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Edward Snowden

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Edward Joseph Snowden (born June 21, 1983) is an American computer professional, former Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) employee, and former contractor for the United States government who copied and leaked classified information from the National Security Agency (NSA) in 2013 without authorization. [1]

365 relations: ACLU v. Clapper, Admiral (United States), Aeroflot, Agence France-Presse, Agnosticism, Al Gore, Al Jazeera, Alan Rusbridger, Alexander Vladimirovich Konovalov, American Career Institute, American Civil Liberties Union, Anatoly Kucherena, Andrew Huang (hacker), Angela Merkel, Anime, Anne Arundel Community College, Ars Technica, Ash Carter, Auckland, Austin, Texas, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Australian Intelligence Community, Australian Signals Directorate, Backdoor (computing), Barack Obama, Barton Gellman, Basic income, BBC News, Ben Wizner, Bernie Sanders, Black budget, Bloomberg News, Bolivia, Booz Allen Hamilton, Boundless Informant, Box Office Mojo, British intelligence agencies, Buddhism, Buenos Aires Herald, Bullrun (decryption program), Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, CBS News, Cellphone surveillance, Center for Advanced Study of Language, Central Intelligence Agency, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Channel 4, Chief information officer, Chief technology officer, China, ..., Chris Anderson (entrepreneur), Christopher Soghoian, Chuck Hagel, Classified information, Classified information in the United States, CNN, Communications Security Establishment, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, Criticism of the United States government, Cuba, Cyberwarfare, Daniel Ellsberg, Daniel Ortega, David Johnston (politician), David Kaye (law professor), Defense Intelligence Agency, Dell, Der Spiegel, Diane Roark, Dilma Rousseff, Diplomatic mission, Director of National Intelligence, Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, Dissident, Dutch Ruppersberger, ECHELON, Ecuador, Edward J. Barrett, Edward Jay Epstein, El Mercurio, Electronic Frontier Foundation, Eli Lake, Elizabeth City, North Carolina, Email encryption, Encryption, Epilepsy, Eric Holder, Espionage Act of 1917, European Commission, European Parliament, Evo Morales, Evo Morales grounding incident, Ewen MacAskill, Facebook, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Federal government of the United States, Federal Judicial Center, Federal Migration Service (Russian Federation), Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution, Federal Security Service, Fidel Castro, Five Eyes, Forbes, Fort Meade, Maryland, Fox News, Free software, Free Software Foundation, Freedom of the Press Foundation, General counsel, General Educational Development, Geneva, Geoffrey R. Stone, George Polk Awards, George W. Bush, Gerard E. Lynch, German Parliamentary Committee investigating the NSA spying scandal, Glenn Greenwald, Global surveillance, Global surveillance and journalism, Global surveillance disclosures (2013–present), Google, Google Hangouts, Government Communications Headquarters, Handelszeitung, Hans-Georg Maaßen, Havana, Hawaii Cryptologic Center, Henry Holt and Company, Henry Jackson Society, Hero, Hillary Clinton, Hong Kong, Hong Kong–United States relations, HTTP cookie, HuffPost, IMDb, Immunity from prosecution (international law), Industrial espionage, Infectious mononucleosis, Information privacy, Information sensitivity, Intelligence quotient, International Film Festival and Forum on Human Rights, Internet Archive, Internet forum, Iraq War, Jacob Appelbaum, James Clapper, Japanese popular culture, Jay Rosen, Jesselyn Radack, Jimmy Carter, Joaquín Almunia, Joe Biden, John Crane (government official), John Kerry, John Michael McConnell, Johns Hopkins University, Joseph Margulies (lawyer), Judicial Watch, Julian Assange, Keith B. Alexander, Kim Dotcom, Klayman v. Obama, Kommersant, Kunia Camp, Hawaii, Kunia Regional SIGINT Operations Center, Lake Geneva, Langley, Virginia, Larry Klayman, Laura Poitras, Le Monde, LibrePlanet, List of people granted asylum, List of people who have lived at airports, List of terrorist incidents, List of United States extradition treaties, List of whistleblowers, Los Angeles Times, LOVEINT, Macmillan Publishers, MAINWAY, Malware, María Luisa Ramos Urzagaste, Mark Klein, Martial arts, Martin Dempsey, Mass surveillance, Mass surveillance in the United States, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Médecins du Monde, Michael S. Rogers, Mike Pompeo, Mike Rogers (Michigan politician), Minister for Defence (Australia), Minister of the Interior (France), Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Brazil), Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Russia), MIT Media Lab, MonsterMind, Moscow, MUSCULAR (surveillance program), National security, National Security Agency, Navi Pillay, NBC, NBC News, Neoconservatism, New York (magazine), News leak, Newseum, NEWSru, Nicolás Maduro, No Place to Hide (Greenwald book), NPR, NSA warrantless surveillance (2001–2007), O Globo, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Official cover, Operation Socialist, Panetta Review, Pardon, Patriot Act, Patriotism, PEN American Center, Pentagon Papers, Perry Fellwock, Petrobras, Pew Research Center, Political podcast, Politico, Post-9/11, President of the Swiss Confederation, Prime Minister of Israel, PRISM (surveillance program), Privacy International, Public key infrastructure, Pulitzer Prize for Public Service, R. James Woolsey Jr., Rafael Correa, Reactions to global surveillance disclosures, Rear admiral, Rede Globo, Refugees and asylum in Russia, Reuters, Richard J. Leon, Right of asylum, Rimsky Yuen, Rolling Stone, Ron Paul, RT (TV network), Russ Tice, Russia Beyond, Russian espionage in the United States, Salon (website), San Francisco Chronicle, Sarah Harrison (journalist), Seattle, Second Life, Secret Intelligence Service, Secretary for Justice (Hong Kong), Section summary of the Patriot Act, Title II, Security clearance, Security hacker, September 11 attacks, Sheremetyevo International Airport, Siemens, Sigmar Gabriel, South by Southwest, South China Morning Post, Spiegel Online, Spoofing attack, Standard Chinese, Stasi, Stellar Wind, Stylometry, Switzerland, System administrator, Tailored Access Operations, TASS, Technology Specialist, TED (conference), Telephone company, Telesur (TV channel), Tempora, Terrorist Surveillance Program, The Australian, The Century Foundation, The Christian Science Monitor, The Daily Beast, The Guardian, The Hill (newspaper), The Intercept, The Left (Germany), The Mira Hong Kong, The Morning Call, The Nation, The New York Times, The New Yorker, The News & Observer, The Pentagon, The Snowden Files, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, Think tank, Third party (United States), Thomas A. Drake, Thomas Tamm, Tim Berners-Lee, Tokyo, Tor (anonymity network), Toronto, Treason, TURBINE (US government project), Ueli Maurer, UNICEF, United Nations, United Nations General Assembly, United Nations special rapporteur, United States Army Reserve, United States Attorney General, United States Coast Guard, United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, United States Department of Defense, United States Department of Justice, United States Department of State, United States Deputy Secretary of Defense, United States District Court for the District of Maryland, United States House Committee on Armed Services, United States House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, United States Intelligence Community, United States Navy, United States passport, United States presidential election, 2008, United States Secretary of Defense, United States Secretary of State, United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, United States special operations forces, University of Liverpool, University of Maryland, College Park, University of Oslo, Upper Canada College, USA Freedom Act, Vancouver, Verizon Communications, Vice News, Vice President of the United States, Vice-Chancellor of Germany, Vladimir Putin, WebM, Whistleblower, White House, WikiLeaks, Will Englund, William Binney (intelligence official), William H. Pauley III, Wired (magazine), World of Warcraft, WVEC, Xbox Live, XKeyscore, Yahoo!, Yahoo! News, Yokota Air Base, 2013 G20 Saint Petersburg summit. Expand index (315 more) »

ACLU v. Clapper

American Civil Liberties Union v. James Clapper, No.

