118 relations: Accountability, Additional Member System, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Approval voting, Archetype, Australian referendum, 1967 (Aboriginals), Ballot, Ballot access, Bengal, Business, Campaign advertising, Chola dynasty, Civil rights movement, Concession (politics), Condorcet method, Corporation, Criticisms of electoral politics, Dictator, Direct democracy, Dissolution of parliament, Early voting, Election law, Election litter, Elections by country, Elections in the United Kingdom, Elections in the United States, Electoral fraud, Electoral integrity, Electoral reform, Electoral system, Electronic voting, Executive (government), Fenno's paradox, First-past-the-post voting, Foreign electoral intervention, Freedom of speech, Freedom of the press, Full slate, Gana, Garrat Elections, Gerontocracy, Gerrymandering, Gopala I, Group decision-making, History of Athens, Holy Roman Emperor, Imperial election, Incumbent, Indian general election, 2014, ..., Instant-runoff voting, Issue voting, Judiciary, Kenneth Arrow, Kshatriya, Landed gentry, Landslide victory, Legislature, Local government, Majority rule, Mandate (politics), Meritocracy, Motion of no confidence, Multi-party system, National electoral calendar 2018, Nomination rules, Non-partisan democracy, Oligarchy, Oxford University Press, Pala Empire, Papal conclave, Party system, Party-list proportional representation, Pluralism (political philosophy), Political forecasting, Political science, Polling place, Pope, Preselection, President of Finland, President of France, President of Ireland, President of Russia, President of the United States, Princeton University Press, Propaganda, Proportional representation, Psephology, Public administration, Raja, Referendum, Representative democracy, Robert's Rules of Order, Rule of law, Ruling class, Secret ballot, Single transferable vote, Slate (elections), Sortition, Statistics, Suffrage, Supermajority, Tamil Nadu, Two-party system, United Kingdom, United States House of Representatives, United States presidential election, 2012, University of Chicago Press, Uthiramerur, Varna (Hinduism), Vedic period, Voluntary association, Vote counting, Voter suppression, Voter turnout, William H. Riker, Women's suffrage, Yale University Press. Expand index (68 more) » « Shrink index
In ethics and governance, accountability is answerability, blameworthiness, liability, and the expectation of account-giving.
The additional member system (AMS), also known as mixed-member proportional representation (MMP) outside the United Kingdom, is a mixed electoral system with one tier of single-member district representatives, and another tier of "additional members" elected to make the overall election results more proportional.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Approval voting is a single-winner electoral system where each voter may select ("approve") any number of candidates.
The concept of an archetype appears in areas relating to behavior, modern psychological theory, and literary analysis.
The Australian referendum of 27 May 1967, called by the Holt Government, approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to Indigenous Australians.
A ballot is a device used to cast votes in an election, and may be a piece of paper or a small ball used in secret voting.
Ballot access rules, called nomination rules outside the United States, regulate the conditions under which a candidate or political party is entitled either to stand for election or to appear on voters' ballots.
Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.
Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (goods and services).
In politics, campaign advertising is the use of an advertising campaign through the media to influence a political debate, and ultimately, voters.
The Chola dynasty was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the history of southern India.
The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, American civil rights movement and other terms) was a decades-long movement with the goal of securing legal rights for African Americans that other Americans already held.
In politics, a concession is the act of a losing candidate publicly yielding to a winning candidate after an election after the overall result of the vote has become clear.
A Condorcet method is an election method that elects the candidate that would win a majority of the vote in all of the head-to-head elections against each of the other candidates, whenever there is such a candidate.
A corporation is a company or group of people or an organisation authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law.
This article discusses criticisms of political systems, specifically representative democracy and direct democracy, that use elections as a tool for selecting representatives and/or deciding policy through a formal voting process as well as the act of voting itself.
A dictator is a political leader who possesses absolute power.
Direct democracy or pure democracy is a form of democracy in which people decide on policy initiatives directly.
In parliamentary and some semi-presidential systems, a dissolution of parliament is the dispersal of a legislature at the call of an election.
Early voting (also called pre-poll voting or advance polling) is a process by which voters in a public election can vote prior to the scheduled election day.
Election law is a discipline falling at the juncture of constitutional law and political science.
Election litter is a term used by some national and subnational governments to describe the unlawful erection of political advertising on private residences or property owned by the local government.
For each de jure and de facto sovereign state and dependent territory an article on elections in that entity has been included and information on the way the head of state, head of government, and the legislature is selected.
