198 relations: Absentee ballot, Additional Member System, Afghanistan, Alexander Hamilton, Alternative Vote Plus, Andrew Inglis Clark, Apportionment (politics), Approval voting, Arrow's impossibility theorem, Athenian democracy, Australia, Ballot, Ballotage in Argentina, BC-STV, Belarus, Belarusian parliamentary election, 1995, Belgian general election, 1900, Belgium, Biproportional apportionment, Bolivia, Borda count, British Columbia electoral reform referendum, 2005, British Columbia electoral reform referendum, 2009, British Empire, Bucklin voting, Bulgarian referendum, 2016, Campaign finance, Cardinal voting, Carl Christoffer Georg Andræ, Closed list, Compulsory voting, Condorcet method, Condorcet paradox, Constitution, Contingent vote, Coombs' method, Copeland's method, CPO-STV, D'Hondt method, Daniel Webster, Denmark, Dodgson's method, Dominican Republic, Droop quota, Dual-member proportional representation, Economics, Ecuador, Ecuadorian referendum, 1994, Edward J. Nanson, Election audits, ..., Election commission, Election law, Election threshold, Electoral college, Electoral College (United States), Electoral district, Electoral reform, Electronic voting, Exhaustive ballot, FairVote, Federal Council (Switzerland), First-past-the-post voting, French Academy of Sciences, Game theory, General Assembly of Uruguay, Gerrymandering, Gibbard–Satterthwaite theorem, Gibraltar, Grand and General Council, Greece, Hagenbach-Bischoff quota, Hagenbach-Bischoff system, Hare quota, Highest averages method, History of democracy, Imperiali quota, Independence of clones criterion, India, Instant-runoff voting, Israel, Jordan, Kemeny–Young method, Kenya, Kuwait, Largest remainder method, Leveling seat, Lewis Carroll, Limited voting, List of electoral systems by country, Majority bonus system, Majority judgment, Malta, Marquis de Condorcet, Mathematics, Matrix vote, Mauritius, Maximal lotteries, Mechanism design, Minimax Condorcet method, Minnesota, Mixed electoral system, Mixed-member proportional representation, Nanson's method, Nauru, Netherlands, New Zealand, New Zealand general election, 1993, Nicolaus Tideman, Nomination rules, None of the above, Open ballot system, Open list, Ostracism, Overhang seat, Papua New Guinea, Parallel voting, Party-list proportional representation, Peter C. Fishburn, Pitcairn Islands, Plurality voting, Plurality-at-large voting, Poland, Polish referendum, 2015, Political science, Polling place, Positional voting, Postal voting, Primary election, Primary elections in Argentina, Primary elections in Italy, Primary elections in the United States, Progressive Era, Proportional approval voting, Proportional representation, Proxy voting, Prussian three-class franchise, Quorum, Ramon Llull, Range voting, Ranked pairs, Ranked voting, Redistricting, Republic of Ireland, Republic of Venice, Reserved political positions, Rhodesia, Rhodesian general election, 1965, Romania, Romanian electoral system referendum, 2007, Rotten and pocket boroughs, San Marino, Satisfaction approval voting, Schulze method, Schulze STV, Scorporo, Sequential proportional approval voting, Serbia, Serbian presidential election, 2003, Serbian presidential election, 2004, Serbian presidential election, December 2002, Serbian presidential election, September–October 2002, Single non-transferable vote, Single transferable vote, Social choice theory, Sortition, Southern Rhodesian general election, 1962, Spoiler effect, Sri Lanka, Steven Brams, Strategic nomination, Suffrage, Tasmania, Thomas Hare (political scientist), Thomas Jefferson, Trinidad and Tobago, Two-round system, United Kingdom, United Kingdom Alternative Vote referendum, 2011, United States, United States Constitution, United States House of Representatives, United States presidential election, 2000, United States presidential election, 2016, Universal suffrage, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venice, Vote counting, Vote splitting, Voter registration, Voter turnout, Voting, Voting age, Voting machine, Webster/Sainte-Laguë method, Weighted voting, William Robert Ware, Wright system. Expand index (148 more) » « Shrink index
An absentee ballot is a vote cast by someone who is unable or unwilling to attend the official polling station to which the voter is normally allocated.
