229 relations: Adriaan Pauw, Albert VII, Archduke of Austria, Alkmaar, Amersfoort, Amsterdam Entrepôt, Anabaptism, Angola, Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle, Antonio Pérez (statesman), Aragon, Archbishop, Battle in the Bay of Matanzas, Battle of Kallo, Battle of Nördlingen (1634), Battle of Playa Honda, Battle of Puerto de Cavite, Battle of Stadtlohn, Battle of the Downs, Battle of White Mountain, Battles of La Naval de Manila, Beeldenstorm, Beemster, Belgium, Bioko, Bohemia, Burgundian Circle, Cantons of Switzerland, Capture of Maastricht, Cardinal Richelieu, Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Austria, Catholic Church, Catholic League (German), Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Chile, Christian IV of Denmark, Christian the Younger of Brunswick, Colonial Brazil, Commerce raiding, Commonwealth of England, Compromise of Nobles, Convoy, Cornelis Jol, Cornelis Musch, Council of Troubles, Counter-Reformation, Countess Louise Juliana of Nassau, Curaçao, Defenestrations of Prague, Diego de Rosales, Diocese, ..., Duke of Burgundy, Dunkirkers, Dutch Brazil, Dutch Ceylon, Dutch East India Company, Dutch East Indies, Dutch Empire, Dutch Formosa, Dutch Golden Age, Dutch India, Dutch Malacca, Dutch Reformed Church, Dutch Republic, Dutch Revolt, Dutch West India Company, Dutch–Portuguese War, Elizabeth I of England, Elmina Castle, Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, Ernest Casimir I, Count of Nassau-Dietz, Ernst von Mansfeld, European wars of religion, Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo, 4th Duke of Alba, Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba, First Stadtholderless Period, Flanders, Franciscus Gomarus, Franco-Spanish War (1635–59), Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, Frederick V of the Palatinate, French language, French livre, Gabriel Guarda, Gaspar de Bracamonte, 3rd Count of Peñaranda, Gaspar de Guzmán, Count-Duke of Olivares, Geldern, Gennep, Gilles van Ledenberg, Gulf of Guinea, Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, Haarlem, Habsburg Netherlands, Hegemony, Henry Casimir I of Nassau-Dietz, Heresy, Hinterland, History of slavery, History of the Calvinist–Arminian debate, Holy Roman Empire, House of Habsburg, Hugo Grotius, Hulst, IJzendijke, Indemnity, Inquisition of the Netherlands, Isabella Clara Eugenia, Jacob Cats, James VI and I, Jülich, Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly, John Calvin, John Maurice, Prince of Nassau-Siegen, Jonathan Israel, Joris van Spilbergen, Kandy, Kingdom of Naples, Kleve, Lamoral, Count of Egmont, Land's Advocate of Holland, Letters from the Segovia Woods, Levant, Linchpin, List of battles of the Eighty Years' War, List of governors of the Habsburg Netherlands, Louis of Nassau, Louis XIII of France, Louis XIV of France, Low Countries, Lutheranism, Luxembourg, Maarten Tromp, Maastricht, Magnesium, Manila galleon, Margaret of Parma, Marine insurance, Martin Luther, Martyrs of Gorkum, Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor, Maurice, Prince of Orange, Mediterranean Basin, Meierij van 's-Hertogenbosch, Menno Simons, Messina, Naarden, Netherlands, Oñate treaty, Osnabrück, Peace of Münster, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Paul Rubens, Petrus Peckius the Younger, Philip de Montmorency, Count of Horn, Philip II of Spain, Philip III of Spain, Philip IV of Spain, Philippines, Philips of Marnix, Lord of Saint-Aldegonde, Piet Pieterszoon Hein, Pincer movement, Polish–Swedish War (1626–29), Portuguese Ceylon, Portuguese Empire, Portuguese India, Portuguese Malacca, Portuguese Restoration War, Pragmatic Sanction of 1549, Prince-Bishopric of Liège, Privateer, Protectionism, Protestantism, Rampjaar, Reapers' War, Reformation, Remonstrants, Revista Chilena de Literatura, Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, Roermond, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Mechelen-Brussels, Rombout Hogerbeets, Royal Navy, Saint Martin, Sas van Gent, São Francisco River, Seventeen Provinces, Siege of 's-Hertogenbosch, Siege of Bergen-op-Zoom (1622), Siege of Breda (1624), Siege of Breda (1637), Siege of Groenlo (1627), Siege of La Rochelle, Siege of Leiden, Siege of Schenkenschans, Sittard, Smallpox, Society of Jesus, Southern Hemisphere, Southern Netherlands, Spanish Armada, Spanish Empire, Spanish Formosa, Spanish Netherlands, Spanish Road, Spanish treasure fleet, Stadtholder, States General of the Netherlands, States of Friesland, Steenbergen, Strait of Gibraltar, Synod of Dort, Thionville, Thirty Years' War, Trade winds, Treaty of the Pyrenees, Tulip mania, Tunnel warfare, Twelve Years' Truce, Union of Delft, Venlo, War of the Jülich Succession, War of the Mantuan Succession, Wesel, William Frederick, Prince of Nassau-Dietz, William II, Prince of Orange, William the Silent, Witte Corneliszoon de With, Zutphen. Expand index (179 more) » « Shrink index
Adriaan Pauw, knight, heer van Heemstede, Bennebroek, Nieuwerkerk etc. (1 November 1585 – 21 February 1653) was Grand Pensionary of Holland from 1631 to 1636 and from 1651 to 1653.
