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Eiffel Tower

Index Eiffel Tower

The Eiffel Tower (tour Eiffel) is a wrought iron lattice tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France. [1]

168 relations: A. J. Hackett, Adolphe Alphand, Airship, Alain Ducasse, Alberto Santos-Dumont, Allies of World War II, Allouis longwave transmitter, André Malraux, Antenna (radio), Antoine Bourdelle, Arc de Triomphe, ArchDaily, Arlington County, Virginia, Édouard Lockroy, Émile Nouguier, Beechcraft Bonanza, Bir-Hakeim (Paris Métro), Blackpool Tower, Block and tackle, Buffalo Bill, Bungee jumping, Bust (sculpture), Caisson (engineering), Calligram, Canal+, Cantilever, Champ de Mars, Chante France, Charles de Gaulle, Charles Garnier (architect), Charles Gounod, Chrysler Building, Citroën, Cosmic ray, Court of Cassation (France), Crane (machine), Cultural icon, Cupola, De minimis, Deep foundation, Dietrich von Choltitz, Durango City, Edward VII, Egyptian pyramids, Eiffel Tower, Eiffel Tower in popular culture, Elevator, European Union, Expo 67, Exponential function, ..., Exposition Universelle (1889), Exposition Universelle (1900), First Battle of the Marne, Flag of France, Flemish Region, France, France 2, France 3, France 5, France Inter, Franz Reichelt, French Revolution, German military administration in occupied France during World War II, Glass floor, Gourmet, Graffiti, Guestbook, Guillaume Apollinaire, Gustave Eiffel, Guy de Maupassant, Henri Deutsch de la Meurthe, Hertz, HWU transmitter, Hydraulics, Jack (device), Jean Drapeau, Jules Grévy, Jules Massenet, Jules Verne, Kiev TV Tower, Kings Dominion, Kings Island, Lattice tower, Latting Observatory, Le Figaro, Le Monde illustré, Le Temps (Paris), Lead paint, Levallois-Perret, Liberation of Paris, Limestone, List of tallest buildings and structures, List of tallest buildings and structures in the Paris region, List of tallest freestanding structures, List of tallest structures in France, List of tallest towers, Long Ta, Longwave, M6 (TV channel), MailOnline, Mannequin, Maurice Koechlin, Meteorology, Michelin Guide, Millau Viaduct, Minute and second of arc, Montreal, Motive power, Musée national de la Marine, National Geographic (U.S. TV channel), New York City, Nostalgie, Observation deck, Ohio, Otis Elevator Company, Parachute, Paris, Paris Las Vegas, Paris Métro, Paris Observatory, Paris, Texas, Pâtisserie, Phonograph, Priest, Public domain, Puddling (metallurgy), Radiant energy, Radio jamming, Réseau Express Régional, Reichskriegsflagge, Robert J. Moriarty, Roumoules radio transmitter, Russia, Rust, Sabotage, Sacré-Cœur, Paris, Saint-Cloud, Sand box (civil engineering), Santos-Dumont number 6, Sarah Bernhardt, Scaffolding, Searchlight, Seine, Shortwave radio, Sprocket, Stephen Sauvestre, Structural art, Television, TF1, Theodor Wulf, Thermal expansion, Thierry Devaux, Thomas Edison, Tokyo Skytree, Tokyo Tower, Transmitter Le Mans-Mayet, TSF Jazz, TV Mast Niort-Maisonnay, UEFA Euro 2016, United States Naval Observatory, Victor Lustig, Virginia, Washington Monument, Washington, D.C., William-Adolphe Bouguereau, World's fair, Wrought iron, 7th arrondissement of Paris. Expand index (118 more) »

A. J. Hackett

Alan John "A.J." Hackett (born May 1958) is a New Zealand entrepreneur who popularised the extreme sport of bungy jumping.

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Adolphe Alphand

Jean-Charles Adolphe Alphand, born in 1817 and died in 1891, interred at Père Lachaise Cemetery (division 66), was a French engineer of the Corps of Bridges and Roads.

