101 relations: Agui, Army, Banners of Inner Mongolia, Battle of Dalinghe, Battle of Ningyuan, Battle of Shanhai Pass, Beijing, Bordered Blue Banner, Bordered Yellow Banner, Boxer Rebellion, China proper, Chongzhen Emperor, Daur people, Dorgon, Duanfang, Empress Xiaoyichun, Evenks, Ever Victorious Army, Exile, First Opium War, Forbidden City, Frederick Townsend Ward, Fuheng, Fuk'anggan, Geng Jimao, Geng Zhongming, Grand Canal (China), Great Clearance, Great Wall of China, Green Standard Army, Han Chinese, Han Eight Banners, Hangzhou, Harvard University Press, Hong Taiji, House of Zhu, Huai Army, Hunting, Hushenying, Identity in the Eight Banners, John Ross (missionary), Joseon, Jurchen people, Kingdom of Tungning, Kinmen, Korea, Koxinga, Later Jin invasion of Joseon, Li Zicheng, Liaodong Peninsula, ..., List of ethnic groups in China and Taiwan, Manchu language, Manchu people, Manchuria, Marquis of Extended Grace, Military of the Qing dynasty, Ming dynasty, Mongol military tactics and organization, Mongols, New Army, Nian Rebellion, Nurhaci, Plain Yellow Banner, Princeton University Press, Puyi, Qianlong Emperor, Qing dynasty, Qing invasion of Joseon, Rattan, Republic of China (1912–1949), Revolt of the Three Feudatories, Rump organization, Second Opium War, Shang Kexi, Shi Lang, Shunzhi Emperor, Sibe people, Siege of Fort Zeelandia, Simon & Schuster, Sino-Burmese War (1765–69), Sino-Nepalese War, Sino-Russian border conflicts, Stanford University Press, Taiping Rebellion, Ten Great Campaigns, Transition from Ming to Qing, University of California Press, W. W. Norton & Company, Wu Sangui, Xi'an, Xiang Army, Xinhai Revolution, Yale University Press, Yangtze, Yong Ying, Zeng Guofan, Zhang Zuolin, Zhao Erfeng, Zhao Erxun, Zheng Keshuang, Zu Dashou. Expand index (51 more) » « Shrink index
Agui (September 7, 1717 – October 10, 1797) was a Manchu noble general for the Qing dynasty.
An army (from Latin arma "arms, weapons" via Old French armée, "armed" (feminine)) or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land.
A banner is an administrative division of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China, corresponding to the county level.
The Battle of Dalinghe (大凌河之役) was a battle between the Jurchen Later Jin (later known as the Qing dynasty) and the Ming dynasty that took place between September and November 1631.
The Battle of Ningyuan was a battle between the Ming dynasty and the Jurchen Later Jin (also spelled as Later Jinn or Later Kim, later known as the Qing dynasty) in 1626.
The Battle of Shanhai Pass, fought on 27 May 1644 at Shanhai Pass (Shanhaiguan, 山海關) at the eastern end of the Great Wall of China, was a decisive battle leading to the formation of the Qing dynasty in China.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
The Bordered Blue Banner was one of the Eight Banners of the Manchu Qing dynasty military.
The Bordered Yellow Banner was one of the Eight Banners of the Manchu Qing dynasty military.
The Boxer Rebellion (拳亂), Boxer Uprising or Yihetuan Movement (義和團運動) was a violent anti-foreign, anti-colonial and anti-Christian uprising that took place in China between 1899 and 1901, toward the end of the Qing dynasty.
China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western writers on the Manchu Qing dynasty to express a distinction between the core and frontier regions of China.
The Chongzhen Emperor (6 February 1611 – 25 April 1644), personal name Zhu Youjian, was the 17th and last emperor of the Ming dynasty in China, reigning from 1627–1644.
The Daur people (Khalkha Mongolian: Дагуур/Daguur;; the former name "Dahur" is considered derogatory) are a Mongolic-speaking ethnic group in northeastern China.
Dorgon (Manchu:, literally "badger"; 17 November 1612 – 31 December 1650), formally known as Prince Rui, was a Manchu prince and regent of the early Qing dynasty.
Duanfang (20 April 1861 – 27 November 1911), courtesy name Wuqiao, was a Manchu politician, educator and collector who lived in the late Qing dynasty.
Empress Xiaoyichun (23 October 1727 – 28 February 1775) was an Imperial Noble Consort of the Qianlong Emperor of the Qing dynasty.