Albert VII (Albrecht VII) (13 November 1559 – 13 July 1621) was the ruling Archduke of Austria for a few months in 1619 and, jointly with his wife, Isabella Clara Eugenia, sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands between 1598 and 1621.
Alkmaar is a city and municipality in the Netherlands, located in the province of North Holland.
Amersfoort is a city and municipality in the province of Utrecht, Netherlands.
The Amsterdam Entrepôt is the shorthand term that English-language economic historiographers use to refer to the trade system that helped the Dutch Republic achieve primacy in world trade during the 17th century.
Anabaptism (from Neo-Latin anabaptista, from the Greek ἀναβαπτισμός: ἀνά- "re-" and βαπτισμός "baptism", Täufer, earlier also WiedertäuferSince the middle of the 20th century, the German-speaking world no longer uses the term "Wiedertäufer" (translation: "Re-baptizers"), considering it biased. The term Täufer (translation: "Baptizers") is now used, which is considered more impartial. From the perspective of their persecutors, the "Baptizers" baptized for the second time those "who as infants had already been baptized". The denigrative term Anabaptist signifies rebaptizing and is considered a polemical term, so it has been dropped from use in modern German. However, in the English-speaking world, it is still used to distinguish the Baptizers more clearly from the Baptists, a Protestant sect that developed later in England. Cf. their self-designation as "Brethren in Christ" or "Church of God":.) is a Christian movement which traces its origins to the Radical Reformation.
Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.
Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle (20 August 151721 September 1586), Comte de La Baume Saint Amour, was a Burgundian statesman, made a cardinal, who followed his father as a leading minister of the Spanish Habsburgs, and was one of the most influential European politicians during the time which immediately followed the appearance of Protestantism in Europe; "the dominating Imperial statesman of the whole century".
Antonio Pérez (1534–1611) was a Spanish statesman, secretary of king Philip II of Spain.
Aragon (or, Spanish and Aragón, Aragó or) is an autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon.
In Christianity, an archbishop (via Latin archiepiscopus, from Greek αρχιεπίσκοπος, from αρχι-, 'chief', and επίσκοπος, 'bishop') is a bishop of higher rank or office.
The Battle in the Bay of Matanzas was a naval battle during the Eighty Years' War in which a Dutch squadron was able to defeat and capture a Spanish treasure fleet.
The Battle of Kallo was a major battle of the Eighty Years' War and Thirty Years' War.
The Battle of Nördlingen (Schlacht bei Nördlingen; Batalla de Nördlingen; Slaget vid Nördlingen) was fought in 1634 during the Thirty Years' War, on 27 August (Julian calendar) or 6 September (Gregorian calendar).
The naval Battle of Playa Honda (Filipino: Labanan sa Playa Honda), was the first of three known minor conflicts during the Eighty Years' War between the United Provinces and Spain held in Playa Honda (present-day Botolan) in the Philippines.
The naval Battle of Puerto de Cavite (Filipino: Labanan sa Puerto ng Cavite; Batalla de Puerto de Cavite) took place on 10 June 1647 during the Eighty Years' War between a Spanish fleet and a Dutch fleet in Puerto de Cavite, an important Spanish port in Manila Bay, Philippines in which the Dutch were defeated.
The Battle of Stadtlohn was fought on 6 August 1623 between the armies of Christian of Brunswick and of the Catholic League during the Thirty Years' War.
The naval Battle of the Downs took place on 21 October 1639 (New Style), during the Eighty Years' War, and was a decisive defeat of the Spanish, commanded by Admiral Antonio de Oquendo, by the United Provinces, commanded by Lieutenant-Admiral Maarten Tromp.
The Battle of White Mountain (Czech: Bitva na Bílé hoře, German: Schlacht am Weißen Berg) was an important battle in the early stages of the Thirty Years' War.
The Battles of La Naval de Manila (Batallas de las marinas de Manila) were a series of five naval battles fought in the waters of the Philippines in the year 1646, in which the forces of Spain repelled various attempts by forces of the Dutch Republic to invade Manila, during the Eighty Years' War.
Beeldenstorm in Dutch, roughly translatable to "statue storm", or Bildersturm in German ("image/statue storm"), also the Great Iconoclasm or Iconoclastic Fury, is a term used for outbreaks of destruction of religious images that occurred in Europe in the 16th century.
Beemster is a municipality in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Bioko (also spelled Bioco, in Europe traditionally called Fernando Poo or Fernando Po from the period of Portuguese colonization) is an island 32 km off the west coast of Africa, and the northernmost part of Equatorial Guinea.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
The Burgundian Circle (Burgundischer Kreis, Bourgondische Kreits, Cercle de Bourgogne) was an Imperial Circle of the Holy Roman Empire created in 1512 and significantly enlarged in 1548.
