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Electric battery

Index Electric battery

An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars. [1]

193 relations: AA battery, AAA battery, ABB Group, Alessandro Volta, Alkaline battery, Aluminium foil, Aluminium–air battery, Amateur radio, Ammonium chloride, Ampere, Ampere hour, Anode, Artillery battery, Automotive battery, Automotive industry, Baghdad Battery, Battery (vacuum tube), Battery Directive, Battery electric vehicle, Battery holder, Battery isolator, Battery management system, Battery nomenclature, Battery pack, Battery recycling, Battery regulations in the United Kingdom, Battery simulator, Battery terminal, Beaker (glassware), Benjamin Franklin, Biobattery, Boating, Bunsen cell, Button cell, C battery, Cadmium, Camcorder, Carbon, Cathode, Charge cycle, Chemical energy, Chromic acid cell, Circuit diagram, Clark cell, Comparison of commercial battery types, Concentration cell, Copper sulfate, Cordless telephone, Corrosion, Coulomb, ..., D battery, Daniell cell, Data center, Depolarizer, Depth of discharge, Digital camera, Dry cell, Duracell, Earthenware, Efficient energy use, Electric car, Electric charge, Electric current, Electric power, Electric vehicle battery, Electrical energy, Electrical grid, Electrical load, Electrical telegraph, Electricity, Electrochemical cell, Electrochemistry, Electrode, Electrolysis, Electrolyte, Electrolytic cell, Electromotive force, Electronic symbol, Electronic waste, Energy & Environmental Science, Energy density, Fairbanks, Alaska, Flashlight, Flow battery, Franklin Leonard Pope, Fuel, Fuel cell, Fuze, Galvanic cell, Gastrointestinal tract, Grid energy storage, Grove cell, Half-cell, Half-reaction, Hearing aid, Hebei, Hydrogen, International Electrotechnical Commission, Internet Archive, Ion, John B. Goodenough, John Frederic Daniell, Joule, Jumper cable, Laptop, Lead–acid battery, Leclanché cell, Lemon battery, Leyden jar, List of battery sizes, List of battery types, Lithium, Lithium battery, Lithium iron phosphate, Lithium iron phosphate battery, Lithium polymer battery, Lithium-ion battery, Lithium–sulfur battery, Magnesium, Manganese dioxide, Medical equipment, Memory effect, Mercury (element), Mercury battery, Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act, Michael Faraday, Moixa, Molten-salt battery, Nanoball batteries, Nanowire battery, Napoleon, Nickel oxyhydroxide battery, Nickel–cadmium battery, Nickel–metal hydride battery, Nickel–zinc battery, Nine-volt battery, Ohm, Open-circuit voltage, Oxford Electric Bell, Oxygen, Paper towel, Penny, Peukert's law, Power density, Power tool, Primary cell, Rechargeable battery, Recycling, Redox, Reduction potential, Refrigerator, Reserve battery, Room temperature, Saline water, Search for the Super Battery, Series and parallel circuits, Shelf life, Short circuit, Silver-oxide battery, Smart Battery, Smartphone, Sodium–sulfur battery, Solid-state battery, Sony, Specific energy, State of charge, State of health, Submarine, Sulfuric acid, Swallowing, Switchgear, Telegraphy, Telephone exchange, Tesla, Inc., The New York Times, Trickle charging, Two-way radio, Uninterruptible power supply, University of Texas at Austin, USB, Volt, Voltage, Voltaic pile, VRLA battery, Water-activated battery, Weston cell, Wind power, Zamboni pile, Zinc, Zinc chloride, Zinc–air battery, Zinc–carbon battery, 1,000,000,000. Expand index (143 more) »

AA battery

The AA battery—also called a double A or Mignon (French for "dainty") battery—is a standard size single cell cylindrical dry battery.

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AAA battery

An AAA or triple-A battery is a standard size of dry cell battery commonly used in low-drain portable electronic devices.