The additional member system (AMS), also known as mixed-member proportional representation (MMP) outside the United Kingdom, is a mixed electoral system with one tier of single-member district representatives, and another tier of "additional members" elected to make the overall election results more proportional.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757July 12, 1804) was a statesman and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
The Alternative Vote Plus (AV+), or Alternative Vote Top-up, is a semi-proportional voting system.
Andrew Inglis Clark (24 February 1848 -14 November 1907) was an Australian Founding Father and the principal author of the Australian Constitution; he was also an engineer, barrister, politician, electoral reformer and jurist.
Apportionment is the process by which seats in a legislative body are distributed among administrative divisions entitled to representation.
Approval voting is a single-winner electoral system where each voter may select ("approve") any number of candidates.
In social choice theory, Arrow's impossibility theorem, the general possibility theorem or Arrow's paradox is an impossibility theorem stating that when voters have three or more distinct alternatives (options), no ranked voting electoral system can convert the ranked preferences of individuals into a community-wide (complete and transitive) ranking while also meeting a specified set of criteria: unrestricted domain, non-dictatorship, Pareto efficiency and independence of irrelevant alternatives.
Athenian democracy developed around the fifth century BC in the Greek city-state (known as a polis) of Athens, comprising the city of Athens and the surrounding territory of Attica, and is often described as the first known democracy in the world.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
A ballot is a device used to cast votes in an election, and may be a piece of paper or a small ball used in secret voting.
The ballotage system is included in the Constitution of Argentina.
BC-STV is the proposed voting system recommended by the Citizens' Assembly on Electoral Reform in October 2004 for use in British Columbia, and belongs to the single transferable vote family of voting systems.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Parliamentary elections were held in Belarus on 14 May 1995 to elect the thirteenth Supreme Council.
Full general elections were held in Belgium on 27 May 1900.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Biproportional apportionment is a method to allocate seats into a party-list proportional representation respecting two characteristics.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
The Borda count is a family of single-winner election methods in which voters rank options or candidates in order of preference.
A referendum was held in the Canadian province of British Columbia on May 17, 2005, to determine whether or not to adopt the recommendation of the Citizens' Assembly on Electoral Reform to replace the existing first-past-the-post electoral system (FPTP) with a single transferable vote system (BC-STV).
Following the 2005 electoral reform referendum, British Columbia held a second referendum on electoral reform in conjunction with the provincial election on May 12, 2009.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
Bucklin voting is a class of voting methods that can be used for single-member and multi-member districts.
A three-question referendum was held in Bulgaria on 6 November 2016 alongside presidential elections.
Campaign finance refers to all funds raised to promote candidates, political parties, or policy initiatives and referenda.
Cardinal voting refers to any electoral system which allows the voter to give each candidate an independent rating or grade.
Carl Christopher Georg Andræ (14 October 1812, Hjertebjerg – 2 February 1893) was a Danish politician and mathematician.
Closed list describes the variant of party-list proportional representation where voters can (effectively) only vote for political parties as a whole and thus have no influence on the party-supplied order in which party candidates are elected.
Compulsory voting refers to laws which require eligible citizens to register and vote in national and/or local elections.
A Condorcet method is an election method that elects the candidate that would win a majority of the vote in all of the head-to-head elections against each of the other candidates, whenever there is such a candidate.
The Condorcet paradox (also known as voting paradox or the paradox of voting) in social choice theory is a situation noted by the Marquis de Condorcet in the late 18th century, in which collective preferences can be cyclic, even if the preferences of individual voters are not cyclic.
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
The contingent vote is an electoral system used to elect a single winner, in which the voter ranks the candidates in order of preference.
Coombs' method (or the Coombs rule) is a ranked voting system created by Clyde Coombs used for single-winner elections.
Copeland's method or Copeland's pairwise aggregation method is a Condorcet method in which candidates are ordered by the number of pairwise victories, minus the number of pairwise defeats.
CPO-STV, or the Comparison of Pairs of Outcomes by the Single Transferable Vote, is a ranked voting system designed to achieve proportional representation.
The D'Hondt method or the Jefferson method is a highest averages method for allocating seats, and is thus a type of party-list proportional representation.