The 26 cantons of Switzerland (Kanton, canton, cantone, chantun) are the member states of the Swiss Confederation.
The siege of Maastricht was fought between 9 June and 22 August 1632, when the Dutch commander Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange eventually captured the city from Habsburg forces.
Cardinal Armand Jean du Plessis, 1st Duke of Richelieu and Fronsac (9 September 15854 December 1642), commonly referred to as Cardinal Richelieu (Cardinal de Richelieu), was a French clergyman, nobleman, and statesman.
Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand (also known as Don Fernando de Austria, Cardenal-Infante Fernando de España and as Ferdinand von Österreich; May 1609 or 1610 – 9 November 1641) was Governor of the Spanish Netherlands, Cardinal of the Holy Catholic Church, Infante of Spain, Infante of Portugal (until 1640), Archduke of Austria, Archbishop of Toledo (1619–41), and military commander during the Thirty Years' War.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic League (Liga Catholica, Katholische Liga) was a coalition of Catholic states of the Holy Roman Empire formed 10 July 1609.
Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Christian IV (Christian den Fjerde; 12 April 1577 – 28 February 1648), sometimes colloquially referred to as Christian Firtal in Denmark and Christian Kvart or Quart in Norway, was king of Denmark-Norway and Duke of Holstein and Schleswig from 1588 to 1648.
Christian the Younger of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (September 20, 1599 – June 16, 1626), a member of the House of Welf, titular Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and administrator of the Prince-Bishopric of Halberstadt, was a German Protestant military leader during the early years of the Thirty Years' War.
Colonial Brazil (Brasil Colonial) comprises the period from 1500, with the arrival of the Portuguese, until 1815, when Brazil was elevated to a kingdom in union with Portugal as the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.
Commerce raiding is a form of naval warfare used to destroy or disrupt logistics of the enemy on the open sea by attacking its merchant shipping, rather than engaging its combatants or enforcing a blockade against them.
The Commonwealth was the period from 1649 to 1660 when England and Wales, later along with Ireland and Scotland, was ruled as a republic following the end of the Second English Civil War and the trial and execution of Charles I. The republic's existence was declared through "An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth", adopted by the Rump Parliament on 19 May 1649.
The Compromise of Nobles ('''Eedverbond der Edelen'''.; '''Compromis des Nobles'''.) was a covenant of members of the lesser nobility in the Habsburg Netherlands who came together to submit a petition to the Regent Margaret of Parma on 5 April 1566, with the objective of obtaining a moderation of the placards against heresy in the Netherlands.
A convoy is a group of vehicles, typically motor vehicles or ships, traveling together for mutual support and protection.
Cornelis Corneliszoon Jol (1597 – 31 October 1641), nicknamed Houtebeen ("pegleg"), was a 17th-century Dutch corsair and admiral in the Dutch West India Company during the Eighty Years' War between Spain and the Dutch Republic.
Cornelis Musch (Rotterdam, 1592 or 1593 – The Hague, December 15, 1650) was Griffier (Chief Clerk) of the States-General of the Netherlands, the governing body of the Dutch Republic, from 1628 till the start of the First Stadtholderless Period.
The Council of Troubles (usual English translation of '''Raad van Beroerten'''., or '''Tribunal de los Tumultos'''., or '''Conseil des Troubles'''.) was the special tribunal instituted on 9 September 1567 by Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba, governor-general of the Habsburg Netherlands on the orders of Philip II of Spain to punish the ringleaders of the recent political and religious troubles in the Netherlands.
The Counter-Reformation, also called the Catholic Reformation or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648).
Louise Juliana of Orange-Nassau (31 March 1576 in Delft – 15 March 1644 in Königsberg) was a countess of the Palatinate by marriage to Frederick IV, Elector Palatine, and regent during the minority of her son from 1610 until 1611.
Curaçao (Curaçao,; Kòrsou) is a Lesser Antilles island in the southern Caribbean Sea and the Dutch Caribbean region, about north of the Venezuelan coast.
The Defenestrations of Prague (Pražská defenestrace, Prager Fenstersturz, Defenestratio Pragensis) were two incidents in the history of Bohemia in which multiple people were defenestrated (that is, thrown out of a window).
Diego de Rosales (Madrid, 1601 - Santiago, 1677) was a Spanish chronicler and author of Historia General del Reino de Chile.
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration".
Duke of Burgundy (duc de Bourgogne) was a title borne by the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy, a small portion of traditional lands of Burgundians west of river Saône which in 843 was allotted to Charles the Bald's kingdom of West Franks.
During the Dutch Revolt (1568–1648), the Dunkirkers or Dunkirk Privateers were commerce raiders in the service of the Spanish monarchy.
Dutch Brazil, also known as New Holland, was the northern portion of the Portuguese colony of Brazil, ruled by the Dutch during the Dutch colonization of the Americas between 1630 and 1654.
Dutch Ceylon (Sinhala: ලන්දේසි ලංකාව Landesi Lankava) was a governorate established in present-day Sri Lanka by the Dutch East India Company.