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ABB Group

ABB (ASEA Brown Boveri) is a Swedish-Swiss multinational corporation headquartered in Zurich, Switzerland, operating mainly in robotics, power, heavy electrical equipments, and automation technology areas.

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Alessandro Volta

Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (18 February 1745 – 5 March 1827) was an Italian physicist, chemist, and a pioneer of electricity and power,Giuliano Pancaldi, "Volta: Science and culture in the age of enlightenment", Princeton University Press, 2003.

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Alkaline battery

No description.

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Aluminium foil

Aluminium foil (or aluminum foil), often referred to with the misnomer tin foil, is aluminium prepared in thin metal leaves with a thickness less than; thinner gauges down to are also commonly used.

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Aluminium–air battery

Aluminium–air batteries (Al–air batteries) produce electricity from the reaction of oxygen in the air with aluminium.

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Amateur radio

Amateur radio, also known as ham radio, describes the use of radio frequency spectrum for purposes of non-commercial exchange of messages, wireless experimentation, self-training, private recreation, radiosport, contesting, and emergency communication.

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Ammonium chloride

Ammonium chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4Cl and a white crystalline salt that is highly soluble in water.

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The ampere (symbol: A), often shortened to "amp",SI supports only the use of symbols and deprecates the use of abbreviations for units.

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Ampere hour

An ampere hour or amp hour (symbol Ah; also denoted A⋅h or A h) is a unit of electric charge, having dimensions of electric current multiplied by time, equal to the charge transferred by a steady current of one ampere flowing for one hour, or 3600 coulombs.

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An anode is an electrode through which the conventional current enters into a polarized electrical device.

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Artillery battery

In military organizations, an artillery battery is a unit of artillery, mortars, rocket artillery, multiple rocket launchers, surface to surface missiles, ballistic missiles, cruise missiles etc, so grouped to facilitate better battlefield communication and command and control, as well as to provide dispersion for its constituent gunnery crews and their systems.

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Automotive battery

An automotive battery is a rechargeable battery that supplies electrical current to a motor vehicle.

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Automotive industry

The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing, and selling of motor vehicles, some of them are called automakers.

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Baghdad Battery

The Baghdad Battery or Parthian Battery is a set of three artifacts which were found together: a ceramic pot, a tube of copper, and a rod of iron.

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Battery (vacuum tube)

In the early days of electronics, vacuum tube (called valves in British contexts) devices (such as radios) were powered by batteries.

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Battery Directive

The Directive 2006/66/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 September 2006 on batteries and accumulators and waste batteries and accumulators and repealing Directive 91/157/EEC, commonly known as the Battery Directive, regulates the manufacture and disposal of batteries in the European Union with the aim of "improving the environmental performance of batteries and accumulators".

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Battery electric vehicle

A battery electric vehicle (BEV), or all-electric vehicle is a type of electric vehicle (EV) that uses chemical energy stored in rechargeable battery packs.

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Battery holder

A battery holder is one or more compartments or chambers for holding a battery.

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Battery isolator

A battery isolator is an electrical device that divides direct current (DC) into multiple branches and only allows current in one direction in each branch.

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Battery management system

A battery management system (BMS) is any electronic system that manages a rechargeable battery (cell or battery pack), such as by protecting the battery from operating outside its Safe Operating Area, monitoring its state, calculating secondary data, reporting that data, controlling its environment, authenticating it and / or balancing it.

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Battery nomenclature

Standard battery nomenclature describes portable dry cell batteries that have physical dimensions and electrical characteristics interchangeable between manufacturers.

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Battery pack

A battery pack is a set of any number of (preferably) identical batteries or individual battery cells.

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Battery recycling

Battery recycling is a recycling activity that aims to reduce the number of batteries being disposed as municipal solid waste.

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Battery regulations in the United Kingdom

In a similar vein to packaging, electronic equipment and vehicles, the concept of extended producer responsibility was applied to Batteries in the UK through the transposition of the EU Battery Directive into UK legislation.