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An airship or dirigible balloon is a type of aerostat or lighter-than-air aircraft that can navigate through the air under its own power.

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Alain Ducasse

Alain Ducasse (born 13 September 1956) is a French-born Monégasque chef.

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Alberto Santos-Dumont

Alberto Santos-Dumont (20 July 187323 July 1932, usually referred to as simply Santos-Dumont) was a Brazilian inventor and aviation pioneer, one of the very few people to have contributed significantly to the development of both lighter-than-air and heavier-than-air aircraft.

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Allies of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).

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Allouis longwave transmitter

The Allouis longwave transmitter has been France's central longwave broadcast transmitter since 1939.

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André Malraux

André Malraux DSO (3 November 1901 – 23 November 1976) was a French novelist, art theorist and Minister of Cultural Affairs.

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Antenna (radio)

In radio, an antenna is the interface between radio waves propagating through space and electric currents moving in metal conductors, used with a transmitter or receiver.

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Antoine Bourdelle

Antoine Bourdelle (30 October 1861 – 1 October 1929), born Émile Antoine Bordelles, was an influential and prolific French sculptor, painter, and teacher.

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Arc de Triomphe

The Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile (Triumphal Arch of the Star) is one of the most famous monuments in Paris, standing at the western end of the Champs-Élysées at the center of Place Charles de Gaulle, formerly named Place de l'Étoile — the étoile or "star" of the juncture formed by its twelve radiating avenues.

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ArchDaily is a weblog covering architectural news, projects, products, events, interviews and competitions, opinion pieces, among others, catering to architects, designers and other interested parties.

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Arlington County, Virginia

Arlington County is a county in the Commonwealth of Virginia, often referred to simply as Arlington or Arlington, Virginia.

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Édouard Lockroy

Édouard Lockroy (18 July 1838 – 22 November 1913) was a French politician.

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Émile Nouguier

Émile Nouguier (17 February 1840 – 23 November 1897) was a French civil engineer and architect.

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Beechcraft Bonanza

The Beechcraft Bonanza is an American general aviation aircraft introduced in 1947 by Beech Aircraft Corporation of Wichita, Kansas.

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Bir-Hakeim (Paris Métro)

Bir-Hakeim is an elevated station of the Paris Métro serving line 6 in the Boulevard de Grenelle in the 15th arrondissement.

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Blackpool Tower

Blackpool Tower is a tourist attraction in Blackpool, Lancashire, England, which was opened to the public on 14 May 1894.

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Block and tackle

A block and tackle is a system of two or more pulleys with a rope or cable threaded between them, usually used to lift heavy loads.

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Buffalo Bill

William Frederick "Buffalo Bill" Cody (February 26, 1846 – January 10, 1917) was an American scout, bison hunter, and showman.

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Bungee jumping

Bungee jumping (also spelled "bungy" jumping, which is the usual spelling in New Zealand and several other countries) is an activity that involves jumping from a tall structure while connected to a large elastic cord.

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Bust (sculpture)

A bust is a sculpted or cast representation of the upper part of the human figure, depicting a person's head and neck, and a variable portion of the chest and shoulders.

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Caisson (engineering)

In geotechnical engineering, a caisson is a watertight retaining structure used, for example, to work on the foundations of a bridge pier, for the construction of a concrete dam, or for the repair of ships.

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A calligram is a text visually arranged in a way that it forms an image associated with the text's contents.

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Canal+ (Canal Plus,, meaning 'Channel Plus'; sometimes abbreviated C+) is a French premium cable television channel launched in 1984.

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A cantilever is a rigid structural element, such as a beam or a plate, anchored at one end to a (usually vertical) support from which it protrudes; this connection could also be perpendicular to a flat, vertical surface such as a wall.

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Champ de Mars

The Champ de Mars (Field of Mars) is a large public greenspace in Paris, France, located in the seventh ''arrondissement'', between the Eiffel Tower to the northwest and the École Militaire to the southeast.

