391 relations: Accession of the United Kingdom to the European Communities, Active service unit, Admiral's Cup, Adolf Hitler, Airey Neave, Alan Watkins, Albany (London), Alec Douglas-Home, Alison Munro, Allan Warren, Amadeus Quartet, Andrew Roth, Anthony Barber, Anthony Eden, Appeasement, Arundells, Asexuality, Ashley Bramall, Attendance Allowance, Backbencher, Baghdad, Balcombe Street siege, Balliol College, Oxford, Barcelona, Barnet and Camden (London Assembly constituency), BBC Parliament, Belgravia, Bernard Braine, Bernard Levin, Betty Boothroyd, Bexley, Bexley (UK Parliament constituency), Bill Deedes, Black Wednesday, Bloody Sunday (1972), Bloody Sunday Inquiry, Bob Lord (football chairman), Brandt Report, Brian Coleman, British undergraduate degree classification, Broadstairs, Brothel, Brown, Shipley & Co., Buckingham Palace, Burnley F.C., Captain (British Army and Royal Marines), Carpentry, Cathedral close, Central Policy Review Staff, Centre for Policy Studies, ..., Centurion (tank), Chairman of the Conservative Party, Chamberlain war ministry, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, Chancellor of the Exchequer, Charlemagne Prize, Charles de Gaulle, Charles Moore (journalist), Chatham House Grammar School, Chequers, Chesterfield by-election, 1984, Chief Whip, Chief Whip of the Conservative Party, Child sexual abuse, China, Church Times, Civil service, Civil Service (United Kingdom), Classical music, Clifford Curzon, Cockaigne (In London Town), Common Room (university), Conservative Party (UK), Conservative Party (UK) leadership election, 1965, Conservative Party (UK) leadership election, 1975, Cottaging, Cyprus, Daily Mirror, Dartford (UK Parliament constituency), David Butler (psephologist), David Hennessy, 3rd Baron Windlesham, De Vere Selsdon Estate, Decimal Day, Deng Xiaoping, Denis Healey, Denis MacShane, Dentistry, Department of Energy (United Kingdom), Department of Trade and Industry (United Kingdom), Derek Conway, Derry, Desert Island Discs, Direct tax, Doctor of Law, Doctor of Music, Dolphin Square, Douglas Jay, East of Suez, Edward Elgar, Edward Heath, Elizabeth II, Elm Guest House claims and controversy, English Chamber Orchestra, Enoch Powell, European Communities, European Communities Act 1972 (UK), European Economic Community, European Union Youth Orchestra, Exaro, Family Fund, Family Income Supplement, Father of the House, Federation of Conservative Students, Finance Act, Fireball (dinghy), First Lord of the Treasury, Francis Pym, Francisco Franco, Frederick Erroll, 1st Baron Erroll of Hale, Gay, Gdańsk, Geoffrey Goodman, Geoffrey Howe, Geoffrey Rippon, Geoffrey Wheatcroft, George Jellicoe, 2nd Earl Jellicoe, George VI, Georges Pompidou, Germany, Golden Jubilee of Elizabeth II, Goldsmiths, University of London, Gordon Campbell, Baron Campbell of Croy, Gray's Inn, Haiphong, Hanoi, Harold Macmillan, Harold Wilson, Heinrich Himmler, Hermann Göring, Hilary term, Holy Trinity Brompton, Home Secretary, Homicide, Honorary degree, Honourable Artillery Company, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, Hubert Chesshyre, Hugh Fraser (British politician), Hugo Young, Hung parliament, Iain Macleod, Ian Gilmour, Baron Gilmour of Craigmillar, Incapacity Benefit, Incomes policy, Incumbent Ambassadors to the United States, Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Abuse, Independent Police Complaints Commission, Indirect tax, Industrial Relations Act 1971, Internment, Isaac Stern, James Callaghan, Jeremy Thorpe, Jim Prior, John Campbell (biographer), John Davies (businessman), John Donaldson, Baron Donaldson of Lymington, John Hare, 1st Viscount Blakenham, John Major, John Stokes (Conservative politician), Jomo Kenyatta, Joseph Godber, Joseph Goebbels, Journalist, Keble College, Oxford, Keith Joseph, Kent, Kenya, Kuwait, Lancashire, Leader of the Conservative Party (UK), Leader of the House of Commons, Leader of the House of Lords, Leader of the Opposition (United Kingdom), Leo Amery, Liberal Party (UK), Lieutenant colonel (United Kingdom), List of Presidents of the Oxford Union, List of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom by age, Liverpool, Liverpool Blitz, Local Government Act 1972, Local government in the United Kingdom, London Symphony Orchestra, Lord Chancellor, Lord President of the Council, Lord Privy Seal, Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, Ludwig van Beethoven, Luigi Boccherini, Madron Seligman, Maiden speech, Major (United Kingdom), Mao Zedong, Margaret Thatcher, Martin Jennings, Martin Redmayne, Baron Redmayne of Rushcliffe, Maurice Macmillan, Maurice Schumann, Mayfair, Member of parliament, Members' Lobby, Mentioned in dispatches, Merchant bank, Metropolitan Police Service, Michael Foot, Michael Martin, Baron Martin of Springburn, Michael Noble, Baron Glenkinglas, Michaelmas term, Minister for Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Minister for the Civil Service, Minister of Labour, Minister of Technology, Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom), Ministry of Housing and Local Government, Modern immigration to the United Kingdom, Monetarism, Monty Python's Flying Circus, Monty Python's Previous Record, Morning Cloud, Moura Lympany, National Union of Mineworkers (Great Britain), New Zealand, Nixonomics, Normandy landings, North–South divide, Northern Ireland, Nuremberg Rally, Officer (armed forces), Old Bexley and Sidcup (UK Parliament constituency), Open University, Operation Midland, Operation Whistle, Order of the British Empire, Order of the Garter, Order Paper, Organ scholar, Organist, Oxford by-election, 1938, Oxford Union, Oxford University Conservative Association, Parliament of Northern Ireland, Parliamentary Secretary to the Treasury, Patrick Buchan-Hepburn, 1st Baron Hailes, Permissive society, Peter Carington, 6th Baron Carrington, Peter Thomas, Baron Thomas of Gwydir, Peter Walker, Baron Walker of Worcester, Philip Ziegler, Philosophy, Politics and Economics, Piara Khabra, Piltdown Man, Pimlico, Plaid Cymru, Poland, Politician, Popular Front (UK), Prescription charges, President of the Board of Trade, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Principal Private Secretary to the Prime Minister, Private Eye, Provisional Irish Republican Army, Pulmonary embolism, Quintin Hogg, Baron Hailsham of St Marylebone, Ramsgate, Recovered-memory therapy, Reginald Maudling, Regions of England, Repression (psychology), Resale price maintenance, Richard Hoskins, Right to silence in England and Wales, Rivers of Blood speech, Robert Armstrong, Baron Armstrong of Ilminster, Robert Blake, Baron Blake, Robert Carr, Robert Grosvenor, 5th Duke of Westminster, Routledge, Roy Jenkins, Royal Air Force, Royal Artillery, Royal College of Music, Royal College of Organists, Royal Commission on the Constitution (United Kingdom), Royal Festival Hall, Royal Liverpool Philharmonic, Saddam Hussein, Salisbury, Salisbury Cathedral, Salzburg, Sandie Lindsay, 1st Baron Lindsay of Birker, Satanic ritual abuse, Schuman Declaration, Schutzstaffel, Scottish National Party, Seán Mac Stíofáin, Second lieutenant, Second Shadow Cabinet of Edward Heath, Second Spanish Republic, Secret Intelligence Service, Secretary General of NATO, Secretary of State for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy, Secretary of State for Defence, Secretary of State for Education, Secretary of State for Employment, Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, Secretary of State for Scotland, Secretary of State for Wales, Secretary of State for Work and Pensions, Selwyn Lloyd, Shadow Cabinet, Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer, Shirley Williams, Sidcup (UK Parliament constituency), Sir Edward Wakefield, 1st Baronet, Sky News, Slum clearance, Snipe (dinghy), Social pension, Social security, Spanish Civil War, Speaker (politics), Special Relationship, St Catharine's College, Cambridge, St Paul's Cathedral, Steinway & Sons, Suez Crisis, Sunningdale Agreement, Supplementary Benefit, Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race, Tam Dalyell, The Guardian, The Observer, The Right Honourable, The Times, The Troubles, TheGuardian.com, Three-Day Week, Timothy Kitson, Tony Benn, Tony Blair, Trade union, Triple Concerto (Beethoven), Tufton Beamish, Baron Chelwood, Turf Moor, Ulster Unionist Party, Ulster Workers' Council strike, United Kingdom European Communities membership referendum, 1975, United Kingdom general election, 1950, United Kingdom general election, 1951, United Kingdom general election, 1959, United Kingdom general election, 1964, United Kingdom general election, 1966, United Kingdom general election, 1970, United Kingdom general election, 2001, United Kingdom general election, February 1974, United Kingdom general election, October 1974, United States, University of Calgary, University of Greenwich, University of Kent, University of Oxford, University of Oxford Chancellor election, 1987, University of Wales, Western Front (World War II), Westminster Abbey, Whip (politics), William Whitelaw, 1st Viscount Whitelaw, William Wilkins (British politician), Willy Brandt, Wiltshire, Wiltshire Police, Wiltshire Police and Crime Commissioner, Winston Churchill, World War II, Yacht, Yehudi Menuhin, Yom Kippur War, 10 Downing Street, 1979 Fastnet race. 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The Accession of the United Kingdom to the European Communities (EC) – the collective term for the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC) – took effect on 1 January 1973.