Daniel Webster (January 18, 1782October 24, 1852) was an American politician who represented New Hampshire (1813–1817) and Massachusetts (1823–1827) in the United States House of Representatives; served as a Senator from Massachusetts (1827–1841, 1845–1850); and was the United States Secretary of State under Presidents William Henry Harrison (1841), John Tyler (1841–1843), and Millard Fillmore (1850–1852).
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
Dodgson's method is an electoral system proposed by the author, mathematician and logician Charles Dodgson, better known as Lewis Carroll.
The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.
The Droop quota is the quota most commonly used in elections held under the single transferable vote (STV) system.
Dual-member proportional representation (DMP), also known as dual-member mixed proportional, is an electoral system designed to produce proportional election results across a region by electing two representatives in each of the region’s districts.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
A seven-part referendum was held in Ecuador on 28 August 1994.
Edward John Nanson (13 December 1850 – 1 July 1936) was a mathematician known for devising Nanson's method, a variation of the Borda count using successive elimination down to the winner.
Election auditing refers to any review conducted after polls close for the purpose of determining whether the votes were counted accurately (a results audit) or whether proper procedures were followed (a process audit), or both.
An election commission is a body charged with overseeing the implementation of election procedures.
Election law is a discipline falling at the juncture of constitutional law and political science.
The electoral threshold is the minimum share of the primary vote which a candidate or political party requires to achieve before they become entitled to any representation in a legislature.
An electoral college is a set of electors who are selected to elect a candidate to a particular office.
The United States Electoral College is the mechanism established by the United States Constitution for the election of the president and vice president of the United States by small groups of appointed representatives, electors, from each state and the District of Columbia.
An electoral district, (election) precinct, election district, or legislative district, called a voting district by the US Census (also known as a constituency, riding, ward, division, electoral area, or electorate) is a territorial subdivision for electing members to a legislative body.
Electoral reform is change in electoral systems to improve how public desires are expressed in election results.
Electronic voting (also known as e-voting) refers to voting using electronic means to either aid or take care of the chores of casting and counting votes.
The exhaustive ballot is a voting system used to elect a single winner.
FairVote (formerly the Center for Voting and Democracy) is a 501(c)(3) organization that advocates electoral reform in the United States.
The Federal Council is the seven-member executive council which constitutes the federal government of the Swiss Confederation and serves as the collective executive head of government and state of Switzerland.
A first-past-the-post (FPTP) voting method is one in which voters indicate on a ballot the candidate of their choice, and the candidate who receives the most votes wins.
The French Academy of Sciences (French: Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research.
Game theory is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers".
The General Assembly of Uruguay (Asamblea General) has two chambers.
Gerrymandering is a practice intended to establish a political advantage for a particular party or group by manipulating district boundaries.
In social choice theory, the Gibbard–Satterthwaite theorem is a result published independently by philosopher Allan Gibbard in 1973 and economist Mark Satterthwaite in 1975.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Grand and General Council (Consiglio Grande e Generale) is the parliament of San Marino.
The Hagenbach-Bischoff quota is a formula used in some voting systems based on proportional representation (PR).
The Hagenbach-Bischoff system is a variant of the D'Hondt method, used for allocating seats in party-list proportional representation.
The Hare quota (also known as the simple quota) is a formula used under some forms of the Single Transferable Vote (STV) system and the largest remainder method of party-list proportional representation.
The highest averages method or divisor method is the name for a variety of ways to allocate seats proportionally for representative assemblies with party list voting systems.
A democracy is a political system, or a system of decision-making within an institution or organization or a country, in which all members have an equal share of power.
The Imperiali quota is a formula used to calculate the minimum number, or quota, of votes required to capture a seat in some forms of single transferable vote or largest remainder method party-list proportional representation voting systems.
In voting systems theory, the independence of clones criterion measures an election method's robustness to strategic nomination.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Instant-runoff voting (IRV) is a voting method used in single-seat elections with more than two candidates.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
The Kemeny–Young method is an electoral system that uses preferential ballots and pairwise comparison counts to identify the most popular choices in an election.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.
