89 relations: Accumulated cyclone energy, Alaska, American Meteorological Society, Atmospheric convection, Bay of Bengal, Bureau of Meteorology, Christ Child, Christmas, Climate as complex networks, Climate change, Climate pattern, Climate Prediction Center, Coccolithophore, Columbia University, Coral bleaching, Dansgaard–Oeschger event, Darwin, Northern Territory, Ecuador, El Niño, El Niño–Southern Oscillation, Evaporite, Foraminifera, Gilbert Walker, Guatemala, Hadley cell, Hawaii, High-pressure area, Holocene, Humboldt Current, Indian Ocean, Indonesia, International Date Line, Intertropical Convergence Zone, Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Japan Meteorological Agency, Japanese language, Kelvin wave, La Niña, Last Glacial Maximum, Low-pressure area, Malaysia, Met Office, Mexico, Miocene, Monsoon of South Asia, Murray–Darling basin, National Center for Atmospheric Research, National Centers for Environmental Prediction, National Climatic Data Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, ..., North Atlantic oscillation, North West Australia, Ocean Drilling Program, Outgoing longwave radiation, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Ocean, Pacific–North American teleconnection pattern, Paul Julian (meteorologist), Peru, Philippines, Pleistocene, Pliocene, Precession, Precipitation, Pressure-gradient force, Rain, Reuters, Sea surface temperature, Sierra Madre de Oaxaca, South America, Southern Ocean, Spanish language, Sunspot, Surface pressure, Tahiti, Teleconnection, Thermocline, Thunderstorm, Tipping point (climatology), Trade winds, Tropical cyclone, Typhoon, United States Naval Research Laboratory, University of East Anglia, Upwelling, Varve, Walker circulation, Wind. Expand index (39 more) » « Shrink index
Accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) is a measure used by various agencies including the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the India Meteorological Department to express the activity of individual tropical cyclones and entire tropical cyclone seasons.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
The American Meteorological Society (AMS) is the premier scientific and professional organization in the United States promoting and disseminating information about the atmospheric, oceanic, and hydrologic sciences. Its mission is to advance the atmospheric and related sciences, technologies, applications, and services for the benefit of society.
Atmospheric convection is the result of a parcel-environment instability, or temperature difference, layer in the atmosphere.
The Bay of Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গোপসাগর) is the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean, bounded on the west and north by India and Bangladesh, and on the east by Myanmar and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India).
The Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) is an Executive Agency of the Australian Government responsible for providing weather services to Australia and surrounding areas.
The Christ Child, also known as Divine Infant, Baby Jesus, Infant Jesus, Child Jesus, the Holy Child, and Santo Niño, refers to Jesus Christ from his nativity to age 12.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The field of complex networks has emerged as an important area of science to generate novel insights into nature of complex systems The application of network theory to climate science is a young and emerging field.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
A climate pattern is any recurring characteristic of the climate.
The Climate Prediction Center (CPC) is a United States federal agency that is one of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, which are a part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service.
A coccolithophore (or coccolithophorid, from the adjective) is a unicellular, eukaryotic phytoplankton (alga).
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
Coral bleaching occurs when coral polyps expel algae that live inside their tissues.
Dansgaard–Oeschger events (often abbreviated D–O events) are rapid climate fluctuations that occurred 25 times during the last glacial period.
Darwin is the capital city of the Northern Territory of Australia.
Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (commonly called ENSO) and is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific (between approximately the International Date Line and 120°W), including off the Pacific coast of South America.
El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an irregularly periodic variation in winds and sea surface temperatures over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, affecting climate of much of the tropics and subtropics.
Evaporite is the term for a water-soluble mineral sediment that results from concentration and crystallization by evaporation from an aqueous solution.
Foraminifera (Latin for "hole bearers"; informally called "forams") are members of a phylum or class of amoeboid protists characterized by streaming granular ectoplasm for catching food and other uses; and commonly an external shell (called a "test") of diverse forms and materials.
Sir Gilbert Thomas Walker, CSI, FRS (14 June 1868 – 4 November 1958) was an English physicist and statistician of the 20th century.
Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.
The Hadley cell, named after George Hadley, is a global scale tropical atmospheric circulation that features air rising near the Equator, flowing poleward at 10–15 kilometers above the surface, descending in the subtropics, and then returning equatorward near the surface.
Hawaii (Hawaii) is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959.
A high-pressure area, high or anticyclone is a region where the atmospheric pressure at the surface of the planet is greater than its surrounding environment.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
The Humboldt Current, also called the Peru Current, is a cold, low-salinity ocean current that flows north along the western coast of South America.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
The International Date Line (IDL) is an imaginary line of demarcation on the surface of Earth that runs from the North Pole to the South Pole and demarcates the change of one calendar day to the next.
The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), known by sailors as the doldrums, is the area encircling Earth near the Equator, where the northeast and southeast trade winds converge.
The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is an isthmus in Mexico.
The, JMA, is an agency of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
A Kelvin wave is a wave in the ocean or atmosphere that balances the Earth's Coriolis force against a topographic boundary such as a coastline, or a waveguide such as the equator.
La Niña is a coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomenon that is the counterpart of El Niño as part of the broader El Niño–Southern Oscillation climate pattern.
In the Earth's climate history the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was the last time period during the last glacial period when ice sheets were at their greatest extension.
A low-pressure area, low, or depression, is a region on the topographic map where the atmospheric pressure is lower than that of surrounding locations.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
The Met Office (officially the Meteorological Office) is the United Kingdom's national weather service.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
The Miocene is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about (Ma).