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Chante France

Chante France is a radio station created in 1994 owned by Groupe HPI, based at Paris (France), and dedicated to French Chansons.

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Charles de Gaulle

Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.

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Charles Garnier (architect)

Jean-Louis Charles Garnier (6 November 1825 – 3 August 1898) was a French architect, perhaps best known as the architect of the Palais Garnier and the Opéra de Monte-Carlo.

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Charles Gounod

Charles-François Gounod (17 June 181817 or 18 October 1893) was a French composer, best known for his Ave Maria, based on a work by Bach, as well as his opera Faust.

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Chrysler Building

The Chrysler Building is an Art Deco–style skyscraper located on the East Side of Midtown Manhattan in New York City, at the intersection of 42nd Street and Lexington Avenue in the Turtle Bay neighborhood of Manhattan.

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Citroën is a French automobile manufacturer, part of the PSA Peugeot Citroën group since 1976, founded in 1919 by French industrialist André-Gustave Citroën (1878–1935).

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Cosmic ray

Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.

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Court of Cassation (France)

The Court of Cassation (Cour de cassation) founded in 1804 is one of France's courts of last resort having jurisdiction over all matters triable in the judicial stream with scope of certifying questions of law and review in determining miscarriages of justice.

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Crane (machine)

A crane is a type of machine, generally equipped with a hoist rope, wire ropes or chains, and sheaves, that can be used both to lift and lower materials and to move them horizontally.

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Cultural icon

A cultural icon is an artifact that is identified by members of a culture as representative of that culture.

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In architecture, a cupola is a relatively small, most often dome-like, tall structure on top of a building.

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De minimis

De minimis is a Latin expression meaning "about minimal things", normally in the locutions de minimis non curat praetor ("The praetor does not concern himself with trifles") or de minimis non curat lex ("The law does not concern itself with trifles") a legal doctrine by which a court refuses to consider trifling matters.

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Deep foundation

A deep foundation is a type of foundation that transfers building loads to the earth farther down from the surface than a shallow foundation does to a subsurface layer or a range of depths.

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Dietrich von Choltitz

Dietrich Hugo Hermann von Choltitz (9 November 1894 – 4 November 1966) was a German General who served in the Royal Saxon Army during World War I and the German Army during World War II.

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Durango City

Durango, officially Victoria de Durango and also known as Ciudad de Durango, is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of Durango.

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Edward VII

Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910.

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Egyptian pyramids

The Egyptian pyramids are ancient pyramid-shaped masonry structures located in Egypt.

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Eiffel Tower

The Eiffel Tower (tour Eiffel) is a wrought iron lattice tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France.

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Eiffel Tower in popular culture

The Eiffel Tower has appeared frequently in works of fiction because of its iconic nature.

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An elevator (US and Canada) or lift (UK, Australia, Ireland, New Zealand, and South Africa, Nigeria) is a type of vertical transportation that moves people or goods between floors (levels, decks) of a building, vessel, or other structure.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Expo 67

The 1967 International and Universal Exposition or Expo 67, as it was commonly known, was a general exhibition, Category One World's Fair held in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, from April 27 to October 29, 1967.

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Exponential function

In mathematics, an exponential function is a function of the form in which the argument occurs as an exponent.

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Exposition Universelle (1889)

The Exposition Universelle of 1889 was a world's fair held in Paris, France, from 6 May to 31 October 1889.

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Exposition Universelle (1900)

The Exposition Universelle of 1900 was a world's fair held in Paris, France, from 14 April to 12 November 1900, to celebrate the achievements of the past century and to accelerate development into the next.

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First Battle of the Marne

The Battle of the Marne (Première bataille de la Marne, also known as the Miracle of the Marne, Le Miracle de la Marne) was a World War I battle fought from It resulted in an Allied victory against the German armies in the west.

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Flag of France

The flag of France (Drapeau français) is a tricolour flag featuring three vertical bands coloured blue (hoist side), white, and red.

