129 relations: ACT New Zealand, Albania, Alternative for Germany, Argentina, Armenia, Austria, Bavarian state election, 2013, Belgium, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Bulgarian parliamentary election, 2013, Bundestag, Burundi, CDU/CSU, Chamber of Deputies (Romania), Chamber of Deputies of the Czech Republic, Christian Democratic Union of Germany, Christian Social Union, Christian Social Union in Bavaria, Colombia, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Democratic Left Party (Turkey), Democratic Party (United States), Democratic People's Party (Turkey), Denmark, Disfranchisement, Droop quota, East Timor, Epsom (New Zealand electorate), Estonia, European Convention on Human Rights, European Court of Human Rights, Felicity Party, Fiji, Finland, First-past-the-post voting, Free Democratic Party (Germany), Georgia (country), German federal election, 2013, Germany, Grand coalition, Grand National Assembly of Turkey, Greece, Green Party of the United States, Hare quota, Hürriyet Daily News, Hungary, ..., Iceland, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Israeli legislative election, 1992, Italy, Justice and Development Party (Turkey), Kazakhstan, Knesset, Latvia, Legislature, Leveling seat, Liberal Party (Norway), Libertarian Party (United States), Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, Motherland Party (Turkey), Mozambique, Nationalist Movement Party, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, New Zealand First, New Zealand general election, 2008, New Zealand general election, 2011, New Zealand House of Representatives, Northern Cyprus, Norway, Norwegian parliamentary election, 2009, Norwegian parliamentary election, 2013, Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, Party-list proportional representation, Party-list representation in the House of Representatives of the Philippines, Peru, Philippine House of Representatives elections, 2007, Philippine House of Representatives party-list election, 2010, Philippines, Plurality voting, Poland, Polish parliamentary election, 2015, Portugal, Proportional representation, Ranked voting, Republic of Macedonia, Republican Party (United States), Romania, Russia, Russian legislative election, 1995, Rwanda, San Marino, Sejm, Serbia, Single transferable vote, Slovakia, Slovenia, Social Democratic Party of Germany, South Korea, Spain, Spoiler effect, State of Palestine, Sweden, Taiwan, Tehiya, True Path Party, Turkey, Turkish general election, 1999, Turkish general election, 2002, Types of democracy, Ukraine, Ukrainian parliamentary election, 2006, Ukrainian parliamentary election, 2007, United Left (Poland), Uruguay, Virtuous circle and vicious circle, Young Party, Yumak and Sadak v Turkey. Expand index (79 more) » « Shrink index
ACT New Zealand, usually known as ACT, is a right-wing, classical-liberal political party in New Zealand.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
Alternative for Germany (Alternative für Deutschland, AfD) is a right-wing to far-right political party in Germany.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
The 2013 Bavarian state election was held on 15 September 2013 to elect the 180 members of the 17th Landtag of Bavaria.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Parliamentary elections were held in Bulgaria on 12 May 2013, two months ahead of schedule.
The Bundestag ("Federal Diet") is the German federal parliament.
Burundi, officially the Republic of Burundi (Republika y'Uburundi,; République du Burundi, or), is a landlocked country in the African Great Lakes region of East Africa, bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and south, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west.
CDU/CSU, unofficially the Union parties (Unionsparteien) or Union, is the Christian democratic political alliance of two political parties in Germany, the Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU) and Christian Social Union in Bavaria (CSU).
The Chamber of Deputies (Camera Deputaților) is the lower house in Romania's bicameral parliament.
The Chamber of Deputies (Poslanecká sněmovna) is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of the Czech Republic.
The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands, CDU) is a Christian democratic and liberal-conservative political party in Germany.
Christian Social Union may refer to.
The Christian Social Union in Bavaria is a Christian-democratic and conservative political party in Germany.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
The Democratic Left Party (Demokratik Sol Parti, DSP) is a Turkish political party founded on 14 November 1985, by Rahşan Ecevit.
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).
