Money Act 1782 (22 Geo. III, c. 82) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain.
The Coldstream Guards (COLDM GDS) is a part of the Guards Division, Foot Guards regiments of the British Army.
The College Historical Society (CHS) – popularly referred to as The Hist – is one of the two debating societies at Trinity College, Dublin.
The Colleges of St Omer, Bruges and Liège were successive expatriate institutions for the Catholic education of English students and were run by the Jesuits.
The Confessions is an autobiographical book by Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
Conor Cruise O'Brien (3 November 1917 – 18 December 2008) often nicknamed "The Cruiser",.
The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.
Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.
The Corn Laws were tariffs and other trade restrictions on imported food and grain ("corn") enforced in Great Britain between 1815 and 1846.
County Cork (Contae Chorcaí) is a county in Ireland.
Julius Caesar's crossing the Rubicon river was an event in 49 BC that precipitated the Roman Civil War, which ultimately led to Caesar's becoming dictator for life and the rise of the imperial era of Rome.
Das Kapital, also known as Capital.
David Bromwich is Sterling Professor of English at Yale University.
David Garrick (19 February 1717 – 20 January 1779) was an English actor, playwright, theatre manager and producer who influenced nearly all aspects of theatrical practice throughout the 18th century, and was a pupil and friend of Dr Samuel Johnson.
David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
Defamation, calumny, vilification, or traducement is the communication of a false statement that, depending on the law of the country, harms the reputation of an individual, business, product, group, government, religion, or nation.
Denis Diderot (5 October 171331 July 1784) was a French philosopher, art critic, and writer, best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor, and contributor to the Encyclopédie along with Jean le Rond d'Alembert.
The Dictionary of National Biography (DNB) is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published from 1885.
Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.
Earl Fitzwilliam (or FitzWilliam) was a title in both the Peerage of Ireland and the Peerage of Great Britain held by the head of the Fitzwilliam family (later Wentworth-Fitzwilliam).
Earl of Beaconsfield, of Hughenden in the County of Buckingham, was a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
Earl Verney, in the Province of Leinster, was a title in the Peerage of Ireland.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
EBSCO Industries is an American company headquartered in Birmingham, Alabama.
An editor-in-chief, also known as lead editor, chief editor, managing or executive editor, is a publication's editorial leader who has final responsibility for its operations and policies.
Admiral Sir Edmund Nagle, KCB (1757 – 14 March 1830) was a Royal Navy officer of the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries who is best known for his capture of the French frigate at the Action of 21 October 1794 and his close association with King George IV as a courtier from 1820 to his own death.
Sir Edward Coke ("cook", formerly; 1 February 1552 – 3 September 1634) was an English barrister, judge, and politician who is considered to be the greatest jurist of the Elizabethan and Jacobean eras.
Edward Gibbon FRS (8 May 173716 January 1794) was an English historian, writer and Member of Parliament.
ELH (English Literary History) is an academic journal established in 1934 at Johns Hopkins University, devoted to the study of major works in the English language, particularly British literature.
Historically, an estate comprises the houses, outbuildings, supporting farmland, and woods that surround the gardens and grounds of a very large property, such as a country house or mansion.
The First Partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth took place in 1772 as the first of three partitions that ended the existence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth by 1795.
Frances Anne Crewe, Lady Crewe, née Greville (November 1748 – 23 December 1818), was the daughter of Fulke Greville, envoy extraordinary to the elector of Bavaria, and his Irish wife, Frances Macartney, who was a poet, best known for "A Prayer for Indifference".
Francis Basset, 1st Baron de Dunstanville and Basset FRS (9 August 1757 – 14 February 1835) of Tehidy in the parish of Illogan in Cornwall, was an English nobleman and politician, a member of the ancient Basset family.
Francis Wrigley Hirst (10 June 1873 – 22 February 1953) was a British journalist, writer and editor of The Economist magazine.
Frederick Montagu (July 1733 – 30 July 1800) was a British Whig MP.
Frederick North, 2nd Earl of Guilford, (13 April 17325 August 1792), better known by his courtesy title Lord North, which he used from 1752 to 1790 was Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1770 to 1782.
In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.
Free trade is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.
Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients.
