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# Elasticity (physics)

In physics, elasticity (from Greek ἐλαστός "ductible") is the ability of a body to resist a distorting influence and to return to its original size and shape when that influence or force is removed. [1]

70 relations: Absolute zero, Adiabatic process, Anagram, Ancient Greek, Anisotropy, Bending, Bulk modulus, Cauchy elastic material, Cauchy stress tensor, Constitutive equation, Crystal structure, Deborah number, Deformation (engineering), Deformation (mechanics), Displacement (vector), Ductility, Elastic modulus, Elasticity of cell membranes, Elastography, Elastomer, Entropy, Finite strain theory, Force, Fracture mechanics, Gasket, Helmholtz free energy, Hooke's law, Hyperelastic material, Hypoelastic material, Infinitesimal strain theory, Inorganic compound, International System of Units, Isotropy, Linear elasticity, Mechanical equilibrium, Microscopic scale, Molecule, Non-Newtonian fluid, Number density, Objectivity (frame invariance), Physics, Plasticity (physics), Plate theory, Pseudoelasticity, Quartz, Resilience (materials science), Robert Hooke, Rubber elasticity, Sandwich theory, Shear modulus, ... Expand index (20 more) »

## Absolute zero

Absolute zero is the lower limit of the thermodynamic temperature scale, a state at which the enthalpy and entropy of a cooled ideal gas reach their minimum value, taken as 0.

In thermodynamics, an adiabatic process is one that occurs without transfer of heat or matter between a thermodynamic system and its surroundings.

## Anagram

An anagram is a word or phrase formed by rearranging the letters of a different word or phrase, typically using all the original letters exactly once.

## Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

## Anisotropy

Anisotropy, is the property of being directionally dependent, which implies different properties in different directions, as opposed to isotropy.

## Bending

In applied mechanics, bending (also known as flexure) characterizes the behavior of a slender structural element subjected to an external load applied perpendicularly to a longitudinal axis of the element.

## Bulk modulus

The bulk modulus (K or B) of a substance is a measure of how resistant to compressibility that substance is.

## Cauchy elastic material

In physics, a Cauchy-elastic material is one in which the stress at each point is determined only by the current state of deformation with respect to an arbitrary reference configuration.

## Cauchy stress tensor

In continuum mechanics, the Cauchy stress tensor \boldsymbol\sigma, true stress tensor, or simply called the stress tensor is a second order tensor named after Augustin-Louis Cauchy.

## Constitutive equation

In physics and engineering, a constitutive equation or constitutive relation is a relation between two physical quantities (especially kinetic quantities as related to kinematic quantities) that is specific to a material or substance, and approximates the response of that material to external stimuli, usually as applied fields or forces.

## Crystal structure

In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.

## Deborah number

The Deborah number (De) is a dimensionless number, often used in rheology to characterize the fluidity of materials under specific flow conditions.

## Deformation (engineering)

In materials science, deformation refers to any changes in the shape or size of an object due to-.

## Deformation (mechanics)

Deformation in continuum mechanics is the transformation of a body from a reference configuration to a current configuration.

## Displacement (vector)

A displacement is a vector whose length is the shortest distance from the initial to the final position of a point P. It quantifies both the distance and direction of an imaginary motion along a straight line from the initial position to the final position of the point.

## Ductility

Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.

## Elastic modulus

An elastic modulus (also known as modulus of elasticity) is a quantity that measures an object or substance's resistance to being deformed elastically (i.e., non-permanently) when a stress is applied to it.

## Elasticity of cell membranes

A cell membrane defines a boundary between the living cell and its environment.

## Elastography

Elastography is a medical imaging modality that maps the elastic properties and stiffness of soft tissue.

## Elastomer

An elastomer is a polymer with viscoelasticity (i. e., both viscosity and elasticity) and very weak intermolecular forces, and generally low Young's modulus and high failure strain compared with other materials.

## Entropy

In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.

## Finite strain theory

In continuum mechanics, the finite strain theory—also called large strain theory, or large deformation theory—deals with deformations in which strains and/or rotations are large enough to invalidate assumptions inherent in infinitesimal strain theory.

## Force

In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.

## Fracture mechanics

Fracture mechanics is the field of mechanics concerned with the study of the propagation of cracks in materials.

gasket A gasket is a mechanical seal which fills the space between two or more mating surfaces, generally to prevent leakage from or into the joined objects while under compression.

## Helmholtz free energy

In thermodynamics, the Helmholtz free energy is a thermodynamic potential that measures the useful work obtainable from a closed thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and volume.

## Hooke's law

Hooke's law is a principle of physics that states that the force needed to extend or compress a spring by some distance scales linearly with respect to that distance.

## Hyperelastic material

A hyperelastic or green elastic materialR.W. Ogden, 1984, Non-Linear Elastic Deformations,, Dover.

## Hypoelastic material

In continuum mechanics, a hypoelastic material is an elastic material that has a constitutive model independent of finite strain measures except in the linearized case.

## Infinitesimal strain theory

In continuum mechanics, the infinitesimal strain theory is a mathematical approach to the description of the deformation of a solid body in which the displacements of the material particles are assumed to be much smaller (indeed, infinitesimally smaller) than any relevant dimension of the body; so that its geometry and the constitutive properties of the material (such as density and stiffness) at each point of space can be assumed to be unchanged by the deformation.