The largest remainder method (also known as Hare-Niemeyer method, Hamilton method or as Vinton's method) is one way of allocating seats proportionally for representative assemblies with party list voting systems.
Leveling seats (Danish. Tillægsmandat, Swedish. Utjämningsmandat, Norwegian. Utjevningsmandater, Icelandic. Jöfnunarsæti, German. Ausgleichsmandat), commonly known also as adjustment seats, are an election mechanism employed for many years by all Scandinavian countries and Iceland in elections for their national legislatures.
Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by his pen name Lewis Carroll, was an English writer, mathematician, logician, Anglican deacon, and photographer.
Limited voting (also known as the limited vote method) is a voting system in which electors have fewer votes than there are positions available.
This table deals with voting to select candidates for office, not for the passing of legislation.
The majority bonus system (MBS) is a form of semi-proportional representation used in some European countries.
Majority judgment is a single-winner voting system proposed by Michel Balinski and Rida Laraki.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas de Caritat, Marquis of Condorcet (17 September 1743 – 29 March 1794), known as Nicolas de Condorcet, was a French philosopher, mathematician, and early political scientist whose Condorcet method in voting tally selects the candidate who would beat each of the other candidates in a run-off election.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
The matrix vote is a voting procedure which can be used when one group of people wishes to elect a smaller number of persons, each of whom is to have a different assignment.
Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.
Maximal lotteries refers to a probabilistic voting system first considered by Germain KrewerasG.
Mechanism design is a field in economics and game theory that takes an engineering approach to designing economic mechanisms or incentives, toward desired objectives, in strategic settings, where players act rationally.
In voting systems, the minimax method is one of several Condorcet methods used for tabulating votes and determining a winner when using ranked voting in a single-winner election.
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States.
A mixed electoral system is an electoral system that combines a plurality/majoritarian voting system with an element of proportional representation (PR).
Mixed-member proportional (MMP) representation is a mixed electoral system in which voters get two votes: one to decide the representative for their single-seat constituency, and one for a political party.
The Borda count can be combined with an instant-runoff procedure to create hybrid election methods that are called Nanson method and Baldwin method.
Nauru (Naoero, or), officially the Republic of Nauru (Repubrikin Naoero) and formerly known as Pleasant Island, is an island country in Micronesia, a subregion of Oceania, in the Central Pacific.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
The 1993 New Zealand general election was held on 6 November 1993 to determine the composition of the 44th New Zealand Parliament.
Thorwald Nicolaus Tideman (not; born August 11, 1943 in Chicago, Illinois) is a Georgist economist and professor at Virginia Tech.
Nomination rules in elections regulate the conditions under which a candidate or political party is entitled to stand for election.
"None of the above", or NOTA for short, also known as "against all" or a "scratch" vote, is a ballot option in some jurisdictions or organizations, designed to allow the voter to indicate disapproval of all of the candidates in a voting system.
In Nigeria, open ballot system, also known as Option A4, is a voting method in which voters vote openly by queuing or otherwise, indicating the candidate of their choice.
Open list describes any variant of party-list proportional representation where voters have at least some influence on the order in which a party's candidates are elected.
Ostracism (ὀστρακισμός, ostrakismos) was a procedure under the Athenian democracy in which any citizen could be expelled from the city-state of Athens for ten years.
Overhang seats can arise in elections under the traditional (i.e. as it originated in Germany) mixed member proportional (MMP) system, when a party is entitled to fewer seats as a result of party votes than it has won constituencies.
Papua New Guinea (PNG;,; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.
Parallel voting describes a mixed electoral system where voters in effect participate in two separate elections for a single chamber using different systems, and where the results in one election have little or no impact on the results of the other.
Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems emphasizing proportional representation (PR) in elections in which multiple candidates are elected (e.g., elections to parliament) through allocations to an electoral list.
Peter C. Fishburn (born 1936) is known as a pioneer in the field of decision-making processes.
The Pitcairn Islands (Pitkern: Pitkern Ailen), officially Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie and Oeno Islands, are a group of four volcanic islands in the southern Pacific Ocean that form the last British Overseas Territory in the South Pacific.
Plurality voting is an electoral system in which each voter is allowed to vote for only one candidate, and the candidate who polls the most among their counterparts (a plurality) is elected.