French Laurence (3 April 1757 – 27 February 1809) was an English jurist and man of letters, a close associate of Edmund Burke whose literary executor he became.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Friedrich August von Hayek (8 May 189923 March 1992), often referred to by his initials F. A. Hayek, was an Austrian-British economist and philosopher best known for his defense of classical liberalism.
George Malcolm Young (29 April 1882 in Greenhithe, Kent – 18 November 1959 in Goring, Oxfordshire) was an English historian, most famous for his long essay on Victorian times in England, Portrait of an Age (1936).
George Canning (11 April 17708 August 1827) was a British statesman and Tory politician who served in various senior cabinet positions under numerous Prime Ministers, before himself serving as Prime Minister for the final four months of his life.
George Damer, 2nd Earl of Dorchester PC, PC (Ire) (28 March 1746 – 7 March 1808), styled Viscount Milton between 1792 and 1798, was a British politician.
George Grenville (14 October 1712 – 13 November 1770) was a British Whig statesman who rose to the position of Prime Minister of Great Britain.
George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.
Jorge Agustín Nicolás Ruiz de Santayana y Borrás, known in English as George Santayana (December 16, 1863September 26, 1952), was a philosopher, essayist, poet, and novelist.
Gerrard Street is a street in the West End of London, in the Chinatown area.
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.
The Gordon Riots of 1780 was a massive anti-Catholic protest in London against the Papists Act of 1778, which was intended to reduce official discrimination against British Catholics.
The Government of the United Kingdom, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
Grandee (Grande,; Grande) is an official aristocratic title conferred on some Spanish nobility and, to a lesser extent, Portuguese nobility.
The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar in the world.
Hanna Fenichel Pitkin (born July 17, 1931)Contemporary Authors Online, s.v. "Hanna Fenichel Pitkin." Accessed March 5, 2008.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
A hedge school (Irish names include scoil chois claí, scoil ghairid and scoil scairte) were small informal illegal schools, particularly in 18th- and 19th-century Ireland designed to secretly provide the rudiment of elementary education to Catholic children.
Henry Peter Brougham, 1st Baron Brougham and Vaux, (19 September 1778 – 7 May 1868) was a British statesman who became Lord Chancellor of Great Britain.
Henry Cruger Jr. (November 22, 1739April 24, 1827) was an American and British merchant at the time of the American Revolution.
Henry Dundas, 1st Viscount Melville, PC, FRSE (28 April 1742, Edinburgh, Scotland – 28 May 1811, Edinburgh) was a Scottish advocate and Tory politician.
Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also partially controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany.
Henry Sacheverell (8 February 1674 – 5 June 1724) was an English High Church Anglican clergyman who achieved nationwide fame in 1709 after preaching an incendiary 5 November sermon.
Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke (16 September 1678 – 12 December 1751) was an English politician, government official and political philosopher.
The charge of high crimes and misdemeanors covers allegations of misconduct peculiar to officials, such as perjury of oath, abuse of authority, bribery, intimidation, misuse of assets, failure to supervise, dereliction of duty, unbecoming conduct, and refusal to obey a lawful order.
The House of Burke (de Búrca; Latinised to de Burca or de Burgo) is the Irish branch of the Anglo-Norman noble family known as de Burgh.
The House of Commons of Great Britain was the lower house of the Parliament of Great Britain between 1707 and 1801.
The House of Hanover (or the Hanoverians; Haus Hannover) is a German royal dynasty that ruled the Electorate and then the Kingdom of Hanover, and also provided monarchs of Great Britain and Ireland from 1714 to 1800 and ruled the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from its creation in 1801 until the death of Queen Victoria in 1901.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
Impeachment is the process by which a legislative body formally levels charges against a high official of government.
The impeachment of Warren Hastings was a failed attempt between 1788 and 1795 to impeach the first Governor-General of Bengal in the Parliament of Great Britain.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Isaac Barré (1726 – 20 July 1802) was an Irish soldier and politician.
Jonathan Charles Douglas Clark (born 28 February 1951) is a British historian of both British and American history.
Sir James Mackintosh FRS FRSE (24 October 1765 – 30 May 1832) was a Scottish jurist, Whig politician and historian.
James Maitland, 8th Earl of Lauderdale (26 January 1759 – 10 September 1839) was Keeper of the Great Seal of Scotland and a representative peer for Scotland in the House of Lords.