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Admiral (United States)

Admiral (abbreviated as ADM) is a four-star commissioned naval flag officer rank in the United States Navy, the United States Coast Guard, and the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, with the pay grade of O-10.

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Aeroflot

PJSC AeroflotRussian Airlines (ПАО "Аэрофло́т — Росси́йские авиали́нии"), commonly known as Aeroflot (Аэрофлот, English translation: "air fleet"), is the flag carrier and largest airline of the Russian Federation.

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Agence France-Presse

Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.

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Agnosticism

Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.

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Al Gore

Albert Arnold Gore Jr. (born March 31, 1948) is an American politician and environmentalist who served as the 45th Vice President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.

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Al Jazeera

Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.

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Alan Rusbridger

Alan Charles Rusbridger (born 29 December 1953) is a British journalist, Principal of Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford and the former editor-in-chief of The Guardian.

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Alexander Vladimirovich Konovalov

Alexander Vladimirovich Konovalov (in Алекса́ндр Влади́мирович Конова́лов, born 9 June 1968) is a Russian lawyer and politician.

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American Career Institute

American Career Institute was a training school that offered programs in Allied Health, Digital Media, Information Technology, Software Development and Database Administration.

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American Civil Liberties Union

The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is a nonprofit organization whose stated mission is "to defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties guaranteed to every person in this country by the Constitution and laws of the United States." Officially nonpartisan, the organization has been supported and criticized by liberal and conservative organizations alike.

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Anatoly Kucherena

Anatoly Grigorievich Kucherena (Анатолий Григорьевич Кучерена; born August 23, 1960) is a Russian attorney, public figure, Doctor of Law, and professor.

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Andrew Huang (hacker)

Andrew "bunnie" Huang (born 1975) is an American researcher and hacker, who holds a Ph.D in electrical engineering from MIT and is the author of the freely available 2003 book Hacking the Xbox: An Introduction to Reverse Engineering.

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Angela Merkel

Angela Dorothea Merkel (Kasner, born 17 July 1954) is a German politician serving as Chancellor of Germany since 2005 and leader of the centre-right Christian Democratic Union (CDU) since 2000.

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Anime

Anime is a style of hand-drawn and computer animation originating in, and commonly associated with, Japan.

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Anne Arundel Community College

Anne Arundel Community College, founded in 1961, is located in Arnold, Maryland.

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Ars Technica

Ars Technica (a Latin-derived term that the site translates as the "art of technology") is a website covering news and opinions in technology, science, politics, and society, created by Ken Fisher and Jon Stokes in 1998.

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Ash Carter

Ashton Baldwin Carter (born September 24, 1954) is an American physicist and former Harvard University professor of Science and International Affairs who served as the 25th United States Secretary of Defense from February 2015 to January 2017.

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Auckland

Auckland is a city in New Zealand's North Island.

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Austin, Texas

Austin is the capital of the U.S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County, with portions extending into Hays and Williamson counties.

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Australian Broadcasting Corporation

The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) founded in 1929 is Australia's national broadcaster, funded by the Australian Federal Government but specifically independent of Government and politics in the Commonwealth.

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Australian Intelligence Community

The Australian Intelligence Community (AIC) and the National Intelligence Community (NIC) or National Security Community of the Australian Government are the collectives of statutory intelligence agencies, policy departments, and other government agencies concerned with protecting and advancing the national security and national interests of the Commonwealth of Australia.

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Australian Signals Directorate

Australian Signals Directorate (ASD; until 2013: Defence Signals Directorate, DSD) is an Australian government foreign intelligence collection agency responsible for foreign signals intelligence (SIGINT) and information security (INFOSEC).

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Backdoor (computing)

A backdoor is a method, often secret, of bypassing normal authentication or encryption in a computer system, a product, or an embedded device (e.g. a home router), or its embodiment, e.g. as part of a cryptosystem, an algorithm, a chipset, or a "homunculus computer" (such as that as found in Intel's AMT technology).

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Barack Obama

Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.

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Barton Gellman

Barton David Gellman (born 1960) is an American journalist and bestselling author known for his reports on the September 11 attacks, on Dick Cheney's vice presidency and on the global surveillance disclosure.

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Basic income

A basic income, also called basic income guarantee, universal basic income (UBI), basic living stipend (BLS) or universal demogrant, is a type of program in which citizens (or permanent residents) of a country may receive a regular sum of money from the government.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Ben Wizner

Ben Wizner (born 1971) is an American lawyer, writer, and civil liberties advocate with the American Civil Liberties Union.

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Bernie Sanders

Bernard Sanders (born September 8, 1941) is an American politician serving as the junior United States Senator from Vermont since 2007.

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Black budget

A black budget is the governments budget that is allocated for classified and other secret operations of a nation.

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Bloomberg News

Bloomberg News is an international news agency headquartered in New York, United States and a division of Bloomberg L.P. Content produced by Bloomberg News is disseminated through Bloomberg Terminals, Bloomberg Television, Bloomberg Radio, Bloomberg Businessweek, Bloomberg Markets, Bloomberg.com and Bloomberg's mobile platforms.

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Bolivia

Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.

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Booz Allen Hamilton

Booz Allen Hamilton Inc. (informally: Booz Allen) is an American management and information technology consulting firm, sometimes referred to as a government-services company, headquartered in McLean, Virginia, in Greater Washington, D.C., with 80 other offices around the globe.

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Boundless Informant

Boundless Informant (stylized as BOUNDLESSINFORMANT) is a big data analysis and data visualization tool used by the United States National Security Agency (NSA).

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Box Office Mojo

Founded in 1999, Box Office Mojo tracks box office revenue in a systematic, algorithmic way, and publishes the data on its website.

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British intelligence agencies

The Government of the United Kingdom maintains intelligence agencies within several different government departments.

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Buddhism

Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Buenos Aires Herald

The Buenos Aires Herald was an English language daily newspaper from Buenos Aires, Argentina.

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Bullrun (decryption program)

Bullrun (stylized BULLRUN) is a clandestine, highly classified program to crack encryption of online communications and data, which is run by the United States National Security Agency (NSA).

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Canadian Broadcasting Corporation

The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (Société Radio-Canada), branded as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian federal Crown corporation that serves as the national public broadcaster for both radio and television.

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CBS News

CBS News is the news division of American television and radio service CBS.

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Cellphone surveillance

Cellphone surveillance, also known as cellphone spying, may involve the tracking, bugging, monitoring, interception and recording of conversations and text messages on mobile phones.

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Center for Advanced Study of Language

The University of Maryland Center for Advanced Study of Language (CASL) is the national laboratory for advanced research and development on language and national security, located in College Park, Maryland.

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Central Intelligence Agency

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).

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Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) is, by U.S. law, the highest-ranking and senior-most military officer in the United States Armed Forces 10 USC 152.

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Channel 4

Channel 4 is a British public-service television broadcaster that began transmission on 2 November 1982.

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Chief information officer

Chief information officer (CIO), chief digital information officer (CDIO) or information technology (IT) director, is a job title commonly given to the most senior executive in an enterprise responsible for the traditional information technology and computer systems that support enterprise goals.