The Evenks (also spelled Ewenki or Evenki) (autonym: Эвэнкил Evenkil; Эвенки Evenki; Èwēnkè Zú; formerly known as Tungus or Tunguz; Хамниган Khamnigan) are a Tungusic people of Northern Asia.
The Ever Victorious Army was the name given to an imperial army in late-19th-century China.
To be in exile means to be away from one's home (i.e. city, state, or country), while either being explicitly refused permission to return or being threatened with imprisonment or death upon return.
The First Opium War (第一次鴉片戰爭), also known as the Opium War or the Anglo-Chinese War, was a series of military engagements fought between the United Kingdom and the Qing dynasty of China over their conflicting viewpoints on diplomatic relations, trade, and the administration of justice in China.
The Forbidden City is a palace complex in central Beijing, China.
Frederick Townsend Ward (November 29, 1831September 22, 1862) was an American sailor and soldier of fortune known for his military service in Imperial China during the Taiping Rebellion.
Fuheng (ဖူဟင်း; died July 1770), courtesy name Chunhe (春和), was a Qing Dynasty official from the Manchu Fuca (富察) clan and the Bordered Yellow Banner of the Eight Banners, and was a brother of the Empress Xiaoxianchun.He served as a senior minister at the court of his brother-in-law, the Qianlong Emperor from the 1750s to his death in 1770.
Fuk'anggan (Manchu:, Möllendorff: fuk'anggan;; 1753-1796), courtesy name Yaolin, was a Manchu noble and general of the Qing Dynasty.
Geng Jimao or Keng Chi-mao (died 1671) was a Chinese prince and military leader, inheriting the title of "Jingnan Prince" (Jingnan wang meaning "Prince who pacifies the South") from his father Geng Zhongming, along with his lands, and passing it on, in his turn to his son Geng Jingzhong.
Geng Zhongming (1604–1649) was a military leader who lived through the transition from the Ming (1368–1644) to the Qing (1644–1912) dynasty, during which he served both sides.
The Grand Canal, known to the Chinese as the Beijing–Hangzhou Grand Canal (Jīng-Háng Dà Yùnhé), a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the longest as well as one of the oldest canal or artificial river in the world and a famous tourist destination.
The Great Clearance, also translated as the Great Evacuation or Great Frontier Shift, refers to two edicts by the Kangxi Emperor of Qing (1644–1912), and his regent Oboi, in 1661 and 1662.
The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China to protect the Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of the various nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe with an eye to expansion.
The Green Standard Army (Manchu: niowanggiyan turun i kūwaran) was the name of a category of military units under the control of Qing dynasty China.
The Han Chinese,.
Han Eight Banners (Han Army of Eight Banners (Hanjun Baqi, a)), were one of the three divisions in the Eight Banners of Qing dynasty.
Hangzhou (Mandarin:; local dialect: /ɦɑŋ tseɪ/) formerly romanized as Hangchow, is the capital and most populous city of Zhejiang Province in East China.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Hong Taiji (28November 159221 September1643), sometimes written as Huang Taiji and also referred to as Abahai in Western literature, was an Emperor of the Qing dynasty.
House of Zhu, also known as House of Chu, was the imperial family of the Ming dynasty of China.
The Huai Army, named for the Huai River, was a Qing dynasty military force raised to contain the Taiping Rebellion in 1862.
Hunting is the practice of killing or trapping animals, or pursuing or tracking them with the intent of doing so.
The Hushenying were a unit of 10,000 Manchu Bannermen under the command of Zaiyi during the Boxer Rebellion.
Identity in the Eight Banners considers the subject of how identity was interpreted in China prior to and during the Manchu-led Qing dynasty (1644–1912).
John Ross (1842-1915), (his Chinese name) was a Scottish Protestant missionary to Northeast China who established Dongguan Church in Shenyang.
The Joseon dynasty (also transcribed as Chosŏn or Chosun, 조선; officially the Kingdom of Great Joseon, 대조선국) was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries.
The Jurchen (Manchu: Jušen; 女真, Nǚzhēn), also known by many variant names, were a Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until around 1630, at which point they were reformed and combined with their neighbors as the Manchu.
The Kingdom of Tungning or Kingdom of Formosa was a government that ruled part of southwestern Formosa (Taiwan) between 1661 and 1683.