An Active Service Unit (ASU) was a Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) cell of five to eight members, tasked with carrying out armed attacks.
The Admiral's Cup is an international yachting regatta.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Airey Middleton Sheffield Neave, (23 January 1916 – 30 March 1979) was a British Army officer, barrister and politician.
Alan Rhun Watkins (3 April 1933 – 8 May 2010) was for over 50 years a British political columnist in various London-based magazines and newspapers.
The Albany, or simply Albany, is an apartment complex in Piccadilly, London.
Alexander Frederick Douglas-Home, Baron Home of the Hirsel, (2 July 1903 – 9 October 1995) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from October 1963 to October 1964.
Dame Alison Munro (12 February 1914 – 2 September 2008) was an English civil servant and headmistress.
Michael Allan Warren (born 26 October 1948) is an English portrait photographer, primarily known for his images of members of high society.
The Amadeus Quartet was a world-famous string quartet founded in 1947 and disbanded in 1987, remarkable for having retained its founding members throughout its long history.
Andrew Roth (23 April 1919 – 12 August 2010) was a biographer and journalist known for his compilation of Parliamentary Profiles, a directory of biographies of British Members of Parliament, a small sample of which is available online in The Guardian.
Anthony Perrinott Lysberg Barber, Baron Barber, TD, PC, DL (4 July 1920 – 16 December 2005) was a British Conservative politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer.
Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, (12 June 1897 – 14 January 1977) was a British Conservative politician who served three periods as Foreign Secretary and then a relatively brief term as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1955 to 1957.
Appeasement in an international context is a diplomatic policy of making political or material concessions to an aggressive power in order to avoid conflict.
Arundells is a Grade II* listed house at 59 Cathedral Close, Salisbury, Wiltshire, England.
Asexuality is the lack of sexual attraction to others, or low or absent interest in or desire for sexual activity.
Sir Ernest Ashley Bramall (6 January 1916 – 10 February 1999) was a British Labour Party politician, Member of Parliament for Bexley from 1946 to 1950 and Leader of the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) for 11 years.
Attendance Allowance is a non-contributory Social Security benefit paid to elderly disabled people in the United Kingdom.
In Westminster parliamentary systems, a backbencher is a Member of Parliament (MP) or a legislator who holds no governmental office and is not a frontbench spokesperson in the Opposition, being instead simply a member of the "rank and file".
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
The Balcombe Street siege was an incident involving members of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) and the Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) of London lasting from 6 to 12 December 1975.
Balliol College, founded in 1263,: Graduate Studies Prospectus - Last updated 17 Sep 08 is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England.
Barcelona is a city in Spain.
Barnet and Camden is a territorial constituency represented on the London Assembly by one assembly member (AM).
BBC Parliament is a British television channel which broadcasts live and recorded coverage of the House of Commons, House of Lords and Select Committees of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, the Scottish Parliament, the London Assembly, the Northern Ireland Assembly and the Welsh Assembly.
Belgravia is an affluent district in West London, shared within the authorities of both the City of Westminster and the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea.
Bernard Richard Braine, Baron Braine of Wheatley, PC (24 June 1914 – 5 January 2000) was a Conservative Party politician in the United Kingdom.
Henry Bernard Levin CBE (19 August 1928 – 7 August 2004) was an English journalist, author and broadcaster, described by The Times as "the most famous journalist of his day".
Betty Boothroyd, Baroness Boothroyd, (born 8 October 1929) is a British politician, who served as a Labour Member of Parliament (MP) for West Bromwich and West Bromwich West from 1973 to 1992.
Bexley is an area of south-east London, England and part of the London Borough of Bexley.
Bexley was a parliamentary constituency centred on the Bexley district of south-east London.
William Francis Deedes, Baron Deedes, (1 June 1913 – 17 August 2007) was a British Conservative Party politician, army officer and journalist; he was the first person in Britain to have been both a member of the Cabinet and the editor of a major daily newspaper, The Daily Telegraph.
Black Wednesday occurred in the United Kingdom on 16 September 1992, when John Major's Conservative government was forced to withdraw the pound sterling from the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) after it was unable to keep the pound above its agreed lower limit in the ERM.
Bloody Sunday – sometimes called the Bogside Massacre – was an incident on 30 January 1972 in the Bogside area of Derry, Northern Ireland, when British soldiers shot 28 unarmed civilians during a peaceful protest march against internment.
The Bloody Sunday Inquiry, also known as the Saville Inquiry or the Saville Report after its chairman, Lord Saville of Newdigate, was established in 1998 by British Prime Minister Tony Blair after campaigns for a second inquiry by families of those killed and injured in Derry on Bloody Sunday during the peak of ethno-political violence known as The Troubles.
Robert William "Bob" Lord (19 June 1908 – 8 December 1981) was an English businessman best known as the chairman of Burnley Football Club Born in 1908 in Burnley, Lancashire, Lord was the son of a barber.
The Brandt Report is the report written by the Independent Commission, first chaired by Willy Brandt (the former German Chancellor) in 1980, to review international development issues.
Brian Coleman FRSA (born 25 June 1961) is an English Independent Conservative politician and a former councillor in the London Borough of Barnet.
The British undergraduate degree classification system is a grading structure for undergraduate degrees (bachelor's degrees and integrated master's degrees) in the United Kingdom.
Broadstairs is a coastal town on the Isle of Thanet in the Thanet district of east Kent, England, about east of London.
A brothel or bordello is a place where people engage in sexual activity with prostitutes, who are sometimes referred to as sex workers.
Brown Shipley & Co Limited (doing business as Brown Shipley) is a London-based subsidiary of KBL European Private Bankers SA.
Buckingham Palace is the London residence and administrative headquarters of the monarch of the United Kingdom.