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Chief technology officer

A Chief Technology Officer (CTO), sometimes known as a Chief Technical Officer, is an executive-level position in a company or other entity whose occupation is focused on scientific and technological issues within an organization.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chris Anderson (entrepreneur)

Chris Anderson (born 1957) is the owner of TED, a nonprofit organization that provides idea-based talks and hosts an annual conference in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

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Christopher Soghoian

Christopher Soghoian (born 1981) is a privacy researcher and activist.

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Chuck Hagel

Charles Timothy Hagel (born October 4, 1946), The Associated Press, published in The News-Times, December 17, 2012.

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Classified information

Classified information is material that a government body deems to be sensitive information that must be protected.

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Classified information in the United States

The United States government classification system is established under Executive Order 13526, the latest in a long series of executive orders on the topic.

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CNN

Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.

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Communications Security Establishment

The Communications Security Establishment (CSE; Centre de la sécurité des télécommunications, CST), formerly called the Communications Security Establishment Canada (CSEC), is the Government of Canada's national cryptologic agency.

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Cristina Fernández de Kirchner

Cristina Elisabet Fernández de Kirchner (born 19 February 1953), sometimes referred to by her initials CFK, is an Argentine lawyer and politician, who served as President of Argentina from 2007 to 2015.

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Criticism of the United States government

Criticism of the United States government encompasses a wide range of sentiments about the actions and policies of the United States.

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Cuba

Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.

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Cyberwarfare

Cyberwarfare is the use or targeting in a battlespace or warfare context of computers, online control systems and networks.

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Daniel Ellsberg

Daniel Ellsberg (born April 7, 1931) is an American activist and former United States military analyst who, while employed by the RAND Corporation, precipitated a national political controversy in 1971 when he released the Pentagon Papers, a top-secret Pentagon study of U.S. government decision-making in relation to the Vietnam War, to The New York Times and other newspapers.

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Daniel Ortega

José Daniel Ortega Saavedra (born November 11, 1945) is a Nicaraguan politician serving as President of Nicaragua since 2007; previously he was leader of Nicaragua from 1979 to 1990, first as Coordinator of the Junta of National Reconstruction (1979–1985) and then as President (1985–1990).

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David Johnston (politician)

David Albert Lloyd Johnston (born 14 February 1956) is an Australian politician who was a Liberal Party member of the Australian Senate from 2002 to 2016, representing the state of Western Australia.

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David Kaye (law professor)

David Kaye is the current United Nations special rapporteur on the Promotion and Protection of the Right to Freedom of Opinion and Expression, a post he has held since August 2014.

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Defense Intelligence Agency

The Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) is an external intelligence service of the United States federal government specializing in defense and military intelligence.

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Dell

Dell (stylized as DELL) is an American multinational computer technology company based in Round Rock, Texas, United States, that develops, sells, repairs, and supports computers and related products and services.

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Der Spiegel

Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.

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Diane Roark

Diane Roark is an American whistleblower who served as a Republican staffer on the House Intelligence Committee from 1985 to 2002.

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Dilma Rousseff

Dilma Vana Rousseff (often known mononymously as Dilma; born 14 December 1947) is a Brazilian economist and politician who served as the 36th President of Brazil, holding the position from 2011 until her impeachment and removal from office on 31 August 2016, becoming the first democratically-elected female President in the world to be impeached and removed.

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Diplomatic mission

A diplomatic mission or foreign mission is a group of people from one state or an organisation present in another state to represent the sending state/organisation officially in the receiving state.

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Director of National Intelligence

The Director of National Intelligence (DNI) is the United States government Cabinet-level official—subject to the authority, direction, and control of the President of the United States—required by the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 to.

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Director of the Central Intelligence Agency

The Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (D/CIA) is a statutory office that functions as the head of the Central Intelligence Agency, which in turn is a part of the United States Intelligence Community.

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Dissident

A dissident, broadly defined, is a person who actively challenges an established doctrine, policy, or institution.

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Dutch Ruppersberger

Charles Albert Dutch Ruppersberger III (born January 31, 1946) is the U.S. Representative for, serving since 2003.

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ECHELON

ECHELON, originally a secret government code name, is a surveillance program (signals intelligence/SIGINT collection and analysis network) operated by the US with the aid of four other signatory nations to the UKUSA Security Agreement Given the 5 dialects that use the terms, UKUSA can be pronounced from "You-Q-SA" to "Oo-Coo-SA", AUSCANNZUKUS can be pronounced from "Oz-Can-Zuke-Us" to "Orse-Can-Zoo-Cuss".

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Ecuador

Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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Edward J. Barrett

Rear Admiral Edward Joseph Barrett is a flag officer in the United States Coast Guard Serving as Chief of Systems of the United States Coast Guard serving from 1996-1999.

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Edward Jay Epstein

Edward Jay Epstein (born 1935) is an American investigative journalist and a former political science professor at Harvard, UCLA, and MIT.

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El Mercurio

El Mercurio is a Chilean newspaper with editions in Valparaíso and Santiago.

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Electronic Frontier Foundation

The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is an international non-profit digital rights group based in San Francisco, California.

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Eli Lake

Eli Lake (born July 9, 1972 in Philadelphia), is an American journalist and the former senior national security correspondent for The Daily Beast and Newsweek.

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Elizabeth City, North Carolina

Elizabeth City is a city in Pasquotank County, North Carolina, in the United States.

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Email encryption

Email encryption is encryption of email messages to protect the content from being read by other entities than the intended recipients.

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Encryption

In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it and those who are not authorized cannot.

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Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.

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Eric Holder

Eric Himpton Holder Jr. (born January 21, 1951) is an American attorney who served as the 82nd Attorney General of the United States from 2009 to 2015.

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Espionage Act of 1917

The Espionage Act of 1917 is a United States federal law passed on June 15, 1917, shortly after the U.S. entry into World War I. It has been amended numerous times over the years.

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European Commission

The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.

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European Parliament

The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).

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Evo Morales

Juan Evo Morales Ayma (born October 26, 1959), popularly known as Evo, is a Bolivian politician and cocalero activist who has served as President of Bolivia since 2006.

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Evo Morales grounding incident

On 1 July 2013, president Evo Morales of Bolivia, who had been attending a conference of gas-exporting countries in Russia, appeared predisposed to offer asylum to Edward Snowden during an interview with RT.

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Ewen MacAskill

Ewen MacAskill (born c.1952)Bryan Burrough, Sarah Ellison and Suzanna Andrews, Vanity Fair, May 2014 is a Scottish journalist.

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Facebook

Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service company based in Menlo Park, California.

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Federal Bureau of Investigation

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.

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Federal government of the United States

The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.

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Federal Judicial Center

The Federal Judicial Center is the education and research agency of the United States federal courts.

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Federal Migration Service (Russian Federation)

The Federal Migration Service (Федеральная миграционная служба, ФМС России) was a federal law enforcement agency responsible for implementing the state policy on migration and also performing law enforcement functions, functions for control, supervision and provision of public services in the field of migration.

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Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution

The Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution (Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz or BfV) is the Federal Republic of Germany's domestic security agency.

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Federal Security Service

The Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation (FSB; fʲɪdʲɪˈralʲnəjə ˈsluʐbə bʲɪzɐˈpasnəstʲɪ rɐˈsʲijskəj fʲɪdʲɪˈratsɨjɪ) is the principal security agency of Russia and the main successor agency to the USSR's Committee of State Security (KGB).

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Fidel Castro

Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (August 13, 1926 – November 25, 2016) was a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008.