The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.
The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; Nederlands(ch)-Indië; Hindia Belanda) was a Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia.
The Dutch Empire (Het Nederlandse Koloniale Rijk) comprised the overseas colonies, enclaves, and outposts controlled and administered by Dutch chartered companies, mainly the Dutch West India and the Dutch East India Company, and subsequently by the Dutch Republic (1581–1795), and the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands since 1815.
The island of Taiwan, before World War II and until 1970s also commonly known as Formosa, was partly under colonial Dutch rule from 1624 to 1662.
The Dutch Golden Age (Gouden Eeuw) was a period in the history of the Netherlands, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, military, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world.
Dutch India consisted of the settlements and trading posts of the Dutch East India Company on the Indian subcontinent.
Dutch Malacca (1641–1825) was the longest period that Malacca was under foreign control.
The Dutch Reformed Church (in or NHK) was the largest Christian denomination in the Netherlands from the onset of the Protestant Reformation until 1930.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
The Dutch Revolt (1568–1648)This article adopts 1568 as the starting date of the war, as this was the year of the first battles between armies.
Dutch West India Company (Geoctroyeerde Westindische Compagnie, or GWIC; Chartered West India Company) was a chartered company (known as the "WIC") of Dutch merchants as well as foreign investors.
The Dutch–Portuguese War was an armed conflict involving Dutch forces, in the form of the Dutch East India Company and the Dutch West India Company, against the Portuguese Empire.
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.
Elmina Castle was erected by the Portuguese in 1482 as São Jorge da Mina (St. George of the Mine) Castle, also known simply as Mina or Feitoria da Mina) in present-day Elmina, Ghana (formerly the Gold Coast). It was the first trading post built on the Gulf of Guinea, so is the oldest European building in existence south of the Sahara. First established as a trade settlement, the castle later became one of the most important stops on the route of the Atlantic slave trade. The Dutch seized the fort from the Portuguese in 1637, and took over all the Portuguese Gold Coast in 1642. The slave trade continued under the Dutch until 1814; in 1872, the Dutch Gold Coast, including the fort, became a possession of the British Empire. Britain granted the Gold Coast its independence in 1957, and control of the castle was transferred to the nation formed out of the colony, present-day Ghana. Today Elmina Castle is a popular historical site, and was a major filming location for Werner Herzog's 1987 drama film Cobra Verde. The castle is recognized by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.
Emmanuel Philibert (in Emanuele Filiberto; also known as Testa di ferro, Testa 'd fer, "Ironhead", because of his military career; 8 July 1528 – 30 August 1580) was Duke of Savoy from 1553 to 1580, KG.
Ernst Casimir I of Nassau-Dietz (22 December 1573 in Dillenburg – 2 June 1632 in Roermond) was count of Nassau-Dietz and Stadtholder of Friesland, Groningen and Drenthe.
Ernst Graf von Mansfeld (c. 158029 November 1626), was a German military commander during the early years of the Thirty Years' War.
The European wars of religion were a series of religious wars waged mainly in central and western, but also northern Europe (especially Ireland) in the 16th and 17th century.
Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo y Enríquez de Guzmán, 4th Duke of Alba, Grandee of Spain, (in full), (21 November 1537 – 11 December 1583), was a commander in the Spanish army during the Eighty Years' War.
Ferdinand II (9 July 1578 – 15 February 1637), a member of the House of Habsburg, was Holy Roman Emperor (1619–1637), King of Bohemia (1617–1619, 1620–1637), and King of Hungary (1618–1637).
Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel, 3rd Duke of Alba, GE, KOGF, GR (29 October 150711 December 1582), known as the Grand Duke of Alba in Spain and the Iron Duke in the Netherlands, was a Spanish noble, general, and diplomat.
The First Stadtholderless Period or Era (1650–72; Eerste Stadhouderloze Tijdperk) is the period in the history of the Dutch Republic in which the office of a Stadtholder was absent in five of the seven Dutch provinces (the provinces of Friesland and Groningen, however, retained their customary stadtholder from the cadet branch of the House of Orange).
Flanders (Vlaanderen, Flandre, Flandern) is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history.
Franciscus Gomarus (François Gomaer; 30 January 1563, Bruges – 11 January 1641, Groningen) was a Dutch theologian, a strict Calvinist and an opponent of the teaching of Jacobus Arminius (and his followers), whose theological disputes were addressed at the Synod of Dort (or Dordrecht) (1618–19).
The Franco-Spanish War (1635–1659) was a military conflict that was the result of French involvement in the Thirty Years' War.
Frederick Henry, or Frederik Hendrik in Dutch (29 January 1584 – 14 March 1647), was the sovereign Prince of Orange and stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders, and Overijssel from 1625 to 1647.
Frederick V (Friedrich V.; 26 August 1596 – 29 November 1632) was the Elector Palatine of the Rhine in the Holy Roman Empire from 1610 to 1623, and served as King of Bohemia from 1619 to 1620.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The livre (pound) was the currency of Kingdom of France and its predecessor state of West Francia from 781 to 1794.