Sir James Prior (c.1790–1869) was an Irish surgeon and writer.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.
Alexander Jesse Norman (born 23 June 1962) is a British politician who was first elected as the Conservative Member of Parliament for Hereford and South Herefordshire at the 2010 general election.
John Adams (c. 1746 – 1817) was a British politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1774 and 1780.
John Baker Holroyd, 1st Earl of Sheffield (21 December 1735 – 30 May 1821) was an English politician who came from a Yorkshire family, a branch of which had settled in the Kingdom of Ireland.
John Emerich Edward Dalberg-Acton, 1st Baron Acton, (10 January 1834 – 19 June 1902), was an English Catholic historian, politician, and writer.
John Dalrymple, 6th Earl of Stair (1749–1821) was a Scottish peer, soldier and diplomat.
John Dawnay, 4th Viscount Downe (9 April 1728 – 21 December 1780), was a British peer and Whig politician.
Sir John Knox Laughton (23 April 1830 – 14 September 1915) was a British naval historian and arguably the first to argue for the importance of the subject as an independent field of study.
John Milton (9 December 16088 November 1674) was an English poet, polemicist, man of letters, and civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under its Council of State and later under Oliver Cromwell.
John Morley, 1st Viscount Morley of Blackburn, (24 December 1838 – 23 September 1923) was a British Liberal statesman, writer and newspaper editor.
John Russell, 6th Duke of Bedford (6 July 1766 – 20 October 1839), known as Lord John Russell until 1802, was a British Whig politician who notably served as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in the Ministry of All the Talents.
John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.
Joseph-Marie, Comte de Maistre (1 April 1753 – 26 February 1821) was a French-speaking Savoyard philosopher, writer, lawyer, and diplomat, who advocated social hierarchy and monarchy in the period immediately following the French Revolution.
Michael Joseph Sobran Jr. (February 23, 1946 – September 30, 2010) was an American journalist, formerly with National Review magazine and a syndicated columnist.
Sir Joshua Reynolds (16 July 1723 – 23 February 1792) was an English painter, specialising in portraits.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
A jury is a sworn body of people convened to render an impartial verdict (a finding of fact on a question) officially submitted to them by a court, or to set a penalty or judgment.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
The Kingdom of Ireland (Classical Irish: Ríoghacht Éireann; Modern Irish: Ríocht Éireann) was a nominal state ruled by the King or Queen of England and later the King or Queen of Great Britain that existed in Ireland from 1542 until 1800.
To kiss hands is a constitutional term used in the United Kingdom to refer to the formal installation of Crown-appointed British government ministers to their office.
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political leader for service to the monarch or a Christian Church, especially in a military capacity.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
Leo Strauss (September 20, 1899 – October 18, 1973) was a German-American political philosopher and classicist who specialized in classical political philosophy.
Letters of Junius (or Junius: Stat nominis umbra) is a collection of private and open letters critical of the government of King George III from an anonymous polemicist (Junius), as well as other letters in-reply from people to whom Junius had written between 1769 and 1772.
Letters on a Regicide Peace or Letters...
The Libel Act 1792 (32 Geo. III c. 60) (also known as Fox's Act) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain.
Thomas Clarkson (1760 – 1846), the pioneering abolitionist, prepared a "map" of the "streams" of "forerunners and coadjutors" of the abolitionist movement, which he published in his work, The History of the Rise, Progress, and Accomplishment of the Abolition of the African Slave-Trade by the British Parliament published in 1808.
A political theorist is someone who engages in constructing or evaluating political theory, including political philosophy.
Lord John Cavendish (22 October 1732 – 18 December 1796) was a British nobleman and politician.
Lieutenant-General Lord William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck (14 September 1774 – 17 June 1839), known as Lord William Bentinck, was a British soldier and statesman.
Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793), born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution.
Magna Carta Libertatum (Medieval Latin for "the Great Charter of the Liberties"), commonly called Magna Carta (also Magna Charta; "Great Charter"), is a charter agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215.
Mahārāja (महाराज, also spelled Maharajah, Moharaja) is a Sanskrit title for a "great ruler", "great king" or "high king".
A maiden speech is the first speech given by a newly elected or appointed member of a legislature or parliament.