The monsoon of South Asia is among several geographically distributed global monsoons.
The Murray–Darling basin is a large geographical area in the interior of southeastern Australia.
The US National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) is a US federally funded research and development center (FFRDC) managed by the nonprofit University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) and funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF).
The United States National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) delivers national and global weather, water, climate and space weather guidance, forecasts, warnings and analyses to its Partners and External User Communities.
The United States National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), previously known as the National Weather Records Center (NWRC), in Asheville, North Carolina was the world's largest active archive of weather data.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is a weather phenomenon in the North Atlantic Ocean of fluctuations in the difference of atmospheric pressure at sea level (SLP) between the Icelandic low and the Azores high.
The North West, North West Coast, North Western Australia and North West Australia, are usually informal names for the northern regions of the State of Western Australia.
The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) was an international cooperative effort to explore and study the composition and structure of the Earth's ocean basins.
Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) is the energy radiating from the Earth as infrared radiation at low energy to Space.
The Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) is a laboratory in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR).
The Pacific Northwest (PNW), sometimes referred to as Cascadia, is a geographic region in western North America bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the west and (loosely) by the Cascade Mountain Range on the east.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
The Pacific–North American teleconnection pattern (PNA) is a climatological term for a large-scale weather pattern with two modes, denoted positive and negative, and which relates the atmospheric circulation pattern over the North Pacific Ocean with the one over the North American continent.
Paul Rowland Julian (born October 12, 1929), a Fellow of the American Meteorological Society, is an American meteorologist who served as a longtime staff scientist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), was co-author with Roland Madden of the study establishing the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), and contributed to the international, multi-institutional Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP), Tropical Wind, Energy Conversion, and Reference Level Experiment (TWERLE), and Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere (TOGA) meteorology research programs.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
The Pliocene (also Pleiocene) Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58 million years BP.
Precession is a change in the orientation of the rotational axis of a rotating body.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
The pressure-gradient force is the force which results when there is a difference in pressure across a surface.
Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then becomes heavy enough to fall under gravity.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Sea surface temperature (SST) is the water temperature close to the ocean's surface.
The Sierra Madre de Oaxaca is a mountain range in southern Mexico.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean or the Austral Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean, generally taken to be south of 60° S latitude and encircling Antarctica.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Sunspots are temporary phenomena on the Sun's photosphere that appear as spots darker than the surrounding areas.
In atmospheric science, surface pressure is the atmospheric pressure at a location on Earth's surface.
Tahiti (previously also known as Otaheite (obsolete) is the largest island in the Windward group of French Polynesia. The island is located in the archipelago of the Society Islands in the central Southern Pacific Ocean, and is divided into two parts: the bigger, northwestern part, Tahiti Nui, and the smaller, southeastern part, Tahiti Iti. The island was formed from volcanic activity and is high and mountainous with surrounding coral reefs. The population is 189,517 inhabitants (2017 census), making it the most populous island of French Polynesia and accounting for 68.7% of its total population. Tahiti is the economic, cultural and political centre of French Polynesia, an overseas collectivity (sometimes referred to as an overseas country) of France. The capital of French Polynesia, Papeete, is located on the northwest coast of Tahiti. The only international airport in the region, Fa'a'ā International Airport, is on Tahiti near Papeete. Tahiti was originally settled by Polynesians between 300 and 800AD. They represent about 70% of the island's population, with the rest made up of Europeans, Chinese and those of mixed heritage. The island was part of the Kingdom of Tahiti until its annexation by France in 1880, when it was proclaimed a colony of France, and the inhabitants became French citizens. French is the only official language, although the Tahitian language (Reo Tahiti) is widely spoken.
Teleconnection in atmospheric science refers to climate anomalies being related to each other at large distances (typically thousands of kilometers).
A thermocline (also known as the thermal layer or the metalimnion in lakes) is a thin but distinct layer in a large body of fluid (e.g. water, such as an ocean or lake) or air (such as an atmosphere) in which temperature changes more rapidly with depth than it does in the layers above or below.
A thunderstorm, also known as an electrical storm, lightning storm, or thundershower, is a storm characterized by the presence of lightning and its acoustic effect on the Earth's atmosphere, known as thunder.
A climate tipping point is a somewhat ill-defined concept of a point when global climate changes from one stable state to another stable state, in a similar manner to a wine glass tipping over.
The trade winds are the prevailing pattern of easterly surface winds found in the tropics, within the lower portion of the Earth's atmosphere, in the lower section of the troposphere near the Earth's equator.
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.
A typhoon is a mature tropical cyclone that develops between 180° and 100°E in the Northern Hemisphere.
The United States Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is the corporate research laboratory for the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps.
The University of East Anglia (abbreviated as UEA) is a public research university in Norwich, England.
Upwelling is an oceanographic phenomenon that involves wind-driven motion of dense, cooler, and usually nutrient-rich water towards the ocean surface, replacing the warmer, usually nutrient-depleted surface water.
A varve is an annual layer of sediment or sedimentary rock.
The Walker circulation, also known as the Walker cell, is a conceptual model of the air flow in the tropics in the lower atmosphere (troposphere).
Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale.
ENSO, El Nino Southern Oscillation, El Niño Southern Oscillation, El Niño-Southern Oscillation, La Nada, Modoki, Southern Oscillation, Southern Oscillation Index, Southern oscillation, Southern oscillation index.