## Inorganic compound

An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.

## International System of Units

The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.

## Isotropy

Isotropy is uniformity in all orientations; it is derived from the Greek isos (ἴσος, "equal") and tropos (τρόπος, "way").

## Linear elasticity

Linear elasticity is the mathematical study of how solid objects deform and become internally stressed due to prescribed loading conditions.

## Mechanical equilibrium

In classical mechanics, a particle is in mechanical equilibrium if the net force on that particle is zero.

## Microscopic scale

The microscopic scale (from, mikrós, "small" and σκοπέω, skopéō "look") is the scale of objects and events smaller than those that can easily be seen by the naked eye, requiring a lens or microscope to see them clearly.

## Molecule

A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

## Non-Newtonian fluid

A non-Newtonian fluid is a fluid that does not follow Newton's law of viscosity.

## Number density

In physics, astronomy, chemistry, biology and geography, number density (symbol: n or ρN) is an intensive quantity used to describe the degree of concentration of countable objects (particles, molecules, phonons, cells, galaxies, etc.) in physical space: three-dimensional volumetric number density, two-dimensional areal number density, or one-dimensional line number density.

## Objectivity (frame invariance)

The concept of objectivity in science.

## Physics

Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

## Plasticity (physics)

In physics and materials science, plasticity describes the deformation of a (solid) material undergoing non-reversible changes of shape in response to applied forces.

## Plate theory

In continuum mechanics, plate theories are mathematical descriptions of the mechanics of flat plates that draws on the theory of beams.

## Pseudoelasticity

Pseudoelasticity, sometimes called superelasticity, is an elastic (reversible) response to an applied stress, caused by a phase transformation between the austenitic and martensitic phases of a crystal.

## Quartz

Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.

## Resilience (materials science)

In material science, resilience is the ability of a material to absorb energy when it is deformed elastically, and release that energy upon unloading.

## Robert Hooke

Robert Hooke FRS (– 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.

## Rubber elasticity

Rubber elasticity, a well-known example of hyperelasticity, describes the mechanical behavior of many polymers, especially those with cross-links.

## Sandwich theory

Sandwich theoryPlantema, F, J., 1966, Sandwich Construction: The Bending and Buckling of Sandwich Beams, Plates, and Shells, Jon Wiley and Sons, New York.

## Shear modulus

In materials science, shear modulus or modulus of rigidity, denoted by G, or sometimes S or μ, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain: where The derived SI unit of shear modulus is the pascal (Pa), although it is usually expressed in gigapascals (GPa) or in thousands of pounds per square inch (ksi).

## Shearing (physics)

Shearing in continuum mechanics refers to the occurrence of a shear strain, which is a deformation of a material substance in which parallel internal surfaces slide past one another.

## Soft tissue

In anatomy, soft tissue includes the tissues that connect, support, or surround other structures and organs of the body, not being hard tissue such as bone.

## Solid mechanics

Solid mechanics is the branch of continuum mechanics that studies the behavior of solid materials, especially their motion and deformation under the action of forces, temperature changes, phase changes, and other external or internal agents.

## Spring (device)

A spring is an elastic object that stores mechanical energy.

## State function

In thermodynamics, a state function or function of state is a function defined for a system relating several state variables or state quantities that depends only on the current equilibrium state of the system, for example a gas, a liquid, a solid, crystal, or emulsion.

## Stiffness

Stiffness is the rigidity of an object &mdash; the extent to which it resists deformation in response to an applied force.

## Strain energy density function

A strain energy density function or stored energy density function is a scalar valued function that relates the strain energy density of a material to the deformation gradient.

## Stress (mechanics)

In continuum mechanics, stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of a continuous material exert on each other, while strain is the measure of the deformation of the material.

## Stress measures

The most commonly used measure of stress is the Cauchy stress tensor, often called simply the stress tensor or "true stress".

## Stress–strain curve

The relationship between the stress and strain that a particular material displays is known as that particular material's stress–strain curve.

Structural loads or actions are forces, deformations, or accelerations applied to a structure or its components.

## Symmetry

Symmetry (from Greek συμμετρία symmetria "agreement in dimensions, due proportion, arrangement") in everyday language refers to a sense of harmonious and beautiful proportion and balance.

## Taylor series

In mathematics, a Taylor series is a representation of a function as an infinite sum of terms that are calculated from the values of the function's derivatives at a single point.

## Tensor

In mathematics, tensors are geometric objects that describe linear relations between geometric vectors, scalars, and other tensors.

## Thermal expansion

Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature.

In fluid mechanics and continuum mechanics, the velocity gradient describes how the velocity of a fluid changes between different points within the fluid.

## Vibration

Vibration is a mechanical phenomenon whereby oscillations occur about an equilibrium point.

## Viscoelasticity

Viscoelasticity is the property of materials that exhibit both viscous and elastic characteristics when undergoing deformation.

## Viscosity

The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.

## Young's modulus

Young's modulus, also known as the elastic modulus, is a measure of the stiffness of a solid material.

## References

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