Malton, also called New Malton, was a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England in 1295 and 1298, and again from 1640, then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1885.
Manchester University Press is the university press of the University of Manchester, England and a publisher of academic books and journals.
A manifesto is a published verbal declaration of the intentions, motives, or views of the issuer, be it an individual, group, political party or government.
Marie Antoinette (born Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna; 2 November 1755 – 16 October 1793) was the last Queen of France before the French Revolution.
Mary Leadbeater (December 1758 – 27 June 1826) was an Irish author and diarist.
Mary Wollstonecraft (27 April 1759 – 10 September 1797) was an English writer, philosopher, and advocate of women's rights.
The Honourable Society of the Middle Temple, commonly known simply as Middle Temple, is one of the four Inns of Court exclusively entitled to call their members to the English Bar as barristers, the others being the Inner Temple, Gray's Inn and Lincoln's Inn.
The Modern Language Association of America, often referred to as the Modern Language Association (MLA), is the principal professional association in the United States for scholars of language and literature.
"More Irish than the Irish themselves" (Níos Gaelaí ná na Gaeil féin, Hiberniores Hibernis ipsis) is a phrase used in Irish historiography to describe a phenomenon of cultural assimilation in late medieval Norman Ireland.
In parliamentary procedure as defined in Robert's Rules of Order, a motion is a formal proposal by a member of a deliberative assembly that the assembly take certain action.
The Blackwater or Munster Blackwater (An Abha Mhór, The Big River) is a river which flows through counties Kerry, Cork, and Waterford in Ireland.
Honora "Nano" Nagle (1718 – 26 April 1784) founded the "Sisters of the Presentation of the Blessed Virgin Mary" (PBVM) in Ireland (also known as the "Presentation Sisters") and was a pioneer of Catholic education in Ireland.
The National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic, the upper house being the Senate (Sénat).
The Norman invasion of Ireland took place in stages during the late 12th century, at a time when Gaelic Ireland was made up of several kingdoms, with a High King claiming lordship over all.
The Oath of Allegiance (Judicial or Official Oath) is a promise to be loyal to the British monarch, and his or her heirs and successors, sworn by certain public servants in the United Kingdom, and also by newly naturalised subjects in citizenship ceremonies.
The Oath of Supremacy required any person taking public or church office in England to swear allegiance to the monarch as Supreme Governor of the Church of England.
Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written.
Oliver Goldsmith (10 November 1728 – 4 April 1774) was an Irish novelist, playwright and poet, who is best known for his novel The Vicar of Wakefield (1766), his pastoral poem The Deserted Village (1770), and his plays The Good-Natur'd Man (1768) and She Stoops to Conquer (1771, first performed in 1773).
"On American Taxation" was a speech given by Edmund Burke in the British House of Commons on April 19, 1774, advocating the full repeal of the Townshend Revenue Act of 1767.
A pamphlet is an unbound booklet (that is, without a hard cover or binding).
The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Acts of Union by both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland.
A Parliamentary Private Secretary (PPS) is a United Kingdom or New Zealand Member of Parliament (MP) designated by a senior minister in government or shadow minister to act as the minister's contact with MPs.
Paul Langford FBA FRHistS (20 November 1945, Bridgend – 27 July 2015) was a British historian.
The Paymaster General Act 1782 (22 Geo. III, c. 81) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain.
The Paymaster of the Forces was a position in the British government.
A peace treaty is an agreement between two or more hostile parties, usually countries or governments, which formally ends a state of war between the parties.
In the island of Ireland, Penal Laws (Na Péindlíthe) were a series of laws imposed in an attempt to force Irish Roman Catholics and Protestant dissenters (such as local Presbyterians) to accept the reformed denomination as defined by the English state established Anglican Church and practised by members of the Irish state established Church of Ireland.
Peter Jonathan Hitchens (born 28 October 1951) is an English journalist and author.
The Petition of Right is a major English constitutional document that sets out specific liberties of the subject that the king is prohibited from infringing.
Sir Philip Francis (22 October 1740 – 23 December 1818) was an Irish-born British politician and pamphleteer, the supposed author of the Letters of Junius, and the chief antagonist of Warren Hastings.