Burnley Football Club is a professional association football club based in Burnley, Lancashire, England.
Captain (Capt) is a junior officer rank of the British Army and Royal Marines and in both services it ranks above lieutenant and below major with a NATO ranking code of OF-2.
Carpentry is a skilled trade in which the primary work performed is the cutting, shaping and installation of building materials during the construction of buildings, ships, timber bridges, concrete formwork, etc.
A cathedral close is the area immediately around a cathedral, sometimes extending for a hundred metres or more from the main cathedral building.
The Central Policy Review Staff (CPRS), nicknamed the "Think-Tank", was an independent unit within the Cabinet Office of the United Kingdom tasked with developing long term strategy and co-ordinating policy across government departments.
The Centre for Policy Studies (CPS) is a free-market British policy think tank whose goal is to promote coherent and practical public policy, to "roll back the state," reform public services, support communities, and challenge threats to Britain’s independence.
The Centurion was the primary British main battle tank of the post-Second World War period.
The Chairman of the Conservative Party in the United Kingdom is responsible for party administration, overseeing the Conservative Campaign Headquarters (formerly Conservative Central Office).
Neville Chamberlain formed the Chamberlain war ministry in 1939 after declaring war on Germany.
The Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster is a ministerial office in the Government of the United Kingdom that includes as part of its duties, the administration of the estates and rents of the Duchy of Lancaster.
The Chancellor and Under-Treasurer of Her Majesty's Exchequer, commonly known as the Chancellor of the Exchequer, or simply the Chancellor, is a senior official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of Her Majesty's Treasury.
The Charlemagne Prize (Karlspreis; full name originally Internationaler Karlspreis der Stadt Aachen, International Charlemagne Prize of the City of Aachen, since 1988 Internationaler Karlspreis zu Aachen, International Charlemagne Prize of Aachen) is a prize awarded for work done in the service of European unification.
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.
Charles Hilary Moore (born 31 October 1956) is an English journalist and a former editor of The Daily Telegraph, The Sunday Telegraph and The Spectator.
Chatham House Grammar School was an all boys grammar school in Ramsgate, Kent, England, that was merged in September 2011 with its sister school Clarendon House Grammar School to become the Chatham & Clarendon Grammar School.
Chequers, or Chequers Court, is the country house of the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
The Chesterfield by-election, 1984 was held on 1 March 1984 for a seat in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom to represent Chesterfield in Derbyshire.
The Chief Whip is a political office in some legislatures whose task is to administer the whipping system that tries to ensure that members of the party attend and vote as the party leadership desires.
The Chief Whip of the Conservative Party is responsible for administering the whipping system in the party which ensures that members attend and vote in parliament when the party leadership requires a majority vote.
Child sexual abuse, also called child molestation, is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent uses a child for sexual stimulation.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The Church Times is an independent Anglican weekly newspaper based in London and published in the United Kingdom on Fridays.
The civil service is independent of government and composed mainly of career bureaucrats hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leadership.
Her Majesty's Home Civil Service, also known as Her Majesty's Civil Service or the Home Civil Service, is the permanent bureaucracy or secretariat of Crown employees that supports Her Majesty's Government, which is composed of a cabinet of ministers chosen by the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, as well as two of the three devolved administrations: the Scottish Government and the Welsh Government, but not the Northern Ireland Executive.
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.
Sir Clifford Michael Curzon CBE (né Siegenberg; 18 May 19071 September 1982) was an English classical pianist.
Cockaigne (In London Town), Op.
In some universities in the United Kingdom and Ireland — particularly collegiate universities such as Oxford, Cambridge, Dublin, Durham, York, Kent and Lancaster— students and the academic body are organised into a common room, or at Cambridge a combination room.
The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.
The 1965 Conservative Party leadership election was held in July 1965 to find a successor to Sir Alec Douglas-Home.
The 1975 Conservative Party leadership election was held in February 1975, in which the party's sitting MPs voted Margaret Thatcher as party leader on the second ballot.
Cottaging is a gay slang term, originating from the United Kingdom, referring to anonymous sex between men in a public lavatory (a "cottage", "tea-room" "tearoom; t-room noun a public toilet. From an era when a great deal of homosexual contact was in public toilets; probably an abbreviation of 'toilet room'.), or cruising for sexual partners with the intention of having sex elsewhere.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
The Daily Mirror is a British national daily tabloid newspaper founded in 1903.
Dartford is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2010 by Gareth Johnson of the Conservative Party.
Sir David Edgeworth Butler CBE, FBA (born 17 October 1924) is an English social scientist and psephologist, based in Oxford.
David James George Hennessy, 3rd Baron Windlesham and Baron Hennessy, (28 January 1932 – 21 December 2010) was a Conservative Party politician in the United Kingdom who held visiting professorships at various universities.
De Vere Selsdon Estate is a luxury hotel located in Selsdon, London, England.
On 15 February 1971, known as Decimal Day, the United Kingdom and Ireland decimalised their currencies.
Deng Xiaoping (22 August 1904 – 19 February 1997), courtesy name Xixian (希贤), was a Chinese politician.
Denis Winston Healey, Baron Healey, (30 August 1917 – 3 October 2015) was a British Labour Party politician who served as Secretary of State for Defence from 1964 to 1970, Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1974 to 1979 and Deputy Leader of the Labour Party from 1980 to 1983.
Denis MacShane (born Denis Matyjaszek, 21 May 1948) is a British former Labour Party politician and a convicted felon.
Dentistry is a branch of medicine that consists of the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the oral cavity, commonly in the dentition but also the oral mucosa, and of adjacent and related structures and tissues, particularly in the maxillofacial (jaw and facial) area.
The Department of Energy (DoE) was a department of the United Kingdom Government.
The Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) was a United Kingdom government department formed on 19 October 1970.
Derek Leslie Conway TD (born 15 February 1953) is an English politician and television presenter.
Derry, officially Londonderry, is the second-largest city in Northern Ireland and the fourth-largest city on the island of Ireland.
Desert Island Discs is a radio programme broadcast on BBC Radio 4.
Though the actual definitions vary between jurisdictions, in general, a direct tax is a tax imposed upon a person or property as distinct from a tax imposed upon a transaction, which is described as an indirect tax.
Doctor of Law or Doctor of Laws is a degree in law.
The Doctor of Music degree (D.Mus., D.M., Mus.D. or occasionally Mus.Doc.) is a higher doctorate awarded on the basis of a substantial portfolio of compositions and/or scholarly publications on music.
Dolphin Square is a block of private flats with some ground floor business units near the River Thames in Pimlico, Westminster, London, built between 1935 and 1937 and marked a pinnacle of the 19th century and early 20th century garden squares in London.
Douglas Patrick Thomas Jay, Baron Jay, PC (23 March 1907 – 6 March 1996) was a British Labour Party politician.
The phrase East of Suez is used in British military and political discussions in reference to interests beyond the European theatre, and east of the Suez Canal—most notably its military base in Singapore—and may or may not include the Middle East.
Sir Edward William Elgar, 1st Baronet (2 June 1857 – 23 February 1934) was an English composer, many of whose works have entered the British and international classical concert repertoire.
Sir Edward Richard George Heath (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005), often known as Ted Heath, was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
In Britain, controversy arose from claims reported in 2012 of sexual abuse and grooming of children at parties held in the late 1970s and 1980s at the former Elm Guest House in Rocks Lane, near Barnes Common in south-west London.
The English Chamber Orchestra (ECO) is a British chamber orchestra based in London.
John Enoch Powell (16 June 19128 February 1998) was a British politician, classical scholar, author, linguist, soldier, philologist and poet.
The European Communities (EC), sometimes referred to as the European Community,;; were three international organizations that were governed by the same set of institutions.