Gabriel Guarda (born Fernando Guarda Geywitz; 1928 in Valdivia), is a Chilean historian and architect.
Gaspar de Bracamonte y Guzmán, 3rd Count of Peñaranda (Gaspar de Bracamonte y Guzmán, tercer Conde de Peñaranda.) (c. 1595 – December 14, 1676) was a Spanish diplomat and statesman.
Don Gaspar de Guzmán y Pimentel Ribera y Velasco de Tovar, Count of Olivares and Duke of Sanlúcar la Mayor, Grandee of Spain (Gaspar de Guzmán y Pimentel, conde-duque de Olivares, also known as Olivares y duque de Sanlúcar la Mayor, Grande de España; January 6, 1587 – July 22, 1645), was a Spanish royal favourite of Philip IV and minister.
Geldern (Gelderen, archaic English: Guelder(s)) is a German–Dutch border city centered in the federal German state of North Rhine-Westphalia.
Gennep is a municipality and a city in upper southeastern Netherlands.
Gilles van Ledenberg (c. 1550 – 28 September 1618) was a Dutch statesman.
The Gulf of Guinea is the northeasternmost part of the tropical Atlantic Ocean between Cape Lopez in Gabon, north and west to Cape Palmas in Liberia.
Gustav II Adolf (9 December 1594 – 6 November 1632, O.S.), widely known in English by his Latinised name Gustavus Adolphus or as Gustav II Adolph, was the King of Sweden from 1611 to 1632 who is credited for the founding of Sweden as a great power (Stormaktstiden).
Haarlem (predecessor of Harlem in the English language) is a city and municipality in the Netherlands.
Habsburg Netherlands is the collective name of Holy Roman Empire fiefs in the Low Countries held by the House of Habsburg and later by the Spanish Empire, also known as the Spanish Netherlands.
Hegemony (or) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.
Henry Casimir I of Nassau-Dietz (Arnhem, 21 January 1612 – Hulst, 13 July 1640) was count of Nassau-Dietz and Stadtholder of Friesland, Groningen and Drenthe.
Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization.
Hinterland is a German word meaning "the land behind" (a city, a port, or similar).
The history of slavery spans many cultures, nationalities, and religions from ancient times to the present day.
The history of the Calvinist–Arminian debate begins in early 17th century in the Netherlands with a Christian theological dispute between the followers of John Calvin and Jacobus Arminius, and continues today among some Protestants, particularly evangelicals.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
Hugo Grotius (10 April 1583 – 28 August 1645), also known as Huig de Groot or Hugo de Groot, was a Dutch jurist.
Hulst is a municipality and city in southwestern Netherlands in the east of Zeelandic Flanders.
IJzendijke is a city in the municipality of Sluis, about 10 km east of Oostburg, in the Dutch province of Zeeland.
Indemnity is a contractual obligation of one party (indemnitor) to compensate the loss occurred to the other party (indemnitee) due to the act of the indemnitor or any other party.
The Inquisition of the Netherlands was an extension of the Spanish Inquisition in the Spanish Netherlands, established during the reign of Charles V. Because the idea of an Inquisition was uncongenial to the Flemish temperament, the process of introduction was a slow and gradual one from the onset.
Isabella Clara Eugenia (Isabel Clara Eugenia; 12 August 1566 – 1 December 1633) was sovereign of the Spanish Netherlands in the Low Countries and the north of modern France, together with her husband Albert VII, Archduke of Austria.
Jacob Cats (10 November 1577 – 12 September 1660) was a Dutch poet, humorist, jurist and politician.
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.
Jülich (in old spellings also known as Guelich or Gülich, Gulik, Juliers) is a town in the district of Düren, in the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, Lord of Berkel en Rodenrijs (1600), Gunterstein (1611) and Bakkum (1613) (14 September 1547 – 13 May 1619) was a Dutch statesman who played an important role in the Dutch struggle for independence from Spain.
Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly (Johan t'Serclaes; February 1559 – 30 April 1632) was a field marshal who commanded the Catholic League's forces in the Thirty Years' War.
John Calvin (Jean Calvin; born Jehan Cauvin; 10 July 150927 May 1564) was a French theologian, pastor and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation.
John Maurice of Nassau (Dutch: Johan Maurits van Nassau-Siegen; German: Johann Moritz von Nassau-Siegen; Portuguese: João Maurício de Nassau-Siegen; 17 June 1604 – 20 December 1679) was called "the Brazilian" for his fruitful period as governor of Dutch Brazil.
Jonathan Irvine Israel (born 26 January 1946) is a British writer and academic specialising in Dutch history, the Age of Enlightenment and European Jews.
Joris van Spilbergen (1568 in Antwerp – 1620 in Bergen op Zoom) was a Dutch naval officer.
Kandy (මහනුවර Mahanuwara, pronounced; கண்டி, pronounced) is a major city in Sri Lanka located in the Central Province.
The Kingdom of Naples (Regnum Neapolitanum; Reino de Nápoles; Regno di Napoli) comprised that part of the Italian Peninsula south of the Papal States between 1282 and 1816.