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Flemish Region

The Flemish Region (Vlaams Gewest,; Région flamande) is one of the three official regions of the Kingdom of Belgium—alongside the Walloon Region and the Brussels-Capital Region.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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France 2

France 2 is a French public national television channel.

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France 3

France 3 is the second largest French public television channel and part of the France Télévisions group, which also includes France 2, France 4, France 5, and France Ô. It is made up of a network of regional television services providing daily news programming and around ten hours of entertainment and cultural programming produced for and about the regions each week.

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France 5

France 5 is a public television network in France, part of the France Télévisions group.

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France Inter

France Inter is a major French public radio channel and part of Radio France.

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Franz Reichelt

Franz Reichelt (1879 – 4 February 1912), also known as Frantz Reichelt or François Reichelt, was an Austrian-born French tailor, inventor and parachuting pioneer, now sometimes referred to as the Flying Tailor, who is remembered for jumping to his death from the Eiffel Tower while testing a wearable parachute of his own design.

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French Revolution

The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.

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German military administration in occupied France during World War II

The Military Administration in France (Militärverwaltung in Frankreich; Occupation de la France par l'Allemagne) was an interim occupation authority established by Nazi Germany during World War II to administer the occupied zone in areas of northern and western France.

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Glass floor

Glass floors are made with transparent glass when it is useful to view something from above or below; whereas translucent glass is used when there is no need to view through.

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Gourmet is a cultural ideal associated with the culinary arts of fine food and drink, or haute cuisine, which is characterised by refined, even elaborate preparations and presentations of aesthetically balanced meals of several contrasting, often quite rich courses.

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Graffiti (plural of graffito: "a graffito", but "these graffiti") are writing or drawings that have been scribbled, scratched, or painted, typically illicitly, on a wall or other surface, often within public view.

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A guestbook (also guest book, visitor log, visitors' book, visitors' album) is a paper or electronic means for a visitor to acknowledge a visit to a site, physical or web-based, and leave details such as their name, postal or electronic address and any comments.

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Guillaume Apollinaire

Guillaume Apollinaire (26 August 1880 – 9 November 1918) was a French poet, playwright, short story writer, novelist, and art critic of Polish descent.

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Gustave Eiffel

Alexandre Gustave Eiffel (born Bönickhausen;;; 15 December 183227 December 1923) was a French civil engineer.

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Guy de Maupassant

Henri René Albert Guy de Maupassant (5 August 1850 – 6 July 1893) was a French writer, remembered as a master of the short story form, and as a representative of the naturalist school of writers, who depicted human lives and destinies and social forces in disillusioned and often pessimistic terms.

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Henri Deutsch de la Meurthe

Henri Deutsch de la Meurthe (1846, Paris – 1919) was a successful French petroleum businessman (known as the "Oil King of Europe"Howard, Fred, Wilbur & Orville: A Biography, Dover Publications. Viewable) and an avid supporter of early aviation.

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The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.

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HWU transmitter

The HWU transmitter is a French facility for transmitting orders to submerged submarines of the French Navy.

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Hydraulics (from Greek: Υδραυλική) is a technology and applied science using engineering, chemistry, and other sciences involving the mechanical properties and use of liquids.

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Jack (device)

A jack, screwjack or jackscrew is a mechanical device used as a lifting device to lift heavy loads or to apply great forces.

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Jean Drapeau

Jean Drapeau, (18 February 1916 – 12 August 1999) was a Canadian lawyer and politician who served as mayor of Montreal from 1954 to 1957 and 1960 to 1986.

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Jules Grévy

François Paul Jules Grévy (15 August 1807 – 9 September 1891) was a President of the French Third Republic and one of the leaders of the Opportunist Republican faction.

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Jules Massenet

Jules Émile Frédéric Massenet (12 May 184213 August 1912) was a French composer of the Romantic era best known for his operas, of which he wrote more than thirty.

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Jules Verne

Jules Gabriel Verne (Longman Pronunciation Dictionary.; 8 February 1828 – 24 March 1905) was a French novelist, poet, and playwright.