Plurality-at-large voting, also known as block vote or multiple non-transferable vote (MNTV), is a non-proportional voting system for electing several representatives from a single multimember electoral district using a series of check boxes and tallying votes similar to a plurality election.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
A three-part referendum was held in Poland on 6 September 2015.
Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.
A polling place is where voters cast their ballots in elections.
Positional voting is a ranked voting electoral system in which the options receive points based on their rank position on each ballot and the option with the most points overall wins.
Postal voting is voting in an election whereby ballot papers are distributed to electors or returned by post, in contrast to electors voting in person at a polling station or electronically via an electronic voting system.
A primary election is the process by which the general public can indicate their preference for a candidate in an upcoming general election or by-election, thus narrowing the field of candidates.
Primary elections in Argentina are called PASO (which stands for Primarias Abiertas Simultáneas y Obligatorias, Simultaneous and mandatory open primaries).
Primary elections were first introduced in Italy by Lega Nord in 1995, but were seldom used until before the 2005 regional elections.
Primary elections in the United States are elections in which the candidates for a particular office at federal, state or local level are chosen by registered voters in a particular jurisdiction.
The Progressive Era was a period of widespread social activism and political reform across the United States that spanned from the 1890s to the 1920s.
Proportional approval voting (PAV) is an electoral system which is an extension of approval voting to multiple-winner elections.
Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions into an electorate are reflected proportionately into the elected body.
Proxy voting is a form of voting whereby a member of a decision-making body may delegate his or her voting power to a representative, to enable a vote in absence.
The Prussian three-class franchise system (Dreiklassenwahlrecht) was introduced after the revolution of 1848 in the German states on 30 May 1849 by the government of the Prussian king, Friedrich Wilhelm IV.
A quorum is the minimum number of members of a deliberative assembly (a body that uses parliamentary procedure, such as a legislature) necessary to conduct the business of that group.
Ramon Llull, T.O.S.F. (c. 1232 – c. 1315; Anglicised Raymond Lully, Raymond Lull; in Latin Raimundus or Raymundus Lullus or Lullius) was a philosopher, logician, Franciscan tertiary and Spanish writer.
Range voting or score voting is an electoral system for single-seat elections, in which voters give each candidate a score, the scores are added (or, equivalently, averaged), and the candidate with the highest total is elected.
Ranked pairs (RP) or the Tideman method is an electoral system developed in 1987 by Nicolaus Tideman that selects a single winner using votes that express preferences.
Ranked voting describes certain voting systems in which voters rank outcomes in a hierarchy on the ordinal scale (ordinal voting systems).
Redistricting is the process of drawing electoral district boundaries in the United States.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
Several politico-constitutional arrangements use reserved political positions, especially when endeavoring to ensure the rights of minorities or preserving a political balance of power.
Rhodesia was an unrecognised state in southern Africa from 1965 to 1979, equivalent in territory to modern Zimbabwe.
General elections were held in Rhodesia on 7 May 1965.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
A referendum on changing the electoral system to a two-round system was held in Romania on 25 November 2007, on the same date as the election to the European Parliament.
A rotten or pocket borough, more formally known as a nomination borough or proprietorial borough, was a parliamentary borough or constituency in England, Great Britain, or the United Kingdom before the Reform Act 1832, which had a very small electorate and could be used by a patron to gain unrepresentative influence within the unreformed House of Commons.
San Marino, officially the Republic of San Marino (Repubblica di San Marino), also known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marino (Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino), is an enclaved microstate surrounded by Italy, situated on the Italian Peninsula on the northeastern side of the Apennine Mountains.
Satisfaction approval voting (SAV) is an electoral system that extends the concept of approval voting to a multiple winner election.
The Schulze method is an electoral system developed in 1997 by Markus Schulze that selects a single winner using votes that express preferences.
Schulze STV is a draft ranked voting system designed to achieve proportional representation.
Scorporo ("parceling out") is a mixed-member electoral system (sometimes referred to as an additional member system) whereby a portion of members are elected in single-member districts (SMDs) and a portion are elected from a list.