Cleves (Kleve; Kleef; Clèves; Clivia) is a town in the Lower Rhine region of northwestern Germany near the Dutch border and the river Rhine.
Lamoral, Count of Egmont, Prince of Gavere (November 18, 1522 – June 5, 1568) was a general and statesman in the Spanish Netherlands just before the start of the Eighty Years' War, whose execution helped spark the national uprising that eventually led to the independence of the Netherlands.
The Land's Advocate (landsadvocaat) of Holland acted as the chairman of the States of Holland.
The Letters from the Segovia Woods denote two sets of letters Philip II of Spain sent to his Regent Margaret of Parma, rejecting requests to abolish the ordinances outlawing heresy in the Habsburg Netherlands on 17 and 20 October 1565, and 31 July 1566.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
A linchpin, also spelled linch pin, lynchpin, or lynch pin, is a fastener used to prevent a wheel or other part from sliding off the axle upon which it is riding.
List of battles of the Eighty Years' War.
The Governor (Landvoogd) or Governor-General (Gouverneur-Generaal) ruled the Habsburg Netherlands as a representative of the Dukes of Burgundy (until 1506), the Kings of Castile (1506-1598; 1621-1706), and the Archdukes of Austria (1716-1794).
Louis of Nassau (Dutch: Lodewijk van Nassau, January 10, 1538 – April 14, 1574) was the third son of William, Count of Nassau and Juliana of Stolberg, and the younger brother of Prince William of Orange Nassau.
Louis XIII (27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
Maarten Harpertszoon Tromp (23 April 1598 – 10 August 1653) was an officer and later admiral in the Dutch navy.
Maastricht (Limburgish: Mestreech; French: Maestricht; Spanish: Mastrique) is a city and a municipality in the southeast of the Netherlands.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
The Manila Galleons (Galeón de Manila; Kalakalang Galyon ng Maynila at Acapulco) were Spanish trading ships which for two and a half centuries linked the Philippines with Mexico across the Pacific Ocean, making one or two round-trip voyages per year between the ports of Acapulco and Manila, which were both part of New Spain.
Margaret of Parma (28 December 1522 – 18 January 1586) was Governor of the Netherlands from 1559 to 1567 and from 1578 to 1582.
Marine insurance covers the loss or damage of ships, cargo, terminals, and any transport or cargo by which the property is transferred, acquired, or held between the points of origin and the final destination.
Martin Luther, (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.
The Martyrs of Gorkum (Martelaren van Gorcum) were a group of 19 Dutch Catholic clerics and friars who were hanged on 9 July 1572 in the town of Brielle (or Den Briel) by militant Dutch Calvinists during the 16th century religious wars - specifically, the Dutch Revolt against Spanish rule, which developed into the Eighty Years' War.
Matthias (24 February 1557 – 20 March 1619) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1612, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1608 (as Matthias II) and King of Bohemia from 1611.
Maurice of Orange (Dutch: Maurits van Oranje) (14 November 1567 – 23 April 1625) was stadtholder of all the provinces of the Dutch Republic except for Friesland from 1585 at earliest until his death in 1625.
In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.
The Meierij van 's-Hertogenbosch (Dutch for Bailiwick of Bois-le-Duc) was one of the four parts of the duchy of Brabant, the others being the margraviate of Antwerp, the county of Brussels, and the county of Leuven/Louvain.
Menno Simons (1496 – 31 January 1561) was a former Catholic priest from the Friesland region of the Low Countries who became an influential Anabaptist religious leader.
Messina (Sicilian: Missina; Messana, Μεσσήνη) is the capital of the Italian Metropolitan City of Messina.
Naarden is a city and former municipality in the Gooi region in the province of North Holland, Netherlands.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
The Oñate treaty of 29 July 1617 was a secret treaty between the Austrian and Spanish branches of the House of Habsburg.
Osnabrück (Ossenbrügge; archaic Osnaburg) is a city in the federal state of Lower Saxony in north-west Germany.
The Peace of Münster was a treaty between the Lords States General of the United Netherlands and the Spanish Crown, the terms of which were agreed on 30 January 1648.
The Peace of Westphalia (Westfälischer Friede) was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster that virtually ended the European wars of religion.
Sir Peter Paul Rubens (28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish artist.
Petrus Peckius the Younger, also known as Petrus Pecquius or Pierre Peckius (born Pieter Peck; 1562 – 28 July 1625), was a diplomat and chancellor of Brabant for the Sovereign Archdukes Albert and Isabella.
Philip de Montmorency (died 5 June 1568 in Brussels), also known as Count of Horn or Hoorne or Hoorn, was a victim of the Inquisition in the Spanish Netherlands.
Philip II (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–58).
Philip III (Felipe; 14 April 1578 – 31 March 1621) was King of Spain.
Philip IV of Spain (Felipe IV; 8 April 1605 – 17 September 1665) was King of Spain (as Philip IV in Castille and Philip III in Aragon) and Portugal as Philip III (Filipe III).