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Kiev TV Tower

The Kiev TV Tower (translit) is a lattice steel tower built in 1973 in Kiev, Ukraine, for radio and television broadcasting.

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Kings Dominion

Kings Dominion is an amusement park located in Doswell, Virginia, north of Richmond and south of Washington, D.C..

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Kings Island

Kings Island is a amusement park located northeast of Cincinnati in Mason, Ohio.

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Lattice tower

A lattice tower or truss tower is a freestanding framework tower.

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Latting Observatory

The Latting Observatory was a wooden tower in New York City built as part of the 1853 Exhibition of the Industry of All Nations, adjoining the New York Crystal Palace.

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Le Figaro

Le Figaro is a French daily morning newspaper founded in 1826 and published in Paris.

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Le Monde illustré

Le Monde illustré (title translation: The Illustrated World) was a leading illustrated newsmagazine in France which was published from 1857–1940 and again from 1945 to 1956.

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Le Temps (Paris)

Le Temps (The Times) was one of Paris's most important daily newspapers from 25 April 1861 to 30 November 1942.

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Lead paint

Lead paint or lead-based paint is paint containing lead.

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Levallois-Perret is a commune in the northwestern suburbs of Paris, France.

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Liberation of Paris

The Liberation of Paris (also known as the Battle for Paris and Belgium; Libération de Paris) was a military action that took place during World War II from 19 August 1944 until the German garrison surrendered the French capital on 25 August 1944.

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Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.

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List of tallest buildings and structures

The world's tallest artificial structure is the Burj Khalifa in Dubai (of the United Arab Emirates).

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List of tallest buildings and structures in the Paris region

The tallest structure in the City of Paris and the Île de France remains the Eiffel Tower in the 7th arrondissement, 300 meters high, completed in 1889 as the gateway to the 1889 Paris Universal Exposition.

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List of tallest freestanding structures

This is a list of tallest freestanding structures in the world past and present.

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List of tallest structures in France

An incomplete list of the tallest structures in France.

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List of tallest towers

This is a list of extant towers that fulfill the engineering definition of a tower: "a tall human structure, always taller than it is wide, meant for public or regular operational access by humans, but not for living in or office work, and are self-supporting or free-standing, which means no guy-wires for support." The definition means the exclusion from this list of continuously habitable buildings and skyscrapers as well as radio and TV masts.

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Long Ta

Long Ta, also known as the Dragon Tower or Heilongjiang Tower, is a tall multi-purpose Chinese steel lattice television and observation tower.

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In radio, longwave, long wave or long-wave, and commonly abbreviated LW, refers to parts of the radio spectrum with wavelengths longer than what was originally called the medium-wave broadcasting band.

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M6 (TV channel)

M6, also known as Metropole Television, is the most profitable private national French television channel and the third most watched television network in the French-speaking world.

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MailOnline (also known as dailymail.co.uk) is the website of the Daily Mail, a newspaper in the United Kingdom, and of its sister paper The Mail on Sunday.

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A mannequin (also called a manikin, dummy, lay figure or dress form) is an often articulated doll used by artists, tailors, dressmakers, windowdressers and others especially to display or fit clothing.

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Maurice Koechlin

Maurice Koechlin (8 March 1856 – 14 January 1946) was a Franco-Swiss structural engineer from the Koechlin family.

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Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.

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Michelin Guide

Michelin Guides are a series of guide books published by the French tyre company Michelin for more than a century.

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Millau Viaduct

The Millau Viaduct (le Viaduc de Millau) is a cable-stayed bridge that spans the gorge valley of the Tarn near Millau in southern France.

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Minute and second of arc

A minute of arc, arcminute (arcmin), arc minute, or minute arc is a unit of angular measurement equal to of one degree.

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Montreal (officially Montréal) is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada.

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Motive power

In thermodynamics, motive power is a natural agent, such as water or steam, wind or electricity, used to impart motion to machinery such as an engine.