The European Communities Act 1972 (c. 68) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which made legal provision for the accession of the United Kingdom to the three European Communities, namely the EEC (or "Common Market"), Euratom, and the (now defunct) Coal & Steel Community.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
The European Union Youth Orchestra (EUYO) is a symphony orchestra with members drawn from each of the European Union's 28 Member States.
Exaro was a British investigative news website based in Covent Garden, London, that operated from 2011 until 2016.
Family Fund is a UK based registered charity for disabled children and their families.
Family Income Supplement was a means-tested benefit for working people with children introduced in Britain in 1970 by the Conservative government of Edward Heath, effective from August 1971.
Father of the House is a term that has been by tradition bestowed unofficially on certain members of some legislatures, most notably the House of Commons in the United Kingdom.
The Federation of Conservative Students (FCS) was the student organisation of the British Conservative Party from the late 1940s to 1986.
Finance Act refers to the headline fiscal (budgetary) legislation enacted by the UK Parliament, containing multiple provisions as to taxes, duties, exemptions and reliefs at least once per year, and in particular setting out the principal tax rates for each fiscal year.
Originally designed by Peter Milne in 1962, the Fireball is a one-design high-performance sailing dinghy.
The First Lord of the Treasury is the head of the commission exercising the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer in the United Kingdom, and is now always also the Prime Minister.
Francis Leslie Pym, Baron Pym, MC, PC (13 February 1922 – 7 March 2008) was a British politician.
Francisco Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a military dictator from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975.
Frederick James Erroll, 1st Baron Erroll of Hale, TD, PC (27 May 1914 – 14 September 2000) was a British Conservative politician.
Gay is a term that primarily refers to a homosexual person or the trait of being homosexual.
Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.
Geoffrey George Goodman CBE (2 July 1922 – 5 September 2013Mike Molloy, theguardian.com,, 6 September 2013) was a British journalist, broadcaster and writer.
Richard Edward Geoffrey Howe, Baron Howe of Aberavon, (20 December 1926 – 9 October 2015), known from 1970 to 1992 as Sir Geoffrey Howe, was a British Conservative politician.
Aubrey Geoffrey Frederick Rippon, Baron Rippon of Hexham, PC, QC (28 May 1924 – 28 January 1997) was a British Conservative politician.
Geoffrey Albert Wheatcroft (born 23 December 1945 in London) is a British journalist and writer.
George Patrick John Rushworth Jellicoe, 2nd Earl Jellicoe, (4 April 1918 – 22 February 2007) was a British politician, diplomat and businessman.
George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death in 1952.
Georges Jean Raymond Pompidou (5 July 19112 April 1974) was Prime Minister of France from 1962 to 1968—the longest tenure in the position's history—and later President of the French Republic from 1969 until his death in 1974.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Golden Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II was the international celebration held in 2002 marking the 50th anniversary of the accession of Queen Elizabeth II to the thrones of seven countries, upon the death of her father, King George VI, on 6 February 1952, and was intended by the Queen to be both a commemoration of her 50 years as monarch and an opportunity for her to officially and personally thank her people for their loyalty.
Goldsmiths, University of London, is a public research university in London, England, specialising in the arts, design, humanities, and social sciences.
Gordon Thomas Calthrop Campbell, Baron Campbell of Croy, MC, PC, DL (8 June 1921 – 26 April 2005) was a Scottish Conservative & Unionist politician.
The Honourable Society of Gray's Inn, commonly known as Gray's Inn, is one of the four Inns of Court (professional associations for barristers and judges) in London.
Haiphong (Hải Phòng) is a major industrial city, the second largest city in the northern part of Vietnam, and third largest city overall in Vietnam.
Hanoi (or; Hà Nội)) is the capital of Vietnam and the country's second largest city by population. The population in 2015 was estimated at 7.7 million people. The city lies on the right bank of the Red River. Hanoi is north of Ho Chi Minh City and west of Hai Phong city. From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam. It was eclipsed by Huế, the imperial capital of Vietnam during the Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1945). In 1873 Hanoi was conquered by the French. From 1883 to 1945, the city was the administrative center of the colony of French Indochina. The French built a modern administrative city south of Old Hanoi, creating broad, perpendicular tree-lined avenues of opera, churches, public buildings, and luxury villas, but they also destroyed large parts of the city, shedding or reducing the size of lakes and canals, while also clearing out various imperial palaces and citadels. From 1940 to 1945 Hanoi, as well as the largest part of French Indochina and Southeast Asia, was occupied by the Japanese. On September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). The Vietnamese National Assembly under Ho Chi Minh decided on January 6, 1946, to make Hanoi the capital of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. From 1954 to 1976, it was the capital of North Vietnam, and it became the capital of a reunified Vietnam in 1976, after the North's victory in the Vietnam War. October 2010 officially marked 1,000 years since the establishment of the city. The Hanoi Ceramic Mosaic Mural is a ceramic mosaic mural created to mark the occasion.
Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963.
James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was a British Labour politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1964 to 1970 and from 1974 to 1976.
Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (Protection Squadron; SS), and a leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) of Germany.
Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering;; 12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German political and military leader as well as one of the most powerful figures in the Nazi Party (NSDAP) that ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945.
Hilary term is the second academic term of the Universities of Oxford, University of Oxford, UK.
Holy Trinity Brompton with St Paul's, Onslow Square and St Augustine's, South Kensington, often referred to simply as HTB, is an Anglican church in London, England.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Home Department, normally referred to as the Home Secretary, is a senior official as one of the Great Offices of State within Her Majesty's Government and head of the Home Office.
Homicide is the act of one human killing another.
An honorary degree, in Latin a degree honoris causa ("for the sake of the honor") or ad honorem ("to the honor"), is an academic degree for which a university (or other degree-awarding institution) has waived the usual requirements, such as matriculation, residence, a dissertation and the passing of comprehensive examinations.
The Honourable Artillery Company (HAC) was incorporated by Royal Charter in 1537 by King Henry VIII and is considered one of the oldest military organisations in the world.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
David Hubert Boothby Chesshyre (born 22 June 1940) is a retired British officer of arms.
Major Sir Hugh Charles Patrick Joseph Fraser, (23 January 1918 – 6 March 1984) was a British Conservative politician and first husband of Lady Antonia Fraser.
Hugo John Smelter Young (13 October 1938 – 22 September 2003) was a British journalist and columnist and senior political commentator at The Guardian.
A hung parliament is a term used in legislatures under the Westminster system to describe a situation in which no particular political party or pre-existing coalition (also known as an alliance or bloc) has an absolute majority of legislators (commonly known as members or seats) in a parliament or other legislature.
Iain Norman Macleod (11 November 1913 – 20 July 1970) was a British Conservative Party politician and government minister.
Ian Hedworth John Little Gilmour, Baron Gilmour of Craigmillar, (8 July 1926 – 21 September 2007) was a Conservative politician in the United Kingdom.
Incapacity Benefit is a British social security benefit that was introduced in 1995 in an attempt to control the rising number of people on out-of-work sickness benefits.
Incomes policies in economics are economy-wide wage and price controls, most commonly instituted as a response to inflation, and usually seeking to establish wages and prices below free market level.
The following table lists ambassadors to the United States, sorted by the representative country or organization.
The Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Abuse (IICSA) in England and Wales was announced by the British Home Secretary, Theresa May, on 7 July 2014.
The Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC) was a non-departmental public body in England and Wales responsible for overseeing the system for handling complaints made against police forces in England and Wales.
An indirect tax (such as sales tax, per unit tax, value added tax (VAT), or goods and services tax (GST)) is a tax collected by an intermediary (such as a retail store) from the person who bears the ultimate economic burden of the tax (such as the consumer).