Kinmen or Quemoy (see also "Names" section below), officially Kinmen County, is a group of islands, governed by the Republic of China (ROC), which is located just off the southeastern coast of mainland China, including Great Kinmen, Lesser Kinmen, Wuqiu and several surrounding islets.
Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
Zheng Chenggong, better known in the West by his Hokkien honorific Koxinga or Coxinga, was a Chinese Ming loyalist who resisted the Qing conquest of China in the 17th century, fighting them on China's southeastern coast.
The Later Jin invasion of Joseon occurred in early 1627 when the Later Jin prince Amin lead an invasion of Korea's Joseon kingdom.
Li Zicheng (22 September 1606 – 1645), born Li Hongji, also known by the nickname, "Dashing King", was a Chinese rebel leader who overthrew the Ming dynasty in 1644 and ruled over China briefly as the emperor of the short-lived Shun dynasty before his death a year later.
The Liaodong Peninsula is a peninsula in Liaoning Province of Northeast China, historically known in the West as Southeastern Manchuria.
Multiple ethnic groups populate China, where "China" is taken to mean areas controlled by either of the two states using "China" in their formal names, the People's Republic of China (China) and the Republic of China (Taiwan).
Manchu (Manchu: manju gisun) is a critically endangered Tungusic language spoken in Manchuria; it was the native language of the Manchus and one of the official languages of the Qing dynasty (1636–1911) of China.
The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.
Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.
Marquis of Extended Grace was a title held by a descendant of the imperial family of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) during the subsequent Qing dynasty (1644–1912).
The Qing dynasty (1636–1912) was established by conquest and maintained by armed force.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
The Mongol military tactics and organization enabled the Mongol Empire to conquer nearly all of continental Asia, the Middle East and parts of eastern Europe.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
The New Armies (Traditional Chinese: 新軍, Simplified Chinese: 新军; Pinyin: Xīnjūn, Manchu: Ice cooha), more fully called the Newly Created Army (Xinjian LujunAlso translated as "Newly Established Army"), was the modernized army corps formed under the Qing dynasty in December 1895, following its defeat in the First Sino-Japanese War.
The Nian Rebellion was an armed uprising that took place in northern China from 1851 to 1868, contemporaneously with Taiping Rebellion (1851–1864) in South China.
Nurhaci (alternatively Nurhachi; 21 February 1559 – 30 September 1626) was a Jurchen chieftain of Jianzhou, a vassal of Ming, who rose to prominence in the late 16th century in Manchuria.
The Plain Yellow Banner was one of the Eight Banners of the Manchu Qing dynasty military.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Puyi or Pu Yi (7 February 190617 October 1967), of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan, was the last Emperor of China and the twelfth and final ruler of the Qing dynasty.
The Qianlong Emperor (25 September 1711 – 7 February 1799) was the sixth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China proper.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
The Qing invasion of Joseon occurred in the winter of 1636 when the newly established Manchu Qing dynasty invaded Korea's Joseon kingdom, establishing its status as the center of the Imperial Chinese tributary system and formally severing Joseon's relationship with the Ming dynasty.
Rattan (from the Malay rotan) is the name for roughly 600 species of old world climbing palms belonging to subfamily Calamoideae (from the Greek 'kálamos'.
The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.
The Revolt of the Three Feudatories was a rebellion lasting from 1673 to 1681 in the Qing dynasty (1644–1912) during the early reign of the Kangxi Emperor (r. 1661–1722).
In politics, a rump organization is a remnant of a larger political grouping that continues to exist after the group has formally dissolved, split or been abolished.
The Second Opium War (第二次鴉片戰爭), the Second Anglo-Chinese War, the Second China War, the Arrow War, or the Anglo-French expedition to China, was a war pitting the United Kingdom and the French Empire against the Qing dynasty of China, lasting from 1856 to 1860.
Shang Kexi (尚可喜; Shang Ko-hsi; August 25, 1604 – November 12, 1676) was a Han Chinese general of the Ming and Qing Dynasties.
Shi Lang (1621–1696), Marquis Jinghai, also known as Secoe or Sego, was a Chinese admiral who served under the Ming and Qing dynasties in the 17th century.
The Shunzhi Emperor; Manchu: ijishūn dasan hūwangdi; ᠡᠶ ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ |translit.
The Sibe or Xibo are a Tungusic people living mostly in Xinjiang, Jilin (bordering North Korea) and Shenyang in Liaoning.