There are six types of elections in the United Kingdom: elections to the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, elections to devolved parliaments and assemblies, elections to the European Parliament, local elections, mayoral elections and Police and Crime Commissioner elections.
Elections in the United States are held for government officials at the federal, state, and local levels.
Electoral fraud, election manipulation, or vote rigging is illegal interference with the process of an election, whether by increasing the vote share of the favored candidate, depressing the vote share of the rival candidates, or both.
Electoral integrity refers to international standards and global norms governing the appropriate conduct of elections.
Electoral reform is change in electoral systems to improve how public desires are expressed in election results.
An electoral system is a set of rules that determines how elections and referendums are conducted and how their results are determined.
Electronic voting (also known as e-voting) refers to voting using electronic means to either aid or take care of the chores of casting and counting votes.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
Fenno's paradox is the belief that people generally disapprove of the United States Congress as a whole, but support the Congressmen from their own Congressional district.
A first-past-the-post (FPTP) voting method is one in which voters indicate on a ballot the candidate of their choice, and the candidate who receives the most votes wins.
Foreign electoral interventions are attempts by governments, covertly or overtly, to influence elections in another country.
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.
Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the principle that communication and expression through various media, including printed and electronic media, especially published materials, should be considered a right to be exercised freely.
Any political party or faction that seeks to form a majority in a parliament or on a board of directors or other responsible body typically must run a full slate if only to demonstrate that they have the capacity to attract the talent to fill every position with some person, even if that person is not ideal for the job.
The word (Sanskrit: गण) in Sanskrit and Pali means "flock, troop, multitude, number, tribe, series or class".
The Garrat Elections were a carnival of mock elections in Surrey, England in the 18th century.
A gerontocracy is a form of oligarchical rule in which an entity is ruled by leaders who are significantly older than most of the adult population.
Gerrymandering is a practice intended to establish a political advantage for a particular party or group by manipulating district boundaries.
Gopala (ruled c. 750s–770s CE) was the founder of the Pala Dynasty of Bengal region of the Indian Subcontinent.
Group decision-making (also known as collaborative decision-making) is a situation faced when individuals collectively make a choice from the alternatives before them.
Athens is one of the oldest named cities in the world, having been continuously inhabited for at least 5000 years.
The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).
The election of a Holy Roman Emperor was generally a two-stage process whereby, from at least the 13th century, the King of the Romans was elected by a small body of the greatest princes of the Empire, the Prince-electors.
The incumbent is the current holder of a political office.
The Indian general election of 2014 was held to constitute the 16th Lok Sabha, electing members of parliament for all 543 parliamentary constituencies of India.
Instant-runoff voting (IRV) is a voting method used in single-seat elections with more than two candidates.
The term issue voting describes when voters cast their vote in elections based on political issues.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
Kenneth Joseph "Ken" Arrow (23 August 1921 – 21 February 2017) was an American economist, mathematician, writer, and political theorist.
Kshatriya (Devanagari: क्षत्रिय; from Sanskrit kṣatra, "rule, authority") is one of the four varna (social orders) of the Hindu society.
Landed gentry or gentry is a largely historical British social class consisting in theory of landowners who could live entirely from rental income, or at least had a country estate.
A landslide victory is an electoral victory in a political system, when one candidate or party receives an overwhelming supermajority of the votes or seats in the elected body, thus utterly eliminating the opponents.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
A local government is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state.
Majority rule is a decision rule that selects alternatives which have a majority, that is, more than half the votes.
In politics, a mandate is the authority granted by a constituency to act as its representative.
Meritocracy (merit, from Latin mereō, and -cracy, from Ancient Greek κράτος "strength, power") is a political philosophy which holds that certain things, such as economic goods or power, should be vested in individuals on the basis of talent, effort and achievement, rather than factors such as sexuality, race, gender or wealth.
A motion of no confidence (alternatively vote of no confidence, no-confidence motion, or (unsuccessful) confidence motion) is a statement or vote which states that a person(s) in a position of responsibility (government, managerial, etc.) is no longer deemed fit to hold that position, perhaps because they are inadequate in some respect, are failing to carry out obligations, or are making decisions that other members feel are detrimental.
A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition.
This national electoral calendar for the year 2018 lists the national/federal direct elections to be held in 2018 in all sovereign states and their dependent territories.
Nomination rules in elections regulate the conditions under which a candidate or political party is entitled to stand for election.