The Industrial Relations Act 1971 (c.72) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, since repealed.
Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges, and thus no trial.
Isaac Stern (Исаа́к Соломо́нович Штерн; Isaak Solomonovich Shtern; 21 July 1920 – 22 September 2001) was an American violinist.
Leonard James Callaghan, Baron Callaghan of Cardiff, (27 March 1912 – 26 March 2005), often known as Jim Callaghan, served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1976 to 1979 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1976 to 1980.
John Jeremy Thorpe (29 April 1929 – 4 December 2014) was a British politician who served as Member of Parliament for North Devon from 1959 to 1979, and as leader of the Liberal Party between 1967 and 1976.
James Michael Leathes Prior, Baron Prior, PC (11 October 1927 – 12 December 2016), usually known as Jim Prior, was a British Conservative politician.
John Campbell (born 1947) is a British political writer and biographer.
John Emerson Harding Harding-Davies, (8 January 1916 – 4 July 1979) was a successful British businessman who served as Director-General of the Confederation of British Industry during the 1960s.
John Francis Donaldson, Baron Donaldson of Lymington, PC (6 October 1920 – 31 August 2005) was a senior British judge who served as Master of the Rolls for ten years, from 1982-92.
John Hugh Hare, 1st Viscount Blakenham, OBE, PC, DL (22 January 1911 – 7 March 1982) was a British Conservative politician.
Sir John Major (born 29 March 1943) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1990 to 1997.
Sir John Heydon Romaine Stokes (23 July 1917 – 27 June 2003) was a British politician and a Conservative Party Member of Parliament.
Jomo Kenyatta (– 22 August 1978) was a Kenyan anti-colonial activist and politician who governed Kenya as its Prime Minister from 1963 to 1964 and then as its first President from 1964 to his death in 1978.
Joseph Bradshaw Godber, Baron Godber of Willington, (17 March 1914 – 25 August 1980) was a British Conservative Party politician and cabinet minister.
Paul Joseph Goebbels (29 October 1897 – 1 May 1945) was a German Nazi politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945.
A journalist is a person who collects, writes, or distributes news or other current information to the public.
Keble College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England.
Keith Sinjohn Joseph, Baron Joseph, (17 January 1918 – 10 December 1994), known as Sir Keith Joseph, 2nd Baronet, for most of his political life, was a British barrister and politician.
Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.
Lancashire (abbreviated Lancs.) is a county in north west England.
The Leader of the Conservative Party in the United Kingdom is the most senior politician of the Conservative Party.
The Leader of the House of Commons is generally a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom who is responsible for arranging government business in the House of Commons.
The Leader of the House of Lords is a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom who is responsible for arranging government business in the House of Lords.
The Leader of Her Majesty's Most Loyal Opposition (more commonly known as the Leader of the Opposition) is the politician who leads the official opposition in the United Kingdom.
Leopold Charles Maurice Stennett Amery CH (22 November 1873 – 16 September 1955), usually known as Leo Amery or L. S. Amery, was a British Conservative Party politician and journalist, noted for his interest in military preparedness, British India and the British Empire and for his opposition to appeasement.
The Liberal Party was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom – with the opposing Conservative Party – in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Lieutenant colonel (Lt Col), is a rank in the British Army and Royal Marines which is also used in many Commonwealth countries.
Past elected Presidents of the Oxford Union at the University of Oxford are listed below, with their college and the year/term in which they served, if known.
This is a list of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom by age.
Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 in 2017.
The Liverpool Blitz was the heavy and sustained bombing of the English city of Liverpool and its surrounding area, during the Second World War by the German Luftwaffe.
The Local Government Act 1972 is an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom that reformed local government in England and Wales on 1 April 1974.
Local government in the United Kingdom has origins that pre-date the United Kingdom itself, as each of the four countries of the United Kingdom has its own separate system.
The London Symphony Orchestra (LSO), founded in 1904, is the oldest of London's symphony orchestras.
The Lord Chancellor, formally the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, is the highest ranking among those Great Officers of State which are appointed regularly in the United Kingdom, nominally outranking even the Prime Minister.
The Lord President of the Council is the fourth of the Great Officers of State of the United Kingdom, ranking below the Lord High Treasurer but above the Lord Privy Seal.
The Lord Privy Seal (or, more formally, the Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal) is the fifth of the Great Officers of State in the United Kingdom, ranking beneath the Lord President of the Council and above the Lord Great Chamberlain.
In the United Kingdom there are at least six Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury, serving as a commission for the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer.
Ludwig van Beethoven (baptised 17 December 1770Beethoven was baptised on 17 December. His date of birth was often given as 16 December and his family and associates celebrated his birthday on that date, and most scholars accept that he was born on 16 December; however there is no documentary record of his birth.26 March 1827) was a German composer and pianist.
Ridolfo Luigi Boccherini (February 19, 1743 – May 28, 1805) was an Italian composer and cellist of the Classical era whose music retained a courtly and "galante" style even while he matured somewhat apart from the major European musical centers.
Richard Madron Seligman CBE (10 November 1918 – 9 July 2002) was a British politician.
A maiden speech is the first speech given by a newly elected or appointed member of a legislature or parliament.
Major (Maj) is a military rank which is used by both the British Army and Royal Marines.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.
Martin Jennings is a British sculptor, born in 1957, who works in the figurative tradition.
Martin Redmayne, Baron Redmayne, (16 November 1910 – 28 April 1983) was a British Conservative politician.
Maurice Victor Macmillan, Viscount Macmillan of Ovenden (27 January 1921 – 10 March 1984) was a British Conservative Party politician and Member of Parliament.
Maurice Schumann (10 April 1911, Paris – 9 February 1998, Paris) was a French politician, journalist, writer, and hero of the Second World War who served as Minister of Foreign Affairs under Georges Pompidou from 22 June 1969 to 15 March 1973.
Mayfair is an affluent area in the West End of London towards the east edge of Hyde Park, in the City of Westminster, between Oxford Street, Regent Street, Piccadilly and Park Lane.
A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.
The Members' Lobby is a hallway in the Palace of Westminster used by members of the House of Commons, the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
A member of the armed forces mentioned in dispatches (or despatches, MiD) is one whose name appears in an official report written by a superior officer and sent to the high command, in which his or her gallant or meritorious action in the face of the enemy is described.
A merchant bank is historically a bank dealing in commercial loans and investment.
The Metropolitan Police Service (MPS), commonly known as the Metropolitan Police and informally as the Met, is the territorial police force responsible for law enforcement in Greater London, excluding the "square mile" of the City of London, which is the responsibility of the City of London Police.
Michael Mackintosh Foot (23 July 1913 – 3 March 2010) was a British Labour Party politician and man of letters.
Michael John Martin, Baron Martin of Springburn, (3 July 1945 – 29 April 2018) was a British Labour politician who was the Member of Parliament (MP) for Glasgow Springburn from 1979 to 2005, and then for Glasgow North East until 2009.