Democratic People's Party (Demokratik Halk Partisi, DEHAP) was a Kurdish nationalist political party in Turkey.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
Disfranchisement (also called disenfranchisement) is the revocation of the right of suffrage (the right to vote) of a person or group of people, or through practices, prevention of a person exercising the right to vote.
The Droop quota is the quota most commonly used in elections held under the single transferable vote (STV) system.
East Timor or Timor-Leste (Tetum: Timór Lorosa'e), officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (República Democrática de Timor-Leste, Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is a sovereign state in Maritime Southeast Asia.
Epsom is a New Zealand parliamentary electorate, returning one Member of Parliament to the New Zealand House of Representatives.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) (formally the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms) is an international treaty to protect human rights and political freedoms in Europe.
The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR or ECtHR; Cour européenne des droits de l’homme) is a supranational or international court established by the European Convention on Human Rights.
The Felicity Party (Saadet Partisi) is an Islamist Turkish political party founded in 2001.
Fiji (Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी), officially the Republic of Fiji (Matanitu Tugalala o Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी गणराज्य), is an island country in Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean about northeast of New Zealand's North Island.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
A first-past-the-post (FPTP) voting method is one in which voters indicate on a ballot the candidate of their choice, and the candidate who receives the most votes wins.
The Free Democratic Party (Freie Demokratische Partei, FDP) is a liberal and classical liberal political party in Germany.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Federal elections were held on 22 September to elect the members of the 18th Bundestag of Germany.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
A grand coalition is an arrangement in a multi-party parliamentary system in which the two largest political parties of opposing political ideologies unite in a coalition government.
The Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi), usually referred to simply as the TBMM or Parliament (Meclis or Parlamento), is the unicameral Turkish legislature.
The Green Party of the United States (GPUS) is a green federation of political parties in the United States.
The Hare quota (also known as the simple quota) is a formula used under some forms of the Single Transferable Vote (STV) system and the largest remainder method of party-list proportional representation.
The Hürriyet Daily News, formerly Hürriyet Daily News and Economic Review and Turkish Daily News, is the oldest current English-language daily in Turkey, founded in 1961.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Elections for the 13th Knesset were held in Israel on 23 June 1992.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
The Justice and Development Party (Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi), abbreviated officially AK Parti in Turkish, is a conservative political party in Turkey.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
The Knesset (הַכְּנֶסֶת; lit. "the gathering" or "assembly"; الكنيست) is the unicameral national legislature of Israel.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
Leveling seats (Danish. Tillægsmandat, Swedish. Utjämningsmandat, Norwegian. Utjevningsmandater, Icelandic. Jöfnunarsæti, German. Ausgleichsmandat), commonly known also as adjustment seats, are an election mechanism employed for many years by all Scandinavian countries and Iceland in elections for their national legislatures.
The Liberal Party (Venstre, V, meaning "left") is a liberal and social-liberal political party in Norway.
The Libertarian Party (LP) is a libertarian political party in the United States that promotes civil liberties, non-interventionism, laissez-faire capitalism and shrinking the size and scope of government.
Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Central Europe.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Moldova (or sometimes), officially the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south (by way of the disputed territory of Transnistria).
Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco (Principauté de Monaco), is a sovereign city-state, country and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe.
Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.
The Motherland Party, (Anavatan Partisi, abbreviated as ANAVATAN, formerly ANAP) is a political party in Turkey.
Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique) is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.
The Nationalist Movement Party (alternatively translated as Nationalist Action Party; Milliyetçi Hareket Partisi, MHP) is a Turkish far-right conservative political party that adheres to Turkish ultranationalism and Euroscepticism.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
New Zealand First (Aotearoa Tuatahi), commonly abbreviated to NZ First, is a nationalist and populist political party in New Zealand.
The 2008 New Zealand general election was held on 8 November 2008 to determine the composition of the 49th New Zealand parliament.
The 2011 New Zealand general election on Saturday 26 November 2011 determined the membership of the 50th New Zealand Parliament.
The New Zealand House of Representatives is a component of the New Zealand Parliament, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor-General).