Sequential proportional approval voting (SPAV) or reweighted approval voting (RAV) is an electoral system that extends the concept of approval voting to a multiple winner election.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
The Serbian presidential election was held on 16 November 2003, a month before the December 2003 parliamentary election.
Serbia held the first round of its 2004 elections for President of Serbia on Sunday, 13 June 2004, and the second round on Sunday, 27 June 2004.
The Serbian presidential election, held on December 8, 2002, was a repeat of the first presidential election of that year, which was invalidated because the turnout during that round was less than 50% of all eligible voters.
Presidential elections were held in Serbia on 29 September 2002, with a second round on 13 October.
Single non-transferable vote or SNTV is an electoral system used in multi-member constituency elections.
The single transferable vote (STV) is a voting system designed to achieve proportional representation through ranked voting in multi-seat organizations or constituencies (voting districts).
Social choice theory or social choice is a theoretical framework for analysis of combining individual opinions, preferences, interests, or welfares to reach a collective decision or social welfare in some sense.
In governance, sortition (also known as allotment or demarchy) is the selection of political officials as a random sample from a larger pool of candidates.
The Southern Rhodesia general election of 1962 took place on 14 December 1962.
The spoiler effect is the effect of vote splitting between candidates or ballot questions who often have similar ideologies.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Steven J. Brams (born November 28, 1940 in Concord, New Hampshire) is an American game theorist and political scientist at the New York University Department of Politics.
Strategic nomination is the manipulation of an election by its candidate set.
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).
Tasmania (abbreviated as Tas and known colloquially as Tassie) is an island state of Australia.
Sir Thomas Hare (28 March 1806 in England – 6 May 1891) was a British proponent of electoral reform.
Thomas Jefferson (April 13, [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.
Trinidad and Tobago, officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island sovereign state that is the southernmost nation of the West Indies in the Caribbean.
The two-round system (also known as the second ballot, runoff voting or ballotage) is a voting method used to elect a single winner, where the voter casts a single vote for their chosen candidate.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Kingdom Alternative Vote referendum, also known as the UK-wide referendum on the Parliamentary voting system was held on Thursday 5 May 2011 (the same date as local elections in many areas) in the United Kingdom (UK) to choose the method of electing MPs at subsequent general elections as part of the Conservative – Liberal Democrat Coalition Agreement drawn up after the 2010 general election which had resulted in the first hung parliament since February 1974 and also indirectly in the aftermath of the 2009 expenses scandal under the provisions of the Parliamentary Voting System and Constituencies Act 2011 and was the first national referendum to be held under provisions laid out in the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.
The United States presidential election of 2000 was the 54th quadrennial presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 2016 was the 58th quadrennial American presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 2016.
The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.
Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a sovereign state in the southeastern region of South America.
Vanuatu (or; Bislama, French), officially the Republic of Vanuatu (République de Vanuatu, Bislama: Ripablik blong Vanuatu), is a Pacific island nation located in the South Pacific Ocean.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
There exist various methods through which the ballots cast at an election may be counted, prior to applying a voting system to obtain one or more winners.
Vote splitting is an electoral effect in which the distribution of votes among multiple similar candidates reduces the chance of winning for any of the similar candidates, and increases the chance of winning for a dissimilar candidate.
Voter registration (or enrollment) is the requirement that a person otherwise eligible to vote register (or enroll) on an electoral roll before they will be entitled or permitted to vote.
Voter turnout is the percentage of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election.
Voting is a method for a group, such as, a meeting or an electorate to make a decision or express an opinion, usually following discussions, debates or election campaigns.
A voting age is a minimum age established by law that a person must attain before they become eligible to vote in a public election.
A voting machine is a machine used to register and tabulate votes.
The Webster/Sainte-Laguë method, often simply Webster method or Sainte-Laguë method, is a highest quotient method for allocating seats in party-list proportional representation used in many voting systems.
Weighted voting is an electoral system in which not all voters have the same amount of influence over the outcome of an election.
William Robert Ware (27 May 1832 – 9 June 1915), born in Cambridge, Massachusetts into a family of the Unitarian clergy, was an American architect, author, and founder of two important American architectural schools.
The Wright system is a refinement of rules associated with proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote (PR-STV) electoral system.
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