Michael Antony Cristobal Noble, Baron Glenkinglas, PC (19 March 1913 – 15 May 1984) was a Scottish Tory politician. Noble was the youngest son of Sir John Noble, 1st Baronet, and the grandson of Sir Andrew Noble, 1st Baronet, and was educated at Eton College and Magdalen College, Oxford. A farmer, he was president of the Black Face Sheep Breeders' Association and the Highland Cattle Society. He was an Argyll County Councillor and a director of Associated Fisheries. From a by-election in June 1958 until his retirement in 1974 he was Member of Parliament for Argyll. Noble was a Scottish whip from 1960 and Lord Commissioner of the Treasury from 1961. He was Secretary of State for Scotland from 1962 to 1964 in the governments of Harold Macmillan and Alec Douglas-Home, taking over from John Maclay after the Night of the Long Knives. He returned to government as President of the Board of Trade in 1970 and as Minister for Trade from 1970 to 1972 under Edward Heath. As Scottish Secretary, he presided over the last execution in Scotland when Henry John Burnett was hanged at Craiginches Prison in Aberdeen on the morning of 15 August 1963 by the hangman Harry Allen for the murder of merchant seaman Thomas Guyan. On 3 May 1974 Noble was elevated to the peerage as Baron Glenkinglas, of Cairndow in the County of Argyll. Although he was a good 25 years younger than the architectural historian Harry Stuart Goodhart-Rendel, the two had a very friendly feud. Noble is said to have joked that they were "best of enemies." He died in May 1984, aged 71.
Michaelmas term is the first academic term of the academic year in a number of English-speaking universities and schools in the northern hemisphere, especially in the United Kingdom.
The Minister for Agriculture, Food and the Marine (An tAire Talmhaíochta, Bia agus Mara) is the senior minister at the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine in the Government of Ireland.
In the Government of the United Kingdom, the Minister for the Civil Service is responsible for regulations regarding Her Majesty's Civil Service, the role of which is to assist the governments of the United Kingdom in formulating and implementing policies.
Minister of Labour (in British English) or Labor (in American English) is typically a cabinet-level position with portfolio responsibility for setting national labour standards, labour dispute mechanisms, employment, workforce participation, training and social security.
The Minister of Technology was a position in the government of the United Kingdom, sometimes abbreviated as "MinTech".
The Ministry of Defence (MoD or MOD) is the British government department responsible for implementing the defence policy set by Her Majesty's Government and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces.
The Ministry of Housing and Local Government was a United Kingdom government department formed after the Second World War, covering the areas of housing and local government.
Since 1945, immigration to the United Kingdom under British nationality law has been significant, in particular from the Republic of Ireland and from the former British Empire especially India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, the Caribbean, South Africa, Nigeria, Ghana, Kenya and Hong Kong.
Monetarism is a school of thought in monetary economics that emphasizes the role of governments in controlling the amount of money in circulation.
Monty Python’s Flying Circus (known during the final series as just Monty Python) is a British sketch comedy series created by the comedy group Monty Python and broadcast by the BBC from 1969 to 1974.
Monty Python's Previous Record is the third album by Monty Python.
Morning Cloud was the name given by the British politician Edward Heath to a series of five yachts which he owned between 1969 and 1983.
Dame Moura Lympany DBE (18 August 191628 March 2005) was an English concert pianist.
The National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) is a trade union for coal miners in Great Britain, formed in 1945 from the Miners' Federation of Great Britain (MFGB).
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Nixonomics, a portmanteau of the words "Nixon" and "economics", refers to U.S. President Richard Nixon's economic performance.
The Normandy landings were the landing operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II.
The North–South divide is broadly considered a socio-economic and political divide.
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
The Nuremberg Rally (officially, meaning Realm Party ConventionLiterally "Realm Party Day") was the annual rally of the Nazi Party in Germany, held from 1923 to 1938.
An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority.
Old Bexley and Sidcup is a constituency created in 1983 represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2010 by James Brokenshire, a Conservative.
The Open University (OU) is a public distance learning and research university, and one of the biggest universities in the UK for undergraduate education.
In November 2014, Operation Midland was set up by the Metropolitan Police in London to examine allegations of child sexual abuse and homicide, later extended to cover allegations of three murders and activities at the Dolphin Square development in Pimlico and elsewhere; on 21 March 2016, the Metropolitan Police confirmed that Operation Midland had been closed without any charges being brought.
Operation Whistle is an investigation by the States of Jersey Police into allegations of historical sexual abuse of children in Jersey.
The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, and public service outside the Civil service.
The Order of the Garter (formally the Most Noble Order of the Garter) is an order of chivalry founded by Edward III in 1348 and regarded as the most prestigious British order of chivalry (though in precedence inferior to the military Victoria Cross and George Cross) in England and the United Kingdom.
The Order Paper is a daily publication in the Westminster system of government which lists the business of parliament for that day's sitting.
An organ scholar is a young musician employed as a part-time assistant organist at a cathedral, church or institution where regular choral services are held.
An organist is a musician who plays any type of organ.
The Oxford by-election, 1938 was a parliamentary by-election for the British House of Commons constituency of Oxford, held on 27 October 1938.
The Oxford Union Society, commonly referred to simply as the Oxford Union, is a debating society in the city of Oxford, England, whose membership is drawn primarily from the University of Oxford.
The Oxford University Conservative Association (OUCA) is a student Conservative association founded in 1924, whose members are drawn from the University of Oxford.
The Parliament of Northern Ireland was the Home Rule legislature of Northern Ireland, created under the Government of Ireland Act 1920, which sat from 7 June 1921 to 30 March 1972, when it was suspended with the introduction of Direct Rule.
The Parliamentary Secretary to the Treasury is a junior ministerial position in the British Government.
Patrick George Thomas Buchan-Hepburn, 1st Baron Hailes, (2 April 1901 – 5 November 1974) was a British Conservative politician and the only Governor-General of the short-lived West Indies Federation (1958–1962).
A permissive society is a society in which social norms become increasingly liberal, especially with regard to sexual freedom.
Peter Alexander Rupert Carington, 6th Baron Carrington, (born 6 June 1919) is a British Conservative politician and hereditary peer who served as Defence Secretary between 1970 and 1974, Foreign Secretary between 1979 and 1982, chairman of General Electric between 1983 and 1984, and Secretary General of NATO from 1984 to 1988.
Peter John Mitchell Thomas, Baron Thomas of Gwydir, (31 July 1920 – 4 February 2008) was a Welsh Conservative politician.
Peter Edward Walker, Baron Walker of Worcester, (25 March 1932 – 23 June 2010) was a British politician.
Philip Sandeman Ziegler CVO (born 24 December 1929) is a British biographer and historian.
Philosophy, Politics and Economics (PPE) is an interdisciplinary undergraduate/post-graduate degree which combines study from three disciplines.
Piara Singh Khabra (20 November 1921, The Guardian, 21 June 2007 – 19 June 2007) was a British politician who served as the Labour Member of Parliament (MP) for Ealing Southall from 1992 until his death.
The Piltdown Man was a paleoanthropological hoax in which bone fragments were presented as the fossilised remains of a previously unknown early human.
Pimlico is a small area within central London in the City of Westminster.
Plaid Cymru (officially Plaid Cymru – Party of Wales, often referred to simply as Plaid) is a social-democratic political party in Wales advocating for Welsh independence from the United Kingdom within the European Union.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government.
The Popular Front in the United Kingdom attempted an alliance between political parties and individuals of the left and centre-left in the late 1930s to come together to challenge the Nazi/fascist appeasement policies of the National Government led by Neville Chamberlain.
In the English NHS charges are made for prescription drugs, and the majority of adults (though not a majority of patients) are required to pay them.
The President of the Board of Trade is head of the Board of Trade.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
The Principal Private Secretary to the Prime Minister is a senior official in the British Civil Service who acts as Principal Private Secretary to the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
Private Eye is a British fortnightly satirical and current affairs news magazine, founded in 1961.
The Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA or Provisional IRA) was an Irish republican revolutionary organisation that sought to end British rule in Northern Ireland, facilitate the reunification of Ireland and bring about an independent socialist republic encompassing all of Ireland.
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance that has moved from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism).
Quintin McGarel Hogg, Baron Hailsham of St Marylebone, (9 October 1907 – 12 October 2001), who held the title 2nd Viscount Hailsham from 1950 to 1963, was a British politician known for the length of his career, the vigour with which he campaigned for the Conservative Party, and the influence of his political writing.