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Five Eyes

The Five Eyes, often abbreviated as FVEY, is an intelligence alliance comprising Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States.

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Forbes

Forbes is an American business magazine.

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Fort Meade, Maryland

Fort Meade is a census-designated place (CDP) in Anne Arundel County, Maryland, United States.

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Fox News

Fox News (officially known as the Fox News Channel, commonly abbreviated to FNC) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel owned by the Fox Entertainment Group, a subsidiary of 21st Century Fox.

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Free software

Free software or libre software is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any adapted versions.

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Free Software Foundation

The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization founded by Richard Stallman on 4 October 1985 to support the free software movement, which promotes the universal freedom to study, distribute, create, and modify computer software, with the organization's preference for software being distributed under copyleft ("share alike") terms, such as with its own GNU General Public License.

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Freedom of the Press Foundation

Freedom of the Press Foundation (FPF) is a non-profit organization founded in 2012 to fund and support free speech and freedom of the press.

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General counsel

A general counsel, chief counsel, or chief legal officer (CLO) is the chief lawyer of a legal department, usually in a company or a governmental department.

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General Educational Development

General Equivalency Development or General Equivalency Diploma (GED) tests are a group of four subject tests which, when passed, provide certification that the test taker has United States or Canadian high school-level academic skills.

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Geneva

Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.

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Geoffrey R. Stone

Geoffrey R. Stone (born 1946) is an American law professor and noted First Amendment scholar.

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George Polk Awards

The George Polk Awards in Journalism are a series of prestigious American journalism awards presented annually by Long Island University in New York in the United States.

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George W. Bush

George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.

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Gerard E. Lynch

Gerard Edmund Lynch (born September 4, 1951) is a Senior United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit.

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German Parliamentary Committee investigating the NSA spying scandal

The German Parliamentary Committee investigating the NSA spying scandal (official title: 1. Untersuchungsausschuss „NSA“) was started on March 20, 2014, by the German Parliament in order to investigate the extent and background of foreign secret services spying in Germany in the light of the Global surveillance disclosures (2013–present).

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Glenn Greenwald

Glenn Edward Greenwald (born March 6, 1967) is an American lawyer, journalist, and author, best known for his role in a series of reports published by The Guardian newspaper beginning in June 2013, detailing the United States and British global surveillance programs, and based on classified documents disclosed by Edward Snowden.

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Global surveillance

Global surveillance refers to the mass surveillance of entire populations across national borders.

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Global surveillance and journalism

Global surveillance and journalism is a subject considering journalism in light of the Global surveillance disclosures of 2013.

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Global surveillance disclosures (2013–present)

Ongoing news reports in the international media have revealed operational details about the United States National Security Agency (NSA) and its international partners' global surveillance of foreign nationals and U.S. citizens.

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Google

Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.

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Google Hangouts

Google Hangouts is a communication platform developed by Google which includes messaging, video chat, SMS and VOIP features.

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Government Communications Headquarters

The Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) is an intelligence and security organisation responsible for providing signals intelligence (SIGINT) and information assurance to the government and armed forces of the United Kingdom.

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Handelszeitung

The Handelszeitung is a German-language Swiss weekly newspaper.

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Hans-Georg Maaßen

Hans-Georg Maaßen (born 24 November 1962 in Mönchengladbach) is a German civil servant and lawyer.

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Havana

Havana (Spanish: La Habana) is the capital city, largest city, province, major port, and leading commercial center of Cuba.

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Hawaii Cryptologic Center

The Hawaii Cryptologic Center (HCC) or NSA Hawaii is a U.S. National Security Agency (NSA) Central Security Service (CSS) facility located near Wahiawa on the island of Oahu, Hawaii.

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Henry Holt and Company

Henry Holt and Company is an American book publishing company based in New York City.

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Henry Jackson Society

The Henry Jackson Society is a neoconservative British foreign policy think tank.

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Hero

A hero (masculine) or heroine (feminine) is a real person or a main character of a literary work who, in the face of danger, combats adversity through feats of ingenuity, bravery or strength; the original hero type of classical epics did such things for the sake of glory and honor.

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Hillary Clinton

Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26, 1947) is an American politician and diplomat who served as the First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001, U.S. Senator from New York from 2001 to 2009, 67th United States Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013, and the Democratic Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 2016 election.

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Hong Kong

Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.

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Hong Kong–United States relations

Hong Kong–United States relations(港美關係) are bilateral relations between Hong Kong and the United States.

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HTTP cookie

An HTTP cookie (also called web cookie, Internet cookie, browser cookie, or simply cookie) is a small piece of data sent from a website and stored on the user's computer by the user's web browser while the user is browsing.

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HuffPost

HuffPost (formerly The Huffington Post and sometimes abbreviated HuffPo) is a liberal American news and opinion website and blog that has both localized and international editions.

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IMDb

IMDb, also known as Internet Movie Database, is an online database of information related to world films, television programs, home videos and video games, and internet streams, including cast, production crew and personnel biographies, plot summaries, trivia, and fan reviews and ratings.

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Immunity from prosecution (international law)

Immunity from prosecution is a doctrine of international law that allows an accused to avoid prosecution for criminal offences.

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Industrial espionage

Industrial espionage, economic espionage, corporate spying or corporate espionage is a form of espionage conducted for commercial purposes instead of purely national security.

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Infectious mononucleosis

Infectious mononucleosis (IM, mono), also known as glandular fever, is an infection usually caused by the Epstein–Barr virus (EBV).

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Information privacy

Information privacy, or data privacy (or data protection), is the relationship between the collection and dissemination of data, technology, the public expectation of privacy, and the legal and political issues surrounding them.

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Information sensitivity

Information sensitivity is the control of access to information or knowledge that might result in loss of an advantage or level of security if disclosed to others.

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Intelligence quotient

An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence.

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International Film Festival and Forum on Human Rights

The International Film Festival and Forum on Human Rights (FIFDH) is one of the most important international events dedicated to cinema and human rights, located in the heart of Geneva, "international capital of human rights".

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Internet Archive

The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books.

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Internet forum

An Internet forum, or message board, is an online discussion site where people can hold conversations in the form of posted messages.

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Iraq War

The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.

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Jacob Appelbaum

Jacob Appelbaum (born 1 April 1983) is an American independent journalist, computer security researcher, artist, and hacker.

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James Clapper

James Robert Clapper Jr. (born March 14, 1941) is a retired lieutenant general in the United States Air Force and is the former Director of National Intelligence.

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Japanese popular culture

Japanese popular culture encompasses the modern popular culture of Japan.

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Jay Rosen

Jay Rosen (born May 5, 1956) is a liberal media critic, writer, and a professor of journalism at New York University.

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Jesselyn Radack

Jesselyn Radack (born December 12, 1970) is a national security and human rights attorney known for her defense of whistleblowers, journalists, and hacktivists.

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Jimmy Carter

James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981.

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Joaquín Almunia

Joaquín Almunia Amann (born 17 June 1948) is a Spanish politician and formerly, prominent member of the European Commission.

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Joe Biden

Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. (born November 20, 1942) is an American politician who served as the 47th Vice President of the United States from 2009 to 2017.

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John Crane (government official)

John Crane is a former Assistant Inspector General of the U.S. Department of Defense known for his advocacy on behalf of government whistleblowers.

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John Kerry

John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is an American politician who served as the 68th United States Secretary of State from 2013 to 2017.

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John Michael McConnell

John Michael "Mike" McConnell (born July 26, 1943) is a former vice admiral in the United States Navy.