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Philips of Marnix, Lord of Saint-Aldegonde, Lord of West-Souburg (Dutch: Filips van Marnix, heer van Sint-Aldegonde, heer van West-Souburg, French: Philippe de Marnix, seigneur de Sainte-Aldegonde; Brussels, 7 March/20 July 1540 – Leiden, 15 December 1598) was a Flemish and Dutch writer and statesman, and the probable author of the text of the Dutch national anthem, the Wilhelmus.
Pieter Pietersen Heyn (Hein) (25 November 1577 – 18 June 1629) was a Dutch admiral and privateer for the Dutch Republic during the Eighty Years' War between the United Provinces and Spain.
The pincer movement, or double envelopment, is a military maneuver in which forces simultaneously attack both flanks (sides) of an enemy formation.
The Polish–Swedish War of 1626–1629 was the fourth stage (after 1600–1611, 1617–1618, and 1620–1625) in a series of conflicts between Sweden and Poland fought in the 17th century.
Portuguese Ceylon (Ceilão Português, Sinhala: පෘතුගීසි ලංකාව Puruthugisi Lankawa) was the control of the Kingdom of Kotte by the Portuguese Empire, in present-day Sri Lanka, after the country's Crisis of the Sixteenth Century and into the Kandyan period.
The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.
The State of India (Estado da Índia), also referred as the Portuguese State of India (Estado Português da Índia, EPI) or simply Portuguese India (Índia Portuguesa), was a state of the Portuguese Overseas Empire, founded six years after the discovery of a sea route between Portugal and the Indian Subcontinent to serve as the governing body of a string of Portuguese fortresses and colonies overseas.
Portuguese Malacca was the territory of Malacca that, for 130 years (1511–1641), was a Portuguese colony.
The Portuguese Restoration War (Guerra da Restauração; Guerra de Restauración portuguesa) was the name given by nineteenth-century Romantic historians to the war between Portugal and Spain that began with the Portuguese revolution of 1640 and ended with the Treaty of Lisbon in 1668.
The Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 was an edict, promulgated by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, reorganizing the Seventeen Provinces of the present day Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg into one indivisible territory, while retaining existing customs, laws, and forms of government within the provinces.
The Prince-Bishopric of Liège was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, situated for the most part in present Belgium, which was ruled by the Bishop of Liège.
A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war.
Protectionism is the economic policy of restricting imports from other countries through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, import quotas, and a variety of other government regulations.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
In Dutch history, the year 1672 was known as the rampjaar, the "disaster year." That year, following the outbreak of the Franco-Dutch War and the Third Anglo-Dutch War, the Dutch Republic was simultaneously attacked by England, France, and the prince-bishops Bernhard von Galen, bishop of Münster, and Maximilian Henry of Bavaria, archbishop of Cologne.
The Reapers' War (Guerra dels Segadors) affected a large part of the Principality of Catalonia between the years of 1640 and 1659.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
The Remonstrants are a historic community of mostly Dutch Protestants who originally supported Jacobus Arminius, and after his death, continue to maintain his original views.
Revista Chilena de Literatura is an academic journal about literature published by the University of Chile.
Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester (24 June 1532 – 4 September 1588) was an English nobleman and the favourite and close friend of Elizabeth I's, from her first year on the throne until his death.
Roermond (Remunj) is a city, a municipality, and a diocese in the southeastern part of the Netherlands.
The Archdiocese of Mechelen-Brussels is an archdiocese of the Roman Catholic Church in Belgium.
Rombout Hogerbeets (Hoorn, 24 June 1561 — Wassenaar, 7 September 1625) was a Dutch jurist and statesman.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
Saint Martin (Saint-Martin; Sint Maarten) is an island in the northeast Caribbean Sea, approximately east of Puerto Rico.
Sas van Gent is a town in the Netherlands.
The São Francisco River or Rio São Francisco is a river in Brazil.
The Seventeen Provinces were the Imperial states of the Habsburg Netherlands in the 16th century.
The Siege of 's-Hertogenbosch also known as the Siege of Bois-Le-DucMarkham pp.
The Siege of Bergen-op-Zoom (1622) was a battle during the Eighty Years' War.
The Siege of Breda of 1624–25 occurred during the Eighty Years' War.
The Fifth Siege of Breda (21 July – 11 October 1637) was an important siege in the Eighty Years' War in which stadtholder Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange retook the city of Breda, which had last changed hands in 1625 when the Spanish general Ambrogio Spinola conquered it for the Spanish Habsburgs.
The Siege of Grol in 1627 was a battle between the Army of the Dutch Republic commanded by Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange and the Spanish controlled fortified city of Grol (now known as Groenlo), during the Eighty Years War and the Anglo–Spanish War in 1627.
The Siege of La Rochelle (French: Le Siège de La Rochelle, or sometimes Le Grand Siège de La Rochelle) was a result of a war between the French royal forces of Louis XIII of France and the Huguenots of La Rochelle in 1627–28.
The Siege of Leiden occurred during the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo–Spanish War in 1573 and 1574, when the Spanish under Francisco de Valdez attempted to capture the rebellious city of Leiden, South Holland, the Netherlands.