Ramsgate is a seaside town in the district of Thanet in east Kent, England.
Recovered-memory therapy (RMT) is a catch-all psychotherapy term for therapy using one or more method or technique for the purpose of recalling memories.
Reginald Maudling (7 March 1917 – 14 February 1979) was a British politician who held several Cabinet posts, including Chancellor of the Exchequer.
The regions of England, formerly known as the government office regions, are the highest tier of sub-national division in England.
Repression is the psychological attempt to direct one's own desires and impulses toward pleasurable instincts by excluding them from one's consciousness and holding or subduing them in the unconscious.
Resale price maintenance (RPM) (US) or retail price maintenance (UK) is the practice whereby a manufacturer and its distributors agree that the distributors will sell the manufacturer's product at certain prices (resale price maintenance), at or above a price floor (minimum resale price maintenance) or at or below a price ceiling (maximum resale price maintenance).
The right to silence in England and Wales is the protection given to a person during criminal proceedings from adverse consequences of remaining silent.
On 20 April 1968, British Member of Parliament Enoch Powell addressed a meeting of the Conservative Political Centre in Birmingham, United Kingdom.
Robert Temple Armstrong, Baron Armstrong of Ilminster, (born 30 March 1927), son of the musician Sir Thomas Armstrong, is a British Lord Temporal and former civil servant.
Robert Norman William Blake, Baron Blake, (23 December 1916 – 20 September 2003), was an English historian and peer.
Leonard Robert Carr, Baron Carr of Hadley, PC (11 November 1916 – 17 February 2012) was a British Conservative Party politician.
Lieutenant-Colonel Robert George Grosvenor, 5th Duke of Westminster, (24 April 1910 – 19 February 1979) was a British soldier, landowner, businessman and politician.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Roy Harris Jenkins, Baron Jenkins of Hillhead, (11 November 1920 – 5 January 2003) was a British Labour Party, SDP and Liberal Democrat politician, and biographer of British political leaders.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
The Royal Regiment of Artillery, commonly referred to as the Royal Artillery (RA) and colloquially known as "The Gunners", is the artillery arm of the British Army.
The Royal College of Music is a conservatoire established by royal charter in 1882, located in South Kensington, London, UK.
The Royal College of Organists or RCO, is a charity and membership organisation based in the United Kingdom, with members worldwide.
The Royal Commission on the Constitution, also referred to as the Kilbrandon Commission (initially the Crowther Commission) or Kilbrandon Report, was a long-running royal commission set up by Harold Wilson's Labour government to examine the structures of the constitution of the United Kingdom and the British Islands and the government of its constituent countries, and to consider whether any changes should be made to those structures.
The Royal Festival Hall is a 2,500-seat concert, dance and talks venue within Southbank Centre in London.
The Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Society is a society based in Liverpool, England, that manages a professional symphony orchestra, a concert venue, and extensive programmes of learning through music.
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.
Salisbury is a cathedral city in Wiltshire, England, with a population of 40,302, at the confluence of the rivers Nadder, Ebble, Wylye and Bourne.
Salisbury Cathedral, formally known as the Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary, is an Anglican cathedral in Salisbury, England, and one of the leading examples of Early English architecture.
Salzburg, literally "salt fortress", is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of Salzburg state.
Alexander Dunlop Lindsay, 1st Baron Lindsay of Birker (born 14 May 1879 in Glasgow, Scotland; died 18 March 1952), known as Sandie Lindsay, was a Scottish academic and peer.
Satanic ritual abuse (SRA, sometimes known as ritual abuse, ritualistic abuse, organised abuse, sadistic ritual abuse, and other variants) was the subject of a moral panic (often referred to as the Satanic Panic) that originated in the United States in the 1980s, spreading throughout many parts of the world by the late 1990s.
The Schuman Declaration is the statement made by the French foreign minister Robert Schuman on 9 May 1950.
The Schutzstaffel (SS; also stylized as with Armanen runes;; literally "Protection Squadron") was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in Nazi Germany, and later throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II.
The Scottish National Party (SNP; Pàrtaidh Nàiseanta na h-Alba, Scots Naitional Pairtie) is a Scottish nationalist and social-democratic political party in Scotland.
Seán Mac Stíofáin (17 February 1928 – 18 May 2001), born John Stephenson, was an English-born chief of staff of the Provisional IRA, a position he held between 1969 and 1972.
Second lieutenant (called lieutenant in some countries) is a junior commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces, comparable to NATO OF-1b rank.
The Second Shadow Cabinet of Edward Heath was created after the Conservative Party lost the February 1974 general election.
The Spanish Republic (República Española), commonly known as the Second Spanish Republic (Segunda República Española), was the democratic government that existed in Spain from 1931 to 1939.
The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6, is the foreign intelligence service of the government of the United Kingdom, tasked mainly with the covert overseas collection and analysis of human intelligence (HUMINT) in support of the UK's national security.
The Secretary General of NATO (Secrétaire général de l'OTAN) is an international diplomat who serves as the chief civil servant of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (DEBEIS), or informally Business Secretary, is a cabinet position in the United Kingdom government.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Defence (Defence Secretary) is an official within Her Majesty's Government and head of the Ministry of Defence.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Education (frequently shortened to the Education Secretary) is the chief minister of the Department for Education in the United Kingdom government.
The Secretary of State for Employment was a position in the Cabinet of the United Kingdom.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, normally referred to as the Foreign Secretary, is a senior, high-ranking official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Scotland (Rùnaire Stàite na h-Alba, Secretar o State for Scotland) is the principal minister of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland representing Scotland.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Wales (Ysgrifennydd Gwladol Cymru) is the principal minister of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom with responsibilities for Wales.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Work and Pensions, or informally Work and Pensions Secretary is a post in the British Cabinet, responsible for the Department for Work and Pensions.
John Selwyn Brooke Lloyd, Baron Selwyn-Lloyd, (28 July 1904 – 18 May 1978), known for most of his career as Selwyn Lloyd, was a British politician.
The Shadow Cabinet is a feature of the Westminster system of government.
The Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer in the British Parliamentary system is the member of the Shadow Cabinet who is responsible for shadowing the Chancellor of the Exchequer.
Shirley Vivian Teresa Brittain Williams, Baroness Williams of Crosby, (née Catlin; born 27 July 1930) is a British politician and academic who represents the Liberal Democrats.
Sidcup was a parliamentary constituency centred on Sidcup, an outer suburb of London in the London Borough of Bexley.
Sir Edward Birkbeck Wakefield, 1st Baronet, (24 July 1903 – 14 January 1969) was a British civil servant and Conservative Party politician.
Sky News is a 24-hour international multimedia news organisation based in the UK that started as a 24-hour television news channel.
Slum clearance, slum eviction or slum removal is an urban renewal strategy used to transform low income settlements with poor reputation into another type of development or housing.
The Snipe is a foot, 2 person, one design racing dinghy.
A social pension (also known as a non-contributory pension) is a regular cash transfer to older people.
Social security is "any government system that provides monetary assistance to people with an inadequate or no income." Social security is enshrined in Article 22 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states: Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
The speaker of a deliberative assembly, especially a legislative body, is its presiding officer, or the chair.
The Special Relationship is an unofficial term for the political, diplomatic, cultural, economic, military, and historical relations between the United Kingdom and the United States.
St Catharine’s College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge.
St Paul's Cathedral, London, is an Anglican cathedral, the seat of the Bishop of London and the mother church of the Diocese of London.