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Johns Hopkins University

Johns Hopkins University is an American private research university in Baltimore, Maryland.

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Joseph Margulies (lawyer)

Joseph Margulies is an American attorney with the MacArthur Justice Center and a Professor of Law and Government at the Cornell University Law School in Ithaca.

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Judicial Watch

Judicial Watch (JW) is an American conservative activist group and self-styled watchdog group that files Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) lawsuits to investigate alleged misconduct by government officials.

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Julian Assange

Julian Paul Assange (born Hawkins; 3 July 1971) is an Australian computer programmer and the editor of WikiLeaks.

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Keith B. Alexander

Keith Brian Alexander (born December 2, 1951) is a retired four-star general of the United States Army who served as director of the National Security Agency (DIRNSA), chief of the Central Security Service (CHCSS) and commander of the United States Cyber Command.

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Kim Dotcom

Kim Dotcom (born Kim Schmitz, 21 January 1974), also known as Kimble and Kim Tim Jim Vestor, is a German-Finnish Internet entrepreneur and political activist who resides in Queenstown, New Zealand.

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Klayman v. Obama

Klayman v. Obama was an American federal court case concerning the legality of the bulk collection of both phone and Internet metadata by the United States.

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Kommersant

Kommersant (Коммерса́нтъ,, The Businessman, often shortened to Ъ) is a nationally distributed daily newspaper published in Russia mostly devoted to politics and business.

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Kunia Camp, Hawaii

Kunia Camp (also called Kunia) is an unincorporated community on the island of Oahu in Honolulu County, Hawaii, United States.

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Kunia Regional SIGINT Operations Center

The Kunia Regional SIGINT Operations Center (KRSOC, also pronounced "KER-Sock"), also known as the Kunia Tunnel or the Regional Signals Intelligence Operations Center Kunia, was a United States National Security Agency facility that was located on Kunia Road between Kunia Camp and Wheeler Army Airfield in central Oahu, Hawaii.

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Lake Geneva

Lake Geneva (le lac Léman or le Léman, sometimes le lac de Genève, Genfersee) is a lake on the north side of the Alps, shared between Switzerland and France.

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Langley, Virginia

Langley is an unincorporated community in the census-designated place of McLean in Fairfax County, Virginia, United States.

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Larry Klayman

Larry Elliot Klayman (born July 20, 1951) is an American right-wing activist lawyer and former U.S. Justice Department prosecutor who has been called a "Clinton nemesis" for his dozens of lawsuits against the Bill Clinton administration in the 1990s.

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Laura Poitras

Laura Poitras (born February 2, 1964) is an American director and producer of documentary films.

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Le Monde

Le Monde (The World) is a French daily afternoon newspaper founded by Hubert Beuve-Méry at the request of Charles de Gaulle (as Chairman of the Provisional Government of the French Republic) on 19 December 1944, shortly after the Liberation of Paris, and published continuously since its first edition.

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LibrePlanet

LibrePlanet (literally, "Free Planet") is a community project created and supported by the Free Software Foundation.

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List of people granted asylum

This is a list of people granted asylum.

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List of people who have lived at airports

This is a list of people notable for living for periods of more than a week in airports.

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List of terrorist incidents

This list is incomplete.

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List of United States extradition treaties

The following is a list of United States extradition treaties: Legend.

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List of whistleblowers

This is a list of major whistleblowers from various countries.

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Los Angeles Times

The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.

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LOVEINT

LOVEINT is the practice of intelligence service employees making use of their extensive monitoring capabilities to spy on their love interest or spouse.

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Macmillan Publishers

Macmillan Publishers Ltd (occasionally known as the Macmillan Group) is an international publishing company owned by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group.

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MAINWAY

MAINWAY is a database maintained by the United States' National Security Agency (NSA) containing metadata for hundreds of billions of telephone calls made through the four largest telephone carriers in the United States: AT&T, SBC, BellSouth (all three now called AT&T), and Verizon.

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Malware

Malware (a portmanteau for malicious software) is any software intentionally designed to cause damage to a computer, server or computer network.

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María Luisa Ramos Urzagaste

María Luisa Ramos Urzagaste is Bolivia's current Ambassador to Russia, presenting her credentials to Russian President Dmitry Medvedev on 12 October 2009.

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Mark Klein

Mark Klein is a former AT&T technician and whistleblower who revealed details of the company's cooperation with the United States National Security Agency in installing network hardware at a site known as Room 641A to monitor, capture and process American telecommunications.

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Martial arts

Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practices, which are practiced for a number of reasons: as self-defense, military and law enforcement applications, mental and spiritual development; as well as entertainment and the preservation of a nation's intangible cultural heritage.

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Martin Dempsey

Martin Edward Dempsey (born March 14, 1952), sometimes known as Marty Dempsey, is a retired United States Army general who served as the 18th Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff from October 1, 2011 until September 25, 2015.

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Mass surveillance

Mass surveillance is the intricate surveillance of an entire or a substantial fraction of a population in order to monitor that group of citizens.

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Mass surveillance in the United States

The practice of mass surveillance in the United States dates back to WWI wartime monitoring and censorship of international communications from, to, or which passed through the United States.

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.

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Médecins du Monde

Médecins du monde (MdM) or Doctors of the World, provides emergency and long-term medical care to the world's most vulnerable people.

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Michael S. Rogers

Michael S. Rogers (born October 31, 1959) is a former United States Navy admiral who served as the second commander of the U.S. Cyber Command (USCYBERCOM).

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Mike Pompeo

Michael Richard Pompeo (born December 30, 1963) is an American politician, attorney and former United States Army officer serving as the 70th and current United States Secretary of State since 2018.

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Mike Rogers (Michigan politician)

Michael J. Rogers (born June 2, 1963) is a former U.S. Representative for.

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Minister for Defence (Australia)

The Australian Minister for Defence is currently Senator Marise Payne, who took office on 21 September 2015 as a member of the Turnbull Government.

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Minister of the Interior (France)

The Minister of the Interior (Ministre de l'Intérieur) is an important position in the Government of France.

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Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Brazil)

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MRE; Ministério das Relações Exteriores) conducts Brazil's foreign relations with other countries.

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Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Russia)

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation (MFA Russia; Министерство иностранных дел Российской Федерации, МИД РФ) is the central government institution charged with leading the foreign policy and foreign relations of Russia.

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MIT Media Lab

The MIT Media Lab is an antidisciplinary research laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, growing out of MIT's Architecture Machine Group in the School of Architecture.

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MonsterMind

MonsterMind is a U.S. National Security Agency (NSA) program which creates an automated response to a foreign cyber-attack.

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Moscow

Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.

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MUSCULAR (surveillance program)

MUSCULAR (DS-200B), located in the United Kingdom, is the name of a surveillance programme jointly operated by Britain's Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) and the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA) that was revealed by documents which were released by Edward Snowden and interviews with knowledgeable officials.

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National security

National security refers to the security of a nation state, including its citizens, economy, and institutions, and is regarded as a duty of government.

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National Security Agency

The National Security Agency (NSA) is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence.

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Navi Pillay

Navanethem "Navi" Pillay (born 23 September 1941) is a South African jurist who served as the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights from 2008 to 2014.

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NBC

The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) is an American English language commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast.

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NBC News

NBC News is the news division of the American broadcast television network NBC, formerly known as the National Broadcasting Company when it was founded on radio.

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Neoconservatism

Neoconservatism (commonly shortened to neocon when labelling its adherents) is a political movement born in the United States during the 1960s among liberal hawks who became disenchanted with the increasingly pacifist foreign policy of the Democratic Party, and the growing New Left and counterculture, in particular the Vietnam protests.

