44 relations: Absolute magnitude, Albedo, Antares, Area of a circle, Atmosphere, Betelgeuse, Black body, Brightness temperature, Cambridge University Press, Capella, Climate model, Color index, Color temperature, CRC Press, Electromagnetic radiation, Emissivity, Glossary of astronomy, Greenhouse effect, HD 209458 b, Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, Infrared, Internal heating, Jupiter, Kelvin, Luminosity, Planet, Radioactive decay, Red dwarf, Rigel, Spectroscopy, Springer Science+Business Media, Star, Stefan–Boltzmann law, Stellar atmosphere, Stellar classification, Subsolar point, Sun, Supergiant star, Temperature, Tidal force, Ultraviolet, Vega, Wavelength, 51 Pegasi b.
Absolute magnitude is a measure of the luminosity of a celestial object, on a logarithmic astronomical magnitude scale.
Albedo (albedo, meaning "whiteness") is the measure of the diffuse reflection of solar radiation out of the total solar radiation received by an astronomical body (e.g. a planet like Earth).
Antares, also designated Alpha Scorpii (α Scorpii, abbreviated Alpha Sco, α Sco), is on average the fifteenth-brightest star in the night sky, and the brightest star in the constellation of Scorpius.
In geometry, the area enclosed by a circle of radius is.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
Betelgeuse, also designated Alpha Orionis (α Orionis, abbreviated Alpha Ori, α Ori), is the ninth-brightest star in the night sky and second-brightest in the constellation of Orion.
A black body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence.
Brightness temperature or radiance temperature is the temperature a black body in thermal equilibrium with its surroundings would have to be to duplicate the observed intensity of a grey body object at a frequency \nu.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Capella, also designated Alpha Aurigae (α Aurigae, abbreviated Alpha Aur, α Aur), is the brightest star in the constellation of Auriga, the sixth-brightest in the night sky, and the third-brightest in the northern celestial hemisphere after Arcturus and Vega.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Climate models use quantitative methods to simulate the interactions of the important drivers of climate, including atmosphere, oceans, land surface and ice.
In astronomy, the color index is a simple numerical expression that determines the color of an object, which in the case of a star gives its temperature.
The color temperature of a light source is the temperature of an ideal black-body radiator that radiates light of a color comparable to that of the light source.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
The emissivity of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in emitting energy as thermal radiation.
This page is a glossary of astronomy.
The greenhouse effect is the process by which radiation from a planet's atmosphere warms the planet's surface to a temperature above what it would be without its atmosphere.
HD 209458 b, also given the nickname Osiris,http://exoplanets.co/exoplanets-tutorial/extrasolar-planet-hd-209458-b.html is an exoplanet that orbits the solar analog HD 209458 in the constellation Pegasus, some 159 light-years from the Solar System.
The Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, abbreviated H–R diagram, HR diagram or HRD, is a scatter plot of stars showing the relationship between the stars' absolute magnitudes or luminosities versus their stellar classifications or effective temperatures.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
Internal heat is the heat source from the interior of celestial objects, such as stars, brown dwarfs, planets, moons, dwarf planets, and (in the early history of the Solar System) even asteroids such as Vesta, resulting from contraction caused by gravity (the Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism), nuclear fusion, tidal heating, core solidification (heat of fusion released as molten core material solidifies), and radioactive decay.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
In astronomy, luminosity is the total amount of energy emitted per unit of time by a star, galaxy, or other astronomical object.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
A red dwarf (or M dwarf) is a small and relatively cool star on the main sequence, of M spectral type.
Rigel, also designated Beta Orionis (β Orionis, abbreviated Beta Ori, β Ori), is generally the seventh-brightest star in the night sky and the brightest star in the constellation of Orion—though periodically it is outshone within the constellation by the variable Betelgeuse.
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
The Stefan–Boltzmann law describes the power radiated from a black body in terms of its temperature.
The stellar atmosphere is the outer region of the volume of a star, lying above the stellar core, radiation zone and convection zone.
In astronomy, stellar classification is the classification of stars based on their spectral characteristics.
The subsolar point on a planet is where its sun is perceived to be directly overhead (in zenith); that is where the sun's rays are hitting the planet exactly perpendicular to its surface.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
Supergiants are among the most massive and most luminous stars.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
The tidal force is an apparent force that stretches a body towards the center of mass of another body due to a gradient (difference in strength) in gravitational field from the other body; it is responsible for the diverse phenomena, including tides, tidal locking, breaking apart of celestial bodies and formation of ring systems within Roche limit, and in extreme cases, spaghettification of objects.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
Vega, also designated Alpha Lyrae (α Lyrae, abbreviated Alpha Lyr or α Lyr), is the brightest star in the constellation of Lyra, the fifth-brightest star in the night sky, and the second-brightest star in the northern celestial hemisphere, after Arcturus.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
51 Pegasi b (abbreviated 51 Peg b), unofficially dubbed Bellerophon, later named Dimidium, is an extrasolar planet approximately 50 light-years away in the constellation of Pegasus.