Steinway & Sons, also known as Steinway, is an American-German piano company, founded in 1853 in Manhattan, New York City, the United States, by German piano builder Heinrich Engelhard Steinweg (later known as Henry E. Steinway).
The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli War, also named the Tripartite Aggression (in the Arab world) and Operation Kadesh or Sinai War (in Israel),Also named: Suez Canal Crisis, Suez War, Suez–Sinai war, Suez Campaign, Sinai Campaign, Operation Musketeer (أزمة السويس /‎ العدوان الثلاثي, "Suez Crisis"/ "the Tripartite Aggression"; Crise du canal de Suez; מבצע קדש "Operation Kadesh", or מלחמת סיני, "Sinai War") was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France.
The Sunningdale Agreement was an attempt to establish a power-sharing Northern Ireland Executive and a cross-border Council of Ireland.
Supplementary Benefit was a means-tested benefit in the United Kingdom, paid to people on low incomes, whether or not they were classed as unemployed, such as pensioners, the sick and single parents.
The Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race is an annual event hosted by the Cruising Yacht Club of Australia, starting in Sydney, New South Wales on Boxing Day and finishing in Hobart, Tasmania.
Tam Dalyell (born Thomas Dalyell Loch;; 9 August 1932 – 26 January 2017) was a Scottish Labour Party politician who was a member of the House of Commons from 1962 to 2005.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Observer is a British newspaper published on Sundays.
The Right Honourable (The Rt Hon. or Rt Hon.) is an honorific style traditionally applied to certain persons and to certain collective bodies in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, India, some other Commonwealth realms, the Anglophone Caribbean, Mauritius, and occasionally elsewhere.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
The Troubles (Na Trioblóidí) was an ethno-nationalist conflict in Northern Ireland during the late 20th century.
TheGuardian.com, formerly known as Guardian.co.uk and Guardian Unlimited, is a British news and media website owned by the Guardian Media Group.
The Three-Day Week was one of several measures introduced in the United Kingdom by the Conservative Government to conserve electricity, the generation of which was severely restricted owing to industrial action by coal miners.
Sir Timothy Peter Geoffrey Kitson (born 28 January 1931) is a British Conservative politician who was Member of Parliament for Richmond, North Yorkshire.
Anthony Neil Wedgwood Benn (3 April 1925 – 14 March 2014), originally known as Anthony Wedgwood Benn, but later as Tony Benn, was a British politician, writer, and diarist.
Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007.
A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.
Ludwig van Beethoven's Concerto for Violin, Cello, and Piano in C major, Op.
Tufton Victor Hamilton Beamish, Baron Chelwood, MC, DL (27 January 1917 – 6 April 1989) was a British Army officer, Conservative Party Member of Parliament for Lewes (1945–1974), and author.
Turf Moor is a football stadium in Burnley, Lancashire, England.
The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) is a unionist political party in Northern Ireland.
The Ulster Workers' Council (UWC) strike was a general strike that took place in Northern Ireland between 15 May and 28 May 1974, during "the Troubles".
The United Kingdom European Communities membership referendum, also known as the Referendum on the European Community (Common Market), the Common Market referendum and EEC membership referendum took place on 5 June 1975 in the United Kingdom to gauge support for the country's continued membership of the European Communities (EC)—often known at the time as the "European Community” and the "Common Market" which it had entered on 1 January 1973 under the Conservative government of Edward Heath under the provisions of the Referendum Act 1975.
The 1950 United Kingdom general election was the first ever general election to be held after a full term of Labour government.
The 1951 United Kingdom general election was held twenty months after the 1950 general election, which the Labour Party had won with a slim majority of just five seats.
The 1959 United Kingdom general election was held on 8 October 1959.
The 1964 United Kingdom general election was held on 15 October 1964, five years after the previous election, and thirteen years after the Conservative Party, first led by Winston Churchill, had entered power.
The 1966 United Kingdom general election on 31 March 1966 was won by incumbent Labour Prime Minister Harold Wilson and was regarded as an easy victory.
The 1970 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 18 June 1970.
The 2001 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 7 June 2001, four years after the previous election on 1 May 1997, to elect 659 members to the British House of Commons.
The February 1974 United Kingdom general election was held on the 28th day of that month.
The October 1974 United Kingdom general election took place on Thursday 10 October 1974 to elect 635 members of the British House of Commons.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Calgary (U of C or UCalgary) is a public research university located in Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
The University of Greenwich is a public and research university located in London, in the United Kingdom.
The University of Kent (formerly the University of Kent at Canterbury), abbreviated as UKC, is a semi-collegiate public research university based in Kent, United Kingdom.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
The 1987 University of Oxford election for the position of Chancellor was called upon the death of the incumbent Chancellor, Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton on 29 December 1986.
The University of Wales (Welsh: Prifysgol Cymru) was a confederal university based in Cardiff, Wales, UK.
The Western Front was a military theatre of World War II encompassing Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Germany. World War II military engagements in Southern Europe and elsewhere are generally considered under separate headings. The Western Front was marked by two phases of large-scale combat operations. The first phase saw the capitulation of the Netherlands, Belgium, and France during May and June 1940 after their defeat in the Low Countries and the northern half of France, and continued into an air war between Germany and Britain that climaxed with the Battle of Britain. The second phase consisted of large-scale ground combat (supported by a massive air war considered to be an additional front), which began in June 1944 with the Allied landings in Normandy and continued until the defeat of Germany in May 1945.
Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster.
A whip is an official of a political party whose task is to ensure party discipline in a legislature.
William Stephen Ian Whitelaw, 1st Viscount Whitelaw, (28 June 1918 – 1 July 1999), often known as Willie Whitelaw, was a British Conservative Party politician who served in a wide number of Cabinet positions, most notably as Home Secretary and de facto Deputy Prime Minister.
William Albert Wilkins CBE (17 January 1899 – 6 May 1987) was a British Labour Party politician.
Willy Brandt (born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm; 18 December 1913 – 8 October 1992) was a German statesman who was leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) from 1964 to 1987 and served as Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) from 1969 to 1974.
Wiltshire is a county in South West England with an area of.
Wiltshire Police, formerly known as Wiltshire Constabulary, is the territorial police force responsible for policing the county of Wiltshire (including the Borough of Swindon) in the south-west of England.
The Wiltshire Police and Crime Commissioner is the police and crime commissioner, an elected official tasked with setting out the way crime is tackled by Wiltshire Police in the English County of Wiltshire.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
A yacht is a watercraft used for pleasure or sports.
Yehudi Menuhin, Baron Menuhin, (22 April 191612 March 1999) was an American-born violinist and conductor who spent most of his performing career in Britain.
The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War, or October War (or מלחמת יום כיפור,;,, or حرب تشرين), also known as the 1973 Arab–Israeli War, was a war fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, by a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel.
10 Downing Street, colloquially known in the United Kingdom as Number 10, is the headquarters of the Government of the United Kingdom and the official residence and office of the First Lord of the Treasury, a post which, for much of the 18th and 19th centuries and invariably since 1905, has been held by the Prime Minister.
The 1979 Fastnet race was the twenty-eighth Royal Ocean Racing Club's Fastnet race, a yachting race held generally every two years since 1925 on a 605-mile course from Cowes direct to the Fastnet Rock and then to Plymouth via south of the Isles of Scilly.
Edward R. G. Heath, Edward Richard George Heath, Edward heath, Grocer Heath, Heath, Edward, Heathite, PM Heath, Premiership of Edward Heath, Prime Minister Edward Heath, Prime Minister Heath, Prime ministership of Edward Heath, Shadow Cabinet of Edward Heath (1974-1975), Shadow Cabinet of Edward Heath (1974–1975), Shadow Cabinet of Edward Heath II, Sir Edward Heath, Ted Heath, The incredible sulk.