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New York (magazine)

New York is an American biweekly magazine concerned with life, culture, politics, and style generally, and with a particular emphasis on New York City.

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News leak

A news leak is the unsanctioned release of confidential information to news media.

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Newseum

The Newseum is an interactive museum that promotes free expression and the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, while tracing the evolution of communication.

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NEWSru

NEWSru is a Russian online news sites.

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Nicolás Maduro

Nicolás Maduro Moros (born 23 November 1962) is a Venezuelan politician who has served as the 63rd President of Venezuela since 2013 and previously served under President Hugo Chávez as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2006 to 2013 and as Vice President of Venezuela from 2012 to 2013.

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No Place to Hide (Greenwald book)

No Place to Hide: Edward Snowden, the NSA, and the U.S. Surveillance State is a 2014 non-fiction book by American investigative journalist Glenn Greenwald.

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NPR

National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.

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NSA warrantless surveillance (2001–2007)

NSA warrantless surveillance (also commonly referred to as "warrantless-wiretapping" or "-wiretaps") refers to the surveillance of persons within the United States, including United States citizens, during the collection of notionally foreign intelligence by the National Security Agency (NSA) as part of the Terrorist Surveillance Program.

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O Globo

O Globo (The Globe) is a Brazilian newspaper based in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (commonly known as the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)) is a United Nations agency that works to promote and protect the human rights that are guaranteed under international law and stipulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948.

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Official cover

In espionage, an official cover operative is one who assumes a position in an organization with diplomatic ties to the government for which the operative works such as an embassy or consulate.

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Operation Socialist

Operation Socialist is the code name given by the British signals and communications agency Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) to an operation in which GCHQ successfully breached the infrastructure of the Belgian telecommunications company Belgacom between 2010 and 2013.

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Panetta Review

The Panetta Review was a secret internal review conducted by Leon Panetta, then the Director of the United States Central Intelligence Agency, of the CIA's torture of detaineesMcGreal, Chris, The Guardian, April 5, 2012 during the administration of George W. Bush.

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Pardon

A pardon is a government decision to allow a person to be absolved of guilt for an alleged crime or other legal offense, as if the act never occurred.

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Patriot Act

The USA PATRIOT Act is an Act of Congress signed into law by US President George W. Bush on October 26, 2001.

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Patriotism

Patriotism or national pride is the ideology of love and devotion to a homeland, and a sense of alliance with other citizens who share the same values.

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PEN American Center

PEN American Center (PEN), founded in 1922 and based in New York City, works to advance literature, defend free expression, and foster international literary fellowship.

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Pentagon Papers

The Pentagon Papers, officially titled Report of the Office of the Secretary of Defense Vietnam Task Force, is a United States Department of Defense history of the United States' political and military involvement in Vietnam from 1945 to 1967.

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Perry Fellwock

Perry Fellwock (born 1947) is a former National Security Agency (NSA) analyst and whistleblower who revealed the existence of the NSA and its worldwide covert surveillance network in an interview, using the pseudonym Winslow Peck, with Ramparts in 1971.

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Petrobras

Petróleo Brasileiro S.A. — Petrobras, more commonly known as simply Petrobras, is a semi-public Brazilian multinational corporation in the petroleum industry headquartered in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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Pew Research Center

The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.

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Political podcast

Political podcasts are podcasts that focus on contemporary politics and current events.

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Politico

Politico, known earlier as The Politico, is an American political journalism company based in Arlington County, Virginia, that covers politics and policy in the United States and internationally.

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Post-9/11

The post-9/11 period is the time after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, characterized by heightened suspicion of non-Americans in the United States, increased government efforts to address terrorism, and a more aggressive American foreign policy.

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President of the Swiss Confederation

The President of the Confederation, colloquially known as the President of Switzerland or Federal President, is the head of Switzerland's seven-member Federal Council, the country's executive branch.

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Prime Minister of Israel

The Prime Minister of Israel (רֹאשׁ הַמֶּמְשָׁלָה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. Head of the Government, Hebrew acronym: רה״מ; رئيس الحكومة, Ra'īs al-Ḥukūma) is the head of government of Israel and the most powerful figure in Israeli politics.

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PRISM (surveillance program)

PRISM is a code name for a program under which the United States National Security Agency (NSA) collects internet communications from various U.S. internet companies.

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Privacy International

Privacy International (PI) is a UK-based registered charity that defends and promotes the right to privacy across the world.

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Public key infrastructure

A public key infrastructure (PKI) is a set of roles, policies, and procedures needed to create, manage, distribute, use, store, and revoke digital certificates and manage public-key encryption.

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Pulitzer Prize for Public Service

The Pulitzer Prize for Public Service is one of the fourteen American Pulitzer Prizes annually awarded for journalism.

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R. James Woolsey Jr.

Robert James "Jim" Woolsey Jr. (born September 21, 1941) is an American lawyer and diplomat who headed the Central Intelligence Agency from February 5, 1993, until January 10, 1995.

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Rafael Correa

Rafael Vicente Correa Delgado (born 6 April 1963) is an Ecuadorian politician and economist who served as President of Ecuador from 2007 to 2017.

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Reactions to global surveillance disclosures

The global surveillance disclosure released to media by Edward Snowden has caused tension in the bilateral relations of the United States with several of its allies and economic partners as well as in its relationship with the European Union.

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Rear admiral

Rear admiral is a naval commissioned officer rank above that of a commodore (U.S equivalent of Commander) and captain, and below that of a vice admiral.

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Rede Globo

Rede Globo (Globe Network), or simply Globo, is a Brazilian free-to-air television network, launched by media proprietor Roberto Marinho on 26 April 1965.

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Refugees and asylum in Russia

The Russian Federation's Law on Refugees defines who is a refugee for purposes of obtaining asylum in the country.

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Reuters

Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.

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Richard J. Leon

Richard J. Leon (born 1946) is a Senior United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Columbia.

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Right of asylum

The right of asylum (sometimes called right of political asylum, from the Ancient Greek word ἄσυλον) is an ancient juridical concept, under which a person persecuted by his own country may be protected by another sovereign authority, such as another country or church official, who in medieval times could offer sanctuary.

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Rimsky Yuen

Rimsky Yuen Kwok-keung, GBM, SC, JP (born 1964) is a lawyer and the third Secretary for Justice of Hong Kong from 2012 to 2018.

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Rolling Stone

Rolling Stone is an American monthly magazine that focuses on popular culture.

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Ron Paul

Ronald Ernest Paul (born August 20, 1935) is an American author, physician and retired politician who served as the U.S. Representative for Texas's 22nd congressional district from 1976 to 1977 and again from 1979 to 1985, and for Texas's 14th congressional district from 1997 to 2013.

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RT (TV network)

RT (formerly Russia Today) is a Russian international television network funded by the Russian government.

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Russ Tice

Russell D. Tice (born 1961) is a former intelligence analyst for the United States Air Force, Office of Naval Intelligence, Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), and National Security Agency (NSA).

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Russia Beyond

Russia Beyond, previously branded as Russia Beyond the Headlines or the RBTH, is a project/brand started by the TV-Novosti company owned by the Rossiya Segodnya which is a state news agency wholly owned and operated by the Russian government, created by an Executive Order of the President of Russia on December 9, 2013.

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Russian espionage in the United States

Russian espionage in the United States has occurred since at least during the Cold War, by the Soviet Union, and likely well before.