Philip Dormer Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield, (22 September 169424 March 1773) was a British statesman, diplomat, man of letters, and an acclaimed wit of his time.
Piers Brendon (born 21 December 1940, Stratton, Cornwall) is a British writer, known for historical and biographical works.
The pillory was a device made of a wooden or metal framework erected on a post, with holes for securing the head and hands, formerly used for punishment by public humiliation and often further physical abuse.
Political history is the narrative and analysis of political events, ideas, movements, organs of government, voters, parties and leaders.
Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.
A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom.
In Christianity, providentialism is the belief that all events on Earth are controlled by God.
Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.
The Lord Rector (more commonly known just as the Rector) of the University of Glasgow is one of the most senior posts within that institution, elected every three years by students.
In logic, reductio ad absurdum ("reduction to absurdity"; also argumentum ad absurdum, "argument to absurdity") is a form of argument which attempts either to disprove a statement by showing it inevitably leads to a ridiculous, absurd, or impractical conclusion, or to prove one by showing that if it were not true, the result would be absurd or impossible.
Reflections on the Revolution in France is a political pamphlet written by the Irish statesman Edmund Burke and published in November 1790.
The Repeal of Certain Laws Act 1772 (12 Geo. III, c. 71) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain.
In the common view, political representation is assumed to refer only to the political activities undertaken, in representative democracies, by citizens elected to political office on behalf of their fellow citizens who do not hold political office.
Representations is an interdisciplinary journal in the humanities published quarterly by the University of California Press.
In religion and theology, revelation is the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities.
The Revolution Controversy was a British debate over the French Revolution, lasting from 1789 through 1795.
The London Revolution Society was formed 1788, ostensibly to commemorate the centennial of the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and the landing of William III, and was one of several radical societies in Britain in the 1790s.
Richard Bourke (born 1965) is a UK-based Irish academic specialising in the history of political ideas.
Richard Brinsley Butler Sheridan (30 October 17517 July 1816) was an Irish satirist, a playwright and poet, and long-term owner of the London Theatre Royal, Drury Lane.
Richard Burke (9 February 1758 – 2 August 1794) was a barrister and Member of Parliament in England.
Richard Cobden (3 June 1804 – 2 April 1865) was an English manufacturer and Radical and Liberal statesman, associated with two major free trade campaigns, the Anti-Corn Law League and the Cobden–Chevalier Treaty.
Richard Hurd (13 January 1720 – 28 May 1808) was an English divine and writer, and bishop of Worcester.
Richard Price (23 February 1723 – 19 April 1791) was a British moral philosopher, nonconformist preacher and mathematician.
Richard Rigby PC (February 1722 – 8 April 1788), was an English civil servant and politician who sat in the British House of Commons for 43 years from 1745 to 1788.
Rights of Man (1791), a book by Thomas Paine, including 31 articles, posits that popular political revolution is permissible when a government does not safeguard the natural rights of its people.
Robert Graham (1735 – 11 December 1797), who took the name Bontine in 1770 and Cunninghame Graham in 1796, was a Scottish politician and poet.
Robert Dodsley (13 February 1704 – 23 September 1764) was an English bookseller, poet, playwright, and miscellaneous writer.
Robert Craggs-Nugent, 1st Earl Nugent PC (1709 – 13 October 1788) was an Irish politician and poet.
The Rockingham Whigs (or Rockinghamites) in 18th century British politics were a faction of the Whigs led by Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham, from about 1762 until his death in 1782.
Sir Roger Vernon Scruton (born 27 February 1944) is an English philosopher and writer who specialises in aesthetics and political philosophy, particularly in the furtherance of traditionalist conservative views.
A rotten or pocket borough, more formally known as a nomination borough or proprietorial borough, was a parliamentary borough or constituency in England, Great Britain, or the United Kingdom before the Reform Act 1832, which had a very small electorate and could be used by a patron to gain unrepresentative influence within the unreformed House of Commons.
The Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (RSA) is a London-based, British organisation committed to finding practical solutions to social challenges.
A royalist supports a particular monarch as head of state for a particular kingdom, or of a particular dynastic claim.
Russell Amos Kirk (October 19, 1918 – April 29, 1994) was an American political theorist, moralist, historian, social critic, and literary critic, known for his influence on 20th-century American conservatism.