The Siege of Schenkenschans (30 July 1635 – 30 April 1636) was a major siege of the Eighty Years' War.
Sittard is a city in the Netherlands, situated in the southernmost province of Limburg.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is south of the Equator.
The Southern Netherlands, also called the Catholic Netherlands, was the part of the Low Countries largely controlled by Spain (1556–1714), later Austria (1714–1794), and occupied then annexed by France (1794–1815).
The Spanish Armada (Grande y Felicísima Armada, literally "Great and Most Fortunate Navy") was a Spanish fleet of 130 ships that sailed from A Coruña in late May 1588, under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia, with the purpose of escorting an army from Flanders to invade England.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
Spanish Formosa (Formosa Española) was a Spanish colony established in the north of Taiwan from 1626 to 1642.
Spanish Netherlands (Países Bajos Españoles; Spaanse Nederlanden; Pays-Bas espagnols, Spanische Niederlande) was the collective name of States of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, held in personal union by the Spanish Crown (also called Habsburg Spain) from 1556 to 1714.
The "Spanish Road" was a military supply/trade route used from 1567–1620, which stretched from Northern Italy to the Low Countries.
The Spanish treasure fleet, or West Indies Fleet from Spanish Flota de Indias, also called silver fleet or plate fleet (from the Spanish plata meaning "silver"), was a convoy system adopted by the Spanish Empire from 1566 to 1790, linking Spain with its territories in America across the Atlantic.
In the Low Countries, stadtholder (stadhouder) was an office of steward, designated a medieval official and then a national leader.
The States General of the Netherlands (Staten-Generaal) is the bicameral legislature of the Netherlands consisting of the Senate (Eerste Kamer) and the House of Representatives (Tweede Kamer).
The States of Friesland were the sovereign body that governed the province of Friesland under the Dutch Republic.
Steenbergen is a municipality and a town in the province of North Brabant in the south of the Netherlands.
The Strait of Gibraltar (مضيق جبل طارق, Estrecho de Gibraltar) is a narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar and Peninsular Spain in Europe from Morocco and Ceuta (Spain) in Africa.
The Synod of Dort (also known as the Synod of Dordt or the Synod of Dordrecht) was an international Synod held in Dordrecht in 1618–1619, by the Dutch Reformed Church, to settle a divisive controversy initiated by the rise of Arminianism.
Thionville (Diedenhofen) is a commune in the Moselle department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
The trade winds are the prevailing pattern of easterly surface winds found in the tropics, within the lower portion of the Earth's atmosphere, in the lower section of the troposphere near the Earth's equator.
The Treaty of the Pyrenees (Traité des Pyrénées, Tratado de los Pirineos, Tractat dels Pirineus, Tratado dos Pirenéus) was signed on 7 November 1659 to end the 1635–1659 war between France and Spain, a war that was initially a part of the wider Thirty Years' War.
Tulip mania (Dutch: tulpenmanie) was a period in the Dutch Golden Age during which contract prices for some bulbs of the recently introduced and fashionable tulip reached extraordinarily high levels and then dramatically collapsed in February 1637.
Tunnel warfare is a general name for war being conducted in tunnels and other underground cavities.
The Twelve Years' Truce was the name given to the cessation of hostilities between the Habsburg rulers of Spain and the Southern Netherlands and the Dutch Republic as agreed in Antwerp on 9 April 1609 (coinciding with the Royal Decree of Expulsion of the Moriscos).
The Act of Federation of 1576, (popularly known as the Union of Delft) was signed on 25 April 1576 by William the Silent (the then Prince of Orange) and the provinces of Holland and Zeeland in the Netherlands and made a definitive federation of the two provinces.
Venlo is a city and municipality in the southeastern Netherlands, near the German border.
The War of the Jülich Succession was a military conflict over the right of succession to the United Duchies of Jülich-Cleves-Berg.
The War of the Mantuan Succession (1628–31) was a peripheral part of the Thirty Years' War.
Wesel is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
William Frederick (Willem Frederik; Arnhem 7 August 1613 – Leeuwarden 31 October 1664), Count (from 1654 Imperial Prince) of Nassau-Dietz, Stadtholder of Friesland, Groningen and Drenthe.
William II (27 May 1626 – 6 November 1650) was sovereign Prince of Orange and stadtholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands from 14 March 1647 until his death three years later.
William I, Prince of Orange (24 April 1533 – 10 July 1584), also widely known as William the Silent or William the Taciturn (translated from Willem de Zwijger), or more commonly known as William of Orange (Willem van Oranje), was the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish Habsburgs that set off the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1581.
Witte Corneliszoon de With (28 March 1599 – 8 November 1658) was a famous Dutch naval officer of the 17th century.
Zutphen is a city and municipality located in the province of Gelderland, Netherlands.
80 Year War, 80 Year's War, 80 Years' War, 80 years war, 80 years' war, 80-year war, Dutch Independence War, Eighty Year's War, Eighty Years War, Eighty Years' war, Eighty Years’ War, Eighty years war, War for Dutch Independence.