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Salon (website)

Salon is an American news and opinion website, created by David Talbot in 1995 and currently owned by the Salon Media Group.

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San Francisco Chronicle

The San Francisco Chronicle is a newspaper serving primarily the San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California.

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Sarah Harrison (journalist)

Sarah Harrison (born 1982) is a British journalist, legal researcher, and WikiLeaks section editor.

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Seattle

Seattle is a seaport city on the west coast of the United States.

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Second Life

Second Life is an online virtual world, developed and owned by the San Francisco-based firm Linden Lab and launched on June 23, 2003.

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Secret Intelligence Service

The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6, is the foreign intelligence service of the government of the United Kingdom, tasked mainly with the covert overseas collection and analysis of human intelligence (HUMINT) in support of the UK's national security.

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Secretary for Justice (Hong Kong)

The Secretary for Justice is the head of the Hong Kong Department of Justice, the chief legal advisor to the Chief Executive of Hong Kong, and the chief law enforcement officer of the Government of Hong Kong.

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Section summary of the Patriot Act, Title II

The following is a section summary of the USA PATRIOT Act, Title II.

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Security clearance

A security clearance is a status granted to individuals allowing them access to classified information (state or organizational secrets) or to restricted areas, after completion of a thorough background check.

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Security hacker

A security hacker is someone who seeks to breach defenses and exploit weaknesses in a computer system or network.

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September 11 attacks

The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.

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Sheremetyevo International Airport

Sheremetyevo International Airport (p) is an international airport located in Molzhaninovsky District, Northern Administrative Okrug, Moscow, Russia, northwest of central Moscow.

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Siemens

Siemens AG is a German conglomerate company headquartered in Berlin and Munich and the largest industrial manufacturing company in Europe with branch offices abroad.

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Sigmar Gabriel

Sigmar Hartmut Gabriel (born 12 September 1959) is a German politician who was Minister for Foreign Affairs from 2017 to 2018 and Vice-Chancellor of Germany from 2013 to 2018.

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South by Southwest

South by Southwest (abbreviated as SXSW and colloquially referred to as South By) is an annual conglomerate of film, interactive media, and music festivals and conferences that take place in mid-March in Austin, Texas, United States.

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South China Morning Post

The South China Morning Post (also known as SCMP or The Post), with its Sunday edition, the Sunday Morning Post, is a Hong Kong English-language newspaper and Hong Kong's newspaper of record.

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Spiegel Online

Spiegel Online (SPON) is one of the most widely read German-language news websites.

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Spoofing attack

In the context of network security, a spoofing attack is a situation in which a person or program successfully masquerades as another by falsifying data, to gain an illegitimate advantage.

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Standard Chinese

Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.

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Stasi

The Ministry for State Security (Ministerium für Staatssicherheit, MfS) or State Security Service (Staatssicherheitsdienst, SSD), commonly known as the Stasi, was the official state security service of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany).

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Stellar Wind

"Stellar Wind" (or "Stellarwind") was the code name of a warrantless surveillance program begun under the George W. Bush administration's President's Surveillance Program (PSP).

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Stylometry

Stylometry is the application of the study of linguistic style, usually to written language, but it has successfully been applied to music and to fine-art paintings as well.

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Switzerland

Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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System administrator

A system administrator, or sysadmin, is a person who is responsible for the upkeep, configuration, and reliable operation of computer systems; especially multi-user computers, such as servers.

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Tailored Access Operations

The Office of Tailored Access Operations (TAO) is a cyber-warfare intelligence-gathering unit of the National Security Agency (NSA).

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TASS

Russian News Agency TASS (Informatsionnoye agentstvo Rossii TASS), abbr.

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Technology Specialist

An IT Specialist, computer professional, or an IT professional may be.

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TED (conference)

TED Conferences, LLC (Technology, Entertainment, Design) is a media organization that posts talks online for free distribution, under the slogan "ideas worth spreading".

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Telephone company

A telephone company, also known as a telco, telephone service provider, or telecommunications operator, is a kind of communications service provider (CSP) (more precisely a telecommunications service provider or TSP) that provides telecommunications services such as telephony and data communications access.

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Telesur (TV channel)

Telesur (stylised as teleSUR) is a multi-state funded, Latin American terrestrial and satellite television network headquartered in Caracas, Venezuela.

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Tempora

Tempora is the codeword for a formerly secret computer system that is used by the British Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ).

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Terrorist Surveillance Program

The Terrorist Surveillance Program was an electronic surveillance program implemented by the National Security Agency (NSA) of the United States in the wake of the September 11, 2001, attacks.

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The Australian

The Australian is a broadsheet newspaper published in Australia from Monday to Saturday each week since 14 July 1964.

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The Century Foundation

The Century Foundation (established first as The Cooperative League and then the Twentieth Century Fund) is a progressive think tank headquartered in New York City with an office in Washington, D.C. It was founded as a nonprofit public policy research institution on the belief that the prosperity and security of the United States depends on a mix of effective government, open democracy, and free markets.

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The Christian Science Monitor

The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is a nonprofit news organization that publishes daily articles in electronic format as well as a weekly print edition.

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The Daily Beast

The Daily Beast is an American news and opinion website focused on politics and pop culture.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The Hill (newspaper)

The Hill is an American political newspaper and website published in Washington, D.C. since 1994.

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The Intercept

The Intercept is an online news publication dedicated to what it describes as "adversarial journalism".

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The Left (Germany)

The Left (Die Linke), also commonly referred to as the Left Party (die Linkspartei), is a democratic socialist political party in Germany.

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The Mira Hong Kong

The Mira Hong Kong is an upscale hotel located in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong which is the first Hong Kong property to join the Berlin-based global Design Hotels network.

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The Morning Call

The Morning Call is a daily newspaper based in Allentown, Pennsylvania, in the United States.

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The Nation

The Nation is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States, and the most widely read weekly journal of progressive political and cultural news, opinion, and analysis.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The New Yorker

The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.

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The News & Observer

The News & Observer is an American regional daily newspaper that serves the greater Triangle area based in Raleigh, North Carolina.

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The Pentagon

The Pentagon is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, located in Arlington County, Virginia, across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C. As a symbol of the U.S. military, The Pentagon is often used metonymically to refer to the U.S. Department of Defense.

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The Snowden Files

The Snowden Files: The Inside Story of the World's Most Wanted Man is a 2014 book by Luke Harding, published by Vintage Books.

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The Wall Street Journal

The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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Think tank

A think tank, think factory or policy institute is a research institute/center and organisation that performs research and advocacy concerning topics such as social policy, political strategy, economics, military, technology, and culture.

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Third party (United States)

Third party is a term used in the United States for American political parties other than the Republican and Democratic parties.

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Thomas A. Drake

Thomas Andrews Drake (born 1957) is a former senior executive of the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA), a decorated United States Air Force and United States Navy veteran, and a whistleblower.

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Thomas Tamm

Thomas Tamm (born 1952) is a public defender in Washington County, Maryland.

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Tim Berners-Lee

Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee (born 8 June 1955), also known as TimBL, is an English engineer and computer scientist, best known as the inventor of the World Wide Web.

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Tokyo

, officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and has been the capital since 1869.

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Tor (anonymity network)

Tor is free software for enabling anonymous communication.

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Toronto

Toronto is the capital city of the province of Ontario and the largest city in Canada by population, with 2,731,571 residents in 2016.

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Treason

In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's nation or sovereign.