Nonpartisan democracy (also no-party democracy) is a system of representative government or organization such that universal and periodic elections take place without reference to political parties.
Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Pala Empire was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal.
A papal conclave is a meeting of the College of Cardinals convened to elect a Bishop of Rome, also known as the Pope.
A party system is a concept in comparative political science concerning the system of government by political parties in a democratic country.
Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems emphasizing proportional representation (PR) in elections in which multiple candidates are elected (e.g., elections to parliament) through allocations to an electoral list.
Pluralism as a political philosophy is the recognition and affirmation of diversity within a political body, which permits the peaceful coexistence of different interests, convictions and lifestyles.
Political forecasting aims at predicting the outcome of elections.
Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.
A polling place is where voters cast their ballots in elections.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Preselection is the process by which a candidate is selected, usually by a political party, to contest an election for political office.
The President of the Republic of Finland (Suomen tasavallan presidentti, Republiken Finlands president) is the head of state of Finland.
The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française) is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic.
The President of Ireland (Uachtarán na hÉireann) is the head of state of the Republic of Ireland and the Supreme Commander of the Irish Defence Forces.
The President of the Russian Federation (Prezident Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is the elected head of state of the Russian Federation, as well as holder of the highest office in Russia and commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Propaganda is information that is not objective and is used primarily to influence an audience and further an agenda, often by presenting facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis or perception, or using loaded language to produce an emotional rather than a rational response to the information that is presented.
Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions into an electorate are reflected proportionately into the elected body.
Psephology (from Greek psephos ψῆφος, 'pebble', as the Greeks used pebbles as ballots) is a branch of political science which deals with the study and scientific analysis of elections.
Public Administration is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service.
Raja (also spelled rajah, from Sanskrit राजन्), is a title for a monarch or princely ruler in South and Southeast Asia.
A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised, commonly referred to as Robert’s Rules of Order, RONR, or simply Robert’s Rules, is the most widely used manual of parliamentary procedure in the United States.
The rule of law is the "authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes".
The ruling class is the social class of a given society that decides upon and sets that society's political agenda.
The secret ballot is a voting method in which a voter's choices in an election or a referendum is anonymous, forestalling attempts to influence the voter by intimidation, blackmailing, and potential vote buying.
The single transferable vote (STV) is a voting system designed to achieve proportional representation through ranked voting in multi-seat organizations or constituencies (voting districts).
A slate is a group of candidates that run in multi-seat or multi-position elections on a common platform.
In governance, sortition (also known as allotment or demarchy) is the selection of political officials as a random sample from a larger pool of candidates.
Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).
A supermajority or supra-majority or a qualified majority, is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level of support which is greater than the threshold of one-half used for majority.
Tamil Nadu (• tamiḻ nāḍu ? literally 'The Land of Tamils' or 'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India.
A two-party system is a party system where two major political parties dominate the government.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.
The United States presidential election of 2012 was the 57th quadrennial American presidential election.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
Uthiramerur is a panchayat town in Kancheepuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Varṇa (वर्णः) is a Sanskrit word which means type, order, colour or class.
The Vedic period, or Vedic age, is the period in the history of the northwestern Indian subcontinent between the end of the urban Indus Valley Civilisation and a second urbanisation in the central Gangetic Plain which began in BCE.
A voluntary group or union (also sometimes called a voluntary organization, common-interest association,Prins HEL et al. (2010).. Cengage Learning. association, or society) is a group of individuals who enter into an agreement, usually as volunteers, to form a body (or organization) to accomplish a purpose.
There exist various methods through which the ballots cast at an election may be counted, prior to applying a voting system to obtain one or more winners.
Voter suppression is a strategy to influence the outcome of an election by discouraging or preventing specific groups of people from voting.
Voter turnout is the percentage of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election.
William Harrison Riker (September 22, 1920 – June 26, 1993) was an American political scientist who applied game theory and mathematics to political science.
Women's suffrage (colloquial: female suffrage, woman suffrage or women's right to vote) --> is the right of women to vote in elections; a person who advocates the extension of suffrage, particularly to women, is called a suffragist.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
Democratically elected, Democratically-elected government, Demonstration election, Elect, Electability, Elected government, Election in absentia, Election results, Elections, Electoral, Electoral politics, Electoral process, Fair and free election, Fair election, Federal election, Free and fair, Free and fair election, Free and fair elections, Free and just elections, Free election, Free elections.