Saint-Omer (Sint-Omaars) is a commune in France.
Samuel Johnson LL.D. (18 September 1709 – 13 December 1784), often referred to as Dr.
Samuel Taylor Coleridge (21 October 177225 July 1834) was an English poet, literary critic, philosopher and theologian who, with his friend William Wordsworth, was a founder of the Romantic Movement in England and a member of the Lake Poets.
Samuel Whitbread (18 January 1764 – 6 July 1815) was a British politician.
Savile Finch (c. 1736 – 20 September 1788) was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1757 to 1780.
In the United Kingdom, a secretary of state (SofS) is a Cabinet minister in charge of a government department (though not all departments are headed by a secretary of state, e.g. HM Treasury is headed by the Chancellor of the Exchequer).
A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established a permanent residence there, often to colonize the area.
Sir George Savile, 8th Baronet of Thornhill FRS (18 July 1726 – 10 January 1784) was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1759 to 1783.
Sir Henry Lippincott, 1st Baronet (1737–1780), of Littleton-upon-Severn, Gloucestershire, was an English politician.
Sir Thomas Gascoigne, 8th Baronet (7 March 1745 – 11 February 1810) was born on 7 March 1745 on the Continent into a devout Catholic gentry family based in Yorkshire.
Living organisms including humans are social when they live collectively in interacting populations, whether they are aware of it, and whether the interaction is voluntary or involuntary.
In both moral and political philosophy, the social contract is a theory or model that originated during the Age of Enlightenment.
In the social sciences, a social group has been defined as two or more people who interact with one another, share similar characteristics, and collectively have a sense of unity.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
Sociological theories are statements of how and why particular facts about the social world are related.
Sodomy is generally anal or oral sex between people or sexual activity between a person and a non-human animal (bestiality), but it may also mean any non-procreative sexual activity.
The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.
The literary concept of the sublime became important in the eighteenth century.
In aesthetics, the sublime (from the Latin sublīmis) is the quality of greatness, whether physical, moral, intellectual, metaphysical, aesthetic, spiritual, or artistic.
Tea Act 1773 (13 Geo 3 c 44) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain.
The Annual Register (originally subtitled "A View of the History, Politicks and Literature of the Year...") is a long-established reference work, written and published each year, which records and analyses the year’s major events, developments and trends throughout the world.
The Historical Journal is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by Cambridge University Press.
The Journal of Modern History is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering European intellectual, political, and cultural history, published by the University of Chicago Press in cooperation with the Modern European History Section of the American Historical Association.
The Prelude or, Growth of a Poet's Mind; An Autobiographical Poem is an autobiographical poem in blank verse by the English poet William Wordsworth.
The Right Honourable (The Rt Hon. or Rt Hon.) is an honorific style traditionally applied to certain persons and to certain collective bodies in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, India, some other Commonwealth realms, the Anglophone Caribbean, Mauritius, and occasionally elsewhere.
The Watchman was a short-lived periodical established and edited by Samuel Taylor Coleridge in 1796.
The Thirteen Colonies were a group of British colonies on the east coast of North America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries that declared independence in 1776 and formed the United States of America.
Thomas Babington Macaulay, 1st Baron Macaulay, FRS FRSE PC (25 October 1800 – 28 December 1859) was a British historian and Whig politician.
Thomas Paine (born Thomas Pain; – In the contemporary record as noted by Conway, Paine's birth date is given as January 29, 1736–37. Common practice was to use a dash or a slash to separate the old-style year from the new-style year. In the old calendar, the new year began on March 25, not January 1. Paine's birth date, therefore, would have been before New Year, 1737. In the new style, his birth date advances by eleven days and his year increases by one to February 9, 1737. The O.S. link gives more detail if needed. – June 8, 1809) was an English-born American political activist, philosopher, political theorist and revolutionary.
Thomas Sowell (born June 30, 1930) is an American economist and social theorist who is currently Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University.
Thoughts and Details on Scarcity, Originally Presented to the Right Hon.
"Thoughts on the Cause of the Present Discontents" is an essay written by Edmund Burke, an 18th-century political theorist and philosopher.
Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (1488/1490 – 27 August 1576), known in English as Titian, was an Italian painter, the most important member of the 16th-century Venetian school.