Northern Cyprus (Kuzey Kıbrıs), officially the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC; Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti), is a partially recognised state that comprises the northeastern portion of the island of Cyprus.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
The 2009 parliamentary election was held in Norway on 13 and 14 September 2009.
A parliamentary election was held in Norway on 8 and 9 September 2013.
The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) is the parliamentary arm of the Council of Europe, a 47-nation international organisation dedicated to upholding human rights, democracy and the rule of law.
Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems emphasizing proportional representation (PR) in elections in which multiple candidates are elected (e.g., elections to parliament) through allocations to an electoral list.
Party-list representation in the House of Representatives of the Philippines refers to a system in which 20% of the House of Representatives is elected.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
The 2007 Philippine House of Representatives elections were held on May 14, 2007, to elect members to the House of Representatives of the Philippines to serve in the 14th Congress of the Philippines from June 30, 2007, until June 30, 2010.
The 2010 House of Representatives of the Philippines party-list election was on May 10, 2010.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Plurality voting is an electoral system in which each voter is allowed to vote for only one candidate, and the candidate who polls the most among their counterparts (a plurality) is elected.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Parliamentary elections to both the Sejm and Senate were held in Poland on 25 October 2015.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions into an electorate are reflected proportionately into the elected body.
Ranked voting describes certain voting systems in which voters rank outcomes in a hierarchy on the ordinal scale (ordinal voting systems).
Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Parliamentary elections were held in Russia on 17 December 1995.
Rwanda (U Rwanda), officially the Republic of Rwanda (Repubulika y'u Rwanda; République du Rwanda), is a sovereign state in Central and East Africa and one of the smallest countries on the African mainland.
San Marino, officially the Republic of San Marino (Repubblica di San Marino), also known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marino (Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino), is an enclaved microstate surrounded by Italy, situated on the Italian Peninsula on the northeastern side of the Apennine Mountains.
The Sejm of the Republic of Poland (Sejm Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is the lower house of the Polish parliament.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
The single transferable vote (STV) is a voting system designed to achieve proportional representation through ranked voting in multi-seat organizations or constituencies (voting districts).
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
The Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) is a social-democratic political party in Germany.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The spoiler effect is the effect of vote splitting between candidates or ballot questions who often have similar ideologies.
Palestine (فلسطين), officially the State of Palestine (دولة فلسطين), is a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East claiming the West Bank (bordering Israel and Jordan) and Gaza Strip (bordering Israel and Egypt) with East Jerusalem as the designated capital, although its administrative center is currently located in Ramallah.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Tehiya (תחיה, Revival), originally known as Banai (Hebrew: בנא"י, an acronym for Land of Israel Loyalists' Alliance (Hebrew: ברית נאמני ארץ ישראל)), then Tehiya-Bnai (Hebrew: תחייה-בנא"י), was an ultranationalist political party in Israel.
The True Path Party (Doğru Yol Partisi, DYP) was a centre-right political party in Turkey, active from 1983 to 2007.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Turkey's 14th general election was held on Sunday April 18, 1999 and was the first election in Turkish history to combine local, council and parliamentary elections on the same day.
The 15th Turkish general election was held on 3 November 2002 following the collapse of the DSP-MHP-ANAP coalition led by Bülent Ecevit.
Types of democracy refers to kinds of governments or social structures which allow people to participate equally, either directly or indirectly.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The Ukrainian parliamentary election took place on 26 March 2006.
Early parliamentary elections in Ukraine took place on 30 September 2007.
The United Left (Zjednoczona Lewica, ZL) was a political and electoral alliance of political parties in Poland.
Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a sovereign state in the southeastern region of South America.
The terms virtuous circle and vicious circle (also referred to as virtuous cycle and vicious cycle) refer to complex chains of events that reinforce themselves through a feedback loop.
The Young Party (Genç Parti, GENÇPARTİ) is a populist and liberal political party in Turkey.
Yumak and Sadak v. Turkey (application No. 10226/03) was a case before the European Court of Human Rights on the requirement for parties standing in Turking parliamentary elections to meet the threshold of 10% of the votes cast at Turkish parliamentary elections in order to gain seats, decided in 2008.