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Musée national de la Marine

The Musée national de la Marine (National Navy Museum) is a maritime museum located in the Palais de Chaillot, Trocadéro, in the 16th arrondissement of Paris.

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National Geographic (U.S. TV channel)

National Geographic (formerly National Geographic Channel and also commercially abbreviated and trademarked as Nat Geo or Nat Geo TV) is an American digital cable and satellite television network that is owned by National Geographic Partners, majority-owned by 21st Century Fox with the remainder owned by the National Geographic Society.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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Nostalgie is a popular French radio station broadcasting on FM, mostly playing pre-2000s songs with 68% of them come from the 1980s.

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Observation deck

An observation deck, observation platform or viewing platform is an elevated sightseeing platform usually situated upon a tall architectural structure such as a skyscraper or observation tower.

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Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States.

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Otis Elevator Company

The Otis Elevator Company is an American company that develops, manufactures and markets elevators, escalators, moving walkways and related equipment.

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A parachute is a device used to slow the motion of an object through an atmosphere by creating drag (or in the case of ram-air parachutes, aerodynamic lift).

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Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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Paris Las Vegas

Paris Las Vegas is a hotel and casino located on the Las Vegas Strip in Paradise, Nevada.

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Paris Métro

The Paris Métro, short for Métropolitain (Métro de Paris), is a rapid transit system in the Paris metropolitan area.

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Paris Observatory

The Paris Observatory (Observatoire de Paris or Observatoire de Paris-Meudon), a research institution of PSL Research University, is the foremost astronomical observatory of France, and one of the largest astronomical centres in the world.

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Paris, Texas

Paris is a city and county seat of Lamar County, Texas, United States.

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A pâtisserie is a type of French or Belgian bakery that specializes in pastries and sweets, as well as a term for these types of food, in English often used without the accent.

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The phonograph is a device for the mechanical recording and reproduction of sound.

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A priest or priestess (feminine) is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities.

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Public domain

The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply.

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Puddling (metallurgy)

Puddling was one step in one of the most important processes of making the first appreciable volumes of high-grade bar iron (malleable wrought iron) during the Industrial Revolution.

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Radiant energy

In physics, and in particular as measured by radiometry, radiant energy is the energy of electromagnetic and gravitational radiation.

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Radio jamming

Radio jamming is the deliberate jamming, blocking or interference with authorized wireless communications.

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Réseau Express Régional

The Réseau Express Régional (Regional Express Network), commonly abbreviated RER, is a hybrid suburban commuter/rapid transit system serving Paris, France and its suburbs.

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Reichskriegsflagge (Imperial War Flag) was the official name of the war flag and war ensign used by the German armed forces from 1867 to 1945.

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Robert J. Moriarty

Robert J. Moriarty (born September 9, 1946) is an American Marine F-4B fighter pilot who holds the record as the youngest naval aviator (at age 20) in the Vietnam war, achieving the rank of captain in the Marines at age 22.

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Roumoules radio transmitter

The Roumoules transmitter is the main broadcasting facility for longwave and mediumwave broadcasting of Radio Monte Carlo near Roumoules, France.

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Rust is an iron oxide, a usually red oxide formed by the redox reaction of iron and oxygen in the presence of water or air moisture.

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Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening a polity, effort or organization through subversion, obstruction, disruption or destruction.

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Sacré-Cœur, Paris

The Basilica of the Sacred Heart of Paris, commonly known as Sacré-Cœur Basilica and often simply Sacré-Cœur (Basilique du Sacré-Cœur, pronounced), is a Roman Catholic church and minor basilica, dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus, in Paris, France.

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Saint-Cloud is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris, France.

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Sand box (civil engineering)

A sand box or sand jack is a device used for removing the centering of an arch.

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Santos-Dumont number 6

The Santos-Dumont No. 6 was an airship designed and built by the Brazilian pioneer aviator Alberto Santos-Dumont.

