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Effector (biology)

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In biochemistry, an effector molecule is usually a small molecule that selectively binds to a protein and regulates its biological activity. [1]

20 relations: Activator (genetics), Allosteric regulation, Apoplast, Bacterial effector protein, Biochemistry, Cell signaling, Enzyme activator, Enzyme inhibitor, Gene expression, Ligand (biochemistry), Messenger RNA, Neuron, Pathogen, Repressor, Riboswitch, RNA polymerase, Small molecule, Spitzenkörper, Transcription (biology), Type three secretion system.

Activator (genetics)

A transcriptional activator is a protein (transcription factor) that increases gene transcription of a gene or set of genes.

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Allosteric regulation

In biochemistry, allosteric regulation (or allosteric control) is the regulation of an enzyme by binding an effector molecule at a site other than the enzyme's active site.

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Apoplast

Inside a plant, the apoplast is the space outside the plasma membrane within which material can diffuse freely.

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Bacterial effector protein

Bacterial effectors are proteins secreted by pathogenic bacteria into the cells of their host, usually using a type 3 secretion system (TTSS/T3SS), a type 4 secretion system (TFSS/T4SS) or a Type VI secretion system (T6SS).

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Biochemistry

Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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Cell signaling

Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.

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Enzyme activator

Enzyme activators are molecules that bind to enzymes and increase their activity.

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Enzyme inhibitor

4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.

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Gene expression

Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.

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Ligand (biochemistry)

In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.

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Messenger RNA

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.

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Neuron

A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.

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Pathogen

In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.

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Repressor

In molecular genetics, a repressor is a DNA- or RNA-binding protein that inhibits the expression of one or more genes by binding to the operator or associated silencers.

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Riboswitch

In molecular biology, a riboswitch is a regulatory segment of a messenger RNA molecule that binds a small molecule, resulting in a change in production of the proteins encoded by the mRNA.

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RNA polymerase

RNA polymerase (ribonucleic acid polymerase), both abbreviated RNAP or RNApol, official name DNA-directed RNA polymerase, is a member of a family of enzymes that are essential to life: they are found in all organisms (-species) and many viruses.

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Small molecule

Within the fields of molecular biology and pharmacology, a small molecule is a low molecular weight (< 900 daltons) organic compound that may regulate a biological process, with a size on the order of 1 nm.

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Spitzenkörper

The Spitzenkörper (German for pointed body) is a structure found in fungal hyphae that is the organizing center for hyphal growth and morphogenesis.

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Transcription (biology)

Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.

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Type three secretion system

Type three secretion system (often written Type III secretion system and abbreviated TTSS or T3SS, also called Injectisome) is a protein appendage found in several Gram-negative bacteria.

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Allosteric effector, Effector protein, Fungal effector protein, Modulator molecule.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Effector_(biology)

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