The Tories were members of two political parties which existed sequentially in the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Great Britain and later the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from the 17th to the early 19th centuries.
Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
Transubstantiation (Latin: transsubstantiatio; Greek: μετουσίωσις metousiosis) is, according to the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church, the change of substance or essence by which the bread and wine offered in the sacrifice of the sacrament of the Eucharist during the Mass, become, in reality, the body and blood of Jesus Christ.
Trinity College (Coláiste na Tríonóide), officially the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, is the sole constituent college of the University of Dublin, a research university located in Dublin, Ireland.
Tyranny of the majority (or tyranny of the masses) refers to an inherent weakness of direct democracy and majority rule in which the majority of an electorate can and does place its own interests above, and at the expense of, those in the minority.
The United States Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Second Continental Congress meeting at the Pennsylvania State House (now known as Independence Hall) in Philadelphia on July 4, 1776.
A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.
The University of Georgia Press or UGA Press is a scholarly publishing house for the University System of Georgia.
The Vendée is a department in the Pays-de-la-Loire region in west-central France, on the Atlantic Ocean.
The War in the Vendée (1793; Guerre de Vendée) was an uprising in the Vendée region of France during the French Revolution.
In law, a ward is someone placed under the protection of a legal guardian.
Warren Hastings (6 December 1732 – 22 August 1818), an English statesman, was the first Governor of the Presidency of Fort William (Bengal), the head of the Supreme Council of Bengal, and thereby the first de facto Governor-General of India from 1773 to 1785.
Wendover was a borough constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1832.
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
Whiggism (in North America sometimes spelled Whigism) is a historical political philosophy that grew out of the Parliamentarian faction in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms (1639–1651).
The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom.
Sir William Blackstone (10 July 1723 – 14 February 1780) was an English jurist, judge and Tory politician of the eighteenth century.
William Cavendish, 5th Duke of Devonshire, (14 December 1748 – 29 July 1811), was a British nobleman, aristocrat, and politician.
William Henry Cavendish Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland, (14 April 1738 – 30 October 1809) was a British Whig and Tory politician of the late Georgian era.
William Ewart Gladstone, (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party.
William Wentworth-Fitzwilliam, 4th Earl Fitzwilliam PC (30 May 1748 – 8 February 1833), styled Viscount Milton until 1756, was a British Whig statesman of the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
William Gerard Hamilton (28 January 1729 – 16 July 1796), was English statesman and Irish politician, popularly known as "Single Speech Hamilton".
William Wyndham Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville, (25 October 1759 – 12 January 1834) was a British Whig statesman.
William Hazlitt (10 April 1778 – 18 September 1830) was an English writer, drama and literary critic, painter, social commentator, and philosopher.
William Pitt the Younger (28 May 1759 – 23 January 1806) was a prominent British Tory statesman of the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham, (15 November 1708 – 11 May 1778) was a British statesman of the Whig group who led the government of Great Britain twice in the middle of the 18th century.
William Warburton (24 December 1698 – 7 June 1779) was an English writer, literary critic and churchman, Bishop of Gloucester from 1759 until his death.
William Weddell (13 May 1736 – 30 April 1792) was a British landowner and politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1766 and 1792.
William Windham PC, PC (Ire) (– 4 June 1810) was a British Whig statesman.
William Wordsworth (7 April 1770 – 23 April 1850) was a major English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their joint publication Lyrical Ballads (1798).
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
The Women's March on Versailles, also known as The October March, The October Days, or simply The March on Versailles, was one of the earliest and most significant events of the French Revolution.
A work of art, artwork, art piece, piece of art or art object is an aesthetic physical item or artistic creation.
Yuval Levin is an American political analyst, public intellectual, academic, and journalist.
In the 19th century the philosophies of the Enlightenment began to have a dramatic effect, the landmark works of philosophers such as Immanuel Kant and Jean-Jacques Rousseau influencing new generations of thinkers.
All that is necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men to do nothing, Burke, Edmund, Burke, Edmund 1729-1797, Burkean, Burkean conservatism, Burkean conservative, Edmond Burke, Edmund burk, Nobody made a greater mistake than he who did nothing because he could do only a little., Right Honourable Edmund Burke, The only thing necessary for evil to triumph in the world is that good men do nothing, The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men to do nothing.