The Siege of Fort Zeelandia of 1661-1662 ended the Dutch East India Company's rule over Taiwan and began the Kingdom of Tungning's rule over the island. Taiwanese scholar Lu Chien-jung described this event as "a war that determined the fate of Taiwan in the four hundred years that followed".
Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.
The Sino-Burmese War (တရုတ်-မြန်မာ စစ် (၁၇၆၅–၆၉)), also known as the Qing invasions of Burma or the Myanmar campaign of the Qing dynasty, was a war fought between the Qing dynasty of China and the Konbaung dynasty of Burma (Myanmar).
The Sino-Nepalese War (नेपाल-चीन युद्ध), also known as the Sino-Gorkha war, was an invasion of Tibet by Nepal from 1788-1792.
The Sino-Russian border conflicts (1652–1689) were a series of intermittent skirmishes between the Qing dynasty, with assistance from the Joseon dynasty of Korea, and the Tsardom of Russia by the Cossacks in which the latter tried and failed to gain the land north of the Amur River with disputes over the Amur region.The hostilities culminated in the Qing siege of the Cossack fort of Albazin (1686) and resulted in the Treaty of Nerchinsk in 1689 which gave the land to China.
The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.
The Taiping Rebellion, also known as the Taiping Civil War or the Taiping Revolution, was a massive rebellion or total civil war in China that was waged from 1850 to 1864 between the established Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom under Hong Xiuquan.
The Ten Great Campaigns were a series of military campaigns launched by the Qing Empire of China in the mid–late 18th century during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor (r. 1735–96).
The transition from Ming to Qing or the Ming–Qing transition, also known as the Manchu conquest of China, was a period of conflict between the Qing dynasty, established by Manchu clan Aisin Gioro in Manchuria (contemporary Northeastern China), and the Ming dynasty of China in the south (various other regional or temporary powers were also associated with events, such as the short-lived Shun dynasty).
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
Wu Sangui (courtesy name Changbai (長白) or Changbo (長伯); 1612 – 2 October 1678) was a Chinese military general who was instrumental in the fall of the Ming Dynasty and the establishment of the Qing Dynasty in 1644.
Xi'an is the capital of Shaanxi Province, China.
Zeng Guofan, the leader of the Xiang Army The Xiang Army was a standing army organized by Zeng Guofan from existing regional and village militia forces called tuanlian to contain the Taiping rebellion in Qing China (1850 to 1864).
The Xinhai Revolution, also known as the Chinese Revolution or the Revolution of 1911, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty (the Qing dynasty) and established the Republic of China (ROC).
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
The Yangtze, which is 6,380 km (3,964 miles) long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world.
Yong Ying (literally "brave camps") were a type of regional army that emerged in the 19th century in the Qing dynasty army, which fought in most of China's wars after the Opium War and numerous rebellions exposed the ineffectiveness of the Manchu Eight Banners and Green Standard Army.
Zeng Guofan, Marquis Yiyong (26 November 1811 – 12 March 1872), birth name Zeng Zicheng, courtesy name Bohan, was a Chinese statesman, military general, and Confucian scholar of the late Qing dynasty.
Zhang Zuolin (19 March 1875Xiao, Lin, and Li 1184 June 1928) was the warlord of Manchuria from 1916–28, during the Warlord Era in China.
Zhao Erfeng (1845–1911), courtesy name Jihe, was a Qing Dynasty official and Han Chinese bannerman (Manchurized Han Chinese), who belonged to the Plain Blue Banner.
Zhao Erxun (23 May 1844 – 3 September 1927), courtesy name Cishan, art name Wubu, was a Chinese political and military officeholder who lived in the late Qing dynasty.
Zheng Keshuang, Prince of Yanping 鄭克塽 (13 August 1670 – 22 September 1707), courtesy name Shihong, art name Huitang, was the third and last ruler of the Kingdom of Tungning in Taiwan in the 17th century.
Zu Dashou (died 1656), courtesy name Fuyu, was a Chinese military general who served on the northern border of the Ming dynasty during the Manchu conquest of China.
Banner (Manchu), Banner Army, Banner System, Banner system, Banners of Manchuria, Bordered Red Banner, Bordered White Banner, Chinese Bannermen, Chinese bannermen, Chinese-Martial, Chinese-martial, Eight Banner, Eight Banner System, Eight Banner system, Han-Martial, Han-martial, Hanjun, Hanjun banner, Manchu banners, Manchuria banners, Plain Red Banner, Plain White Banner, Plain White Banner Corps.