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TURBINE (US government project)

TURBINE is the codename of an automated system which in essence enables the automated management and control of a large network of implants (a form of remotely transmitted malware on selected individual computer devices or in bulk on tens of thousands of devices).

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Ueli Maurer

Ulrich "Ueli" Maurer (born 1 December 1950) is a member of the Swiss Federal Council.

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UNICEF

The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Nations General Assembly

The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.

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United Nations special rapporteur

The titles Special Rapporteur, Independent Expert, and Working Group Member are given to individuals working on behalf of the United Nations (UN) within the scope of "special procedure" mechanisms who have a specific country or thematic mandate from the United Nations Human Rights Council.

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United States Army Reserve

The United States Army Reserve (USAR) is the federal reserve force of the United States Army.

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United States Attorney General

The United States Attorney General (A.G.) is the head of the United States Department of Justice per, concerned with all legal affairs, and is the chief lawyer of the United States government.

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United States Coast Guard

The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is a branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the country's seven uniformed services.

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United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit

The United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit (in case citations, 2d Cir.) is one of the thirteen United States Courts of Appeals.

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United States Department of Defense

The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.

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United States Department of Justice

The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U.S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration. The Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters (such as in cases before the Supreme Court), and running the federal prison system. The department is also responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet. The current Attorney General is Jeff Sessions.

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United States Department of State

The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.

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United States Deputy Secretary of Defense

The Deputy Secretary of Defense (acronym: DEPSECDEF) is a statutory office and the second-highest-ranking official in the Department of Defense of the United States of America.

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United States District Court for the District of Maryland

The United States District Court for the District of Maryland (in case citations, D. Md.) is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction is the state of Maryland.

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United States House Committee on Armed Services

The U.S. House Committee on Armed Services, commonly known as the House Armed Services Committee, is a standing committee of the United States House of Representatives.

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United States House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

The United States House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence (HPSCI), also known as the House Intelligence Committee, is a committee of the United States House of Representatives, currently chaired by Devin Nunes.

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United States Intelligence Community

The United States Intelligence Community (IC) is a federation of 16 separate United States government agencies that work separately and together to conduct intelligence activities to support the foreign policy and national security of the United States.

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United States Navy

The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.

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United States passport

United States passports are passports issued to citizens and nationals of the United States of America.

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United States presidential election, 2008

The United States presidential election of 2008 was the 56th quadrennial presidential election.

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United States Secretary of Defense

The Secretary of Defense (SecDef) is the leader and chief executive officer of the Department of Defense, the executive department of the Armed Forces of the United States of America.

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United States Secretary of State

The Secretary of State is a senior official of the federal government of the United States of America, and as head of the U.S. Department of State, is principally concerned with foreign policy and is considered to be the U.S. government's equivalent of a Minister for Foreign Affairs.

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United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence

The United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (sometimes referred to as the Intelligence Committee or SSCI) is dedicated to overseeing the United States Intelligence Community—the agencies and bureaus of the federal government of the United States who provide information and analysis for leaders of the executive and legislative branches.

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United States special operations forces

United States special operations forces (SOF) are components of the Department of Defense's United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM).

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University of Liverpool

The University of Liverpool is a public university based in the city of Liverpool, England.

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University of Maryland, College Park

The University of Maryland, College Park (commonly referred to as the University of Maryland, UMD, or simply Maryland) is a public research university located in the city of College Park in Prince George's County, Maryland, approximately from the northeast border of Washington, D.C. Founded in 1856, the university is the flagship institution of the University System of Maryland.

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University of Oslo

The University of Oslo (Universitetet i Oslo), until 1939 named the Royal Frederick University (Det Kongelige Frederiks Universitet), is the oldest university in Norway, located in the Norwegian capital of Oslo.

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Upper Canada College

Upper Canada College (UCC), located in Toronto, Ontario, is a private school for boys between Senior Kindergarten and Grade Twelve, operating under the International Baccalaureate program.

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USA Freedom Act

The USA Freedom Act is a U.S. law enacted on June 2, 2015 that restored in modified form several provisions of the Patriot Act, which had expired the day before.

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Vancouver

Vancouver is a coastal seaport city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia.

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Verizon Communications

Verizon Communications Inc., or simply Verizon, is an American multinational telecommunications conglomerate and a corporate component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average.

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Vice News

Vice News (stylized as VICE News) is Vice Media, Inc.'s current affairs channel, producing daily documentary essays and video through its website and YouTube channel.

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Vice President of the United States

The Vice President of the United States (informally referred to as VPOTUS, or Veep) is a constitutional officer in the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States as the President of the Senate under Article I, Section 3, Clause 4, of the United States Constitution, as well as the second highest executive branch officer, after the President of the United States.

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Vice-Chancellor of Germany

The Deputy to the Federal Chancellor, widely known as the Vice Chancellor of Germany is, according to protocol, the second highest position in the Cabinet of Germany.

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Vladimir Putin

Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.

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WebM

WebM is an audiovisual media file format.

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Whistleblower

A whistleblower (also written as whistle-blower or whistle blower) is a person who exposes any kind of information or activity that is deemed illegal, unethical, or not correct within an organization that is either private or public.

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White House

The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.

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WikiLeaks

WikiLeaks is an international non-profit organisation that publishes secret information, news leaks, and classified media provided by anonymous sources.

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Will Englund

William A. (Will) Englund (born March 30, 1953) is an assistant foreign editor for The Washington Post.

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William Binney (intelligence official)

William Edward BinneyVideo-Interview by is a former highly placed intelligence official with the United States National Security Agency (NSA) turned whistleblower who resigned on October 31, 2001, after more than 30 years with the agency.

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William H. Pauley III

William H. Pauley III (born August 14, 1952) is a Senior United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York.

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Wired (magazine)

Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics.

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World of Warcraft

World of Warcraft (WoW) is a massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) released in 2004 by Blizzard Entertainment.

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WVEC

WVEC, virtual and VHF digital channel 13, is an ABC-affiliated television station licensed to Hampton, Virginia, United States, serving the Hampton Roads area of southeastern Virginia (comprising the cities of Hampton, Norfolk, Portsmouth, Virginia Beach, Newport News and environs), and the Outer Banks region of northeastern North Carolina.

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Xbox Live

Xbox Live is an online multiplayer gaming and digital media delivery service created and operated by Microsoft.

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XKeyscore

XKeyscore (XKEYSCORE or XKS) is a formerly secret computer system first used by the United States National Security Agency for searching and analyzing global Internet data, which it collects on a daily basis.

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Yahoo!

Yahoo! is a web services provider headquartered in Sunnyvale, California and wholly owned by Verizon Communications through Oath Inc..

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Yahoo! News

Yahoo! News is a news website that originated as an internet-based news aggregator by Yahoo!.

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Yokota Air Base

, is a United States Air Force base in the city of Fussa, one of 26 cities in the Tama Area, or Western Tokyo.

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2013 G20 Saint Petersburg summit

The 2013 G20 Saint Petersburg summit was the eighth meeting of the G20 heads of government/heads of state.

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Redirects here:

@Snowden, Ed Snowden, Eduard Snowden, Edward J. Snowden, Edward James Snowden, Edward Joseph Snowden, Edward Snowden (whistleblower), Edward Snowden in Hong Kong, Edward Snowden's residence in Hong Kong, Edward Snowdon, Edward snowden, Edward snowdon, Lindsay Mills, List of honors and awards received by Edward Snowden, Snowden affair, Snowden, Edward, Snowden, Edward Joseph, TheTrueHOOHA, TheTrueHooHa.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Snowden

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