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Sarah Bernhardt

Sarah Bernhardt (22 or 23 October 1844 – 26 March 1923) was a French stage actress who starred in some of the most popular French plays of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including La Dame Aux Camelias by Alexandre Dumas, ''fils'', Ruy Blas by Victor Hugo, Fédora and La Tosca by Victorien Sardou, and L'Aiglon by Edmond Rostand.

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Scaffolding, also called scaffold or staging, is a temporary structure used to support a work crew and materials to aid in the construction, maintenance and repair of buildings, bridges and all other man made structures.

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A searchlight (or spotlight) is an apparatus that combines an extremely luminous source (traditionally a carbon arc lamp) with a mirrored parabolic reflector to project a powerful beam of light of approximately parallel rays in a particular direction, usually constructed so that it can be swiveled about.

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The Seine (La Seine) is a river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France.

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Shortwave radio

Shortwave radio is radio transmission using shortwave radio frequencies.

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A sprocket or sprocket-wheel is a profiled wheel with teeth, or cogs, that mesh with a chain, track or other perforated or indented material.

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Stephen Sauvestre

Charles Léon Stephen Sauvestre (26 December 1847 - 18 June 1919) was a French architect.

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Structural art

Certain works of structural engineering design are also works of structural art.

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Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound.

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TF1 (té effe un) is a private national French TV channel, controlled by TF1 Group, whose major share-holder is Bouygues.

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Theodor Wulf

Theodor Wulf (July 28, 1868 – June 19, 1946) was a German physicist and Jesuit priest who was one of the first experimenters to detect excess atmospheric radiation.

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Thermal expansion

Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature.

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Thierry Devaux

Thierry Devaux was born on November 16, 1959 in Bourg-en-Bresse.

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Thomas Edison

Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman, who has been described as America's greatest inventor.

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Tokyo Skytree

is a broadcasting, restaurant, and observation tower in Sumida, Tokyo, Japan.

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Tokyo Tower

is a communications and observation tower in the Shiba-koen district of Minato, Tokyo, Japan.

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Transmitter Le Mans-Mayet

The transmitter Le Mans-Mayet is a 342 metre high guyed mast for TV- and FM-radio transmission near Le Mans, France at 0°19'E and 47°45'N.

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TSF Jazz

TSF Jazz, previously known as TSF 89.9, is a radio station based at Paris (France) created in 1999 and owned by Nova Press.

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TV Mast Niort-Maisonnay

The TV Mast Niort-Maisonnay is a 330 metre high guyed mast for TV transmission in Maisonnay, near Niort, France.

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UEFA Euro 2016

The 2016 UEFA European Championship, commonly referred to as UEFA Euro 2016 or simply Euro 2016, was the 15th UEFA European Championship, the quadrennial international men's football championship of Europe organised by UEFA.

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United States Naval Observatory

The United States Naval Observatory (USNO) is one of the oldest scientific agencies in the United States, with a primary mission to produce Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) for the United States Navy and the United States Department of Defense.

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Victor Lustig

Victor Lustig (January 4, 1890 – March 11, 1947) was a highly skilled con artist from Austria-Hungary, who undertook a criminal career that involved conducting scams across Europe and the United States during the early 20th century.

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Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.

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Washington Monument

The Washington Monument is an obelisk on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., built to commemorate George Washington, once commander-in-chief of the Continental Army and the first President of the United States.

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Washington, D.C.

Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.

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William-Adolphe Bouguereau

William-Adolphe Bouguereau (30 November 1825 – 19 August 1905) was a French academic painter.

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World's fair

A world's fair, world fair, world expo, universal exposition, or international exposition (sometimes expo or Expo for short) is a large international exhibition designed to showcase achievements of nations.

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Wrought iron

puddled iron, a form of wrought iron Wrought iron is an iron alloy with a very low carbon (less than 0.08%) content in contrast to cast iron (2.1% to 4%).

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7th arrondissement of Paris

The 7th arrondissement of Paris (VIIe arrondissement) is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eiffel_Tower

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