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Battery simulator

The battery simulator is a simple and flexible electronic device, designed to test battery chargers of any voltage and power quickly and easily.

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Battery terminal

Battery terminals are the electrical contacts used to connect a load or charger to a single cell or multiple-cell battery.

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Beaker (glassware)

A beaker is a generally cylindrical container with a flat bottom.

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Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.

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A bio-battery is an energy storing device that is powered by organic compounds, usually being glucose, such as the glucose in human blood.

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Boating is the leisurely activity of travelling by boat, or the recreational use of a boat whether powerboats, sailboats, or man-powered vessels (such as rowing and paddle boats), focused on the travel itself, as well as sports activities, such as fishing or waterskiing.

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Bunsen cell

The Bunsen cell is a zinc-carbon primary cell (colloquially called a "battery") composed of a zinc anode in dilute sulfuric acid separated by a porous pot from a carbon cathode in nitric or chromic acid.

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Button cell

A watch battery or button cell is a small single cell battery shaped as a squat cylinder typically in diameter and high — like a button on a garment, hence the name.

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C battery

The C' battery (or R14 battery) is a standard size of dry cell battery typically used in medium-drain applications such as toys, flashlights, and musical instruments.

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Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.

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A camcorder is an electronic device originally combining a video camera and a videocassette recorder.

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Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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A cathode is the electrode from which a conventional current leaves a polarized electrical device.

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Charge cycle

A charge cycle is the process of charging a rechargeable battery and discharging it as required into a load.

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Chemical energy

In chemistry, chemical energy is the potential of a chemical substance to undergo a transformation through a chemical reaction to transform other chemical substances.

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Chromic acid cell

The Chromic acid cell was a type of primary cell which used chromic acid as a depolarizer.

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Circuit diagram

A circuit diagram (electrical diagram, elementary diagram, electronic schematic) is a graphical representation of an electrical circuit.

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Clark cell

The Clark cell, invented by English engineer Josiah Latimer Clark in 1873, is a wet-chemical cell (colloquially: battery) that produces a highly stable voltage.

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Comparison of commercial battery types

No description.

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Concentration cell

In battery technology, a concentration cell is a limited form of a galvanic cell that has two equivalent half-cells of the same composition differing only in concentrations.

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Copper sulfate

Copper sulfate may refer to.

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Cordless telephone

A cordless telephone or portable telephone is a telephone in which the handset is portable and communicates with the body of the phone by radio, instead of being attached by a cord.

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Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.

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The coulomb (symbol: C) is the International System of Units (SI) unit of electric charge.

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D battery

A D battery (D cell or IEC R20) is a size of dry cell.

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Daniell cell

The Daniell cell is a type of electrochemical cell invented in 1836 by John Frederic Daniell, a British chemist and meteorologist, and consisted of a copper pot filled with a copper (II) sulfate solution, in which was immersed an unglazed earthenware container filled with sulfuric acid and a zinc electrode.

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Data center

A data center (American English) or data centre (Commonwealth English) is a facility used to house computer systems and associated components, such as telecommunications and storage systems.

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A depolarizer or depolariser, in electrochemistry, according to an IUPAC definition, is a synonym of electroactive substance, i.e., a substance which changes its oxidation state, or partakes in a formation or breaking of chemical bonds, in a charge-transfer step of an electrochemical reaction.

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Depth of discharge

Depth of Discharge (DoD) is an alternate method to indicate a battery's state of charge (SoC).

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Digital camera

A digital camera or digicam is a camera that captures photographs in digital memory.

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Dry cell

A dry cell is a type of battery, commonly used for portable electrical devices.

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Duracell Inc. is an American manufacturing company owned by Berkshire Hathaway that produces batteries and smart power systems.

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Earthenware is glazed or unglazed nonvitreous pottery that has normally been fired below 1200°C.

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Efficient energy use

Efficient energy use, sometimes simply called energy efficiency, is the goal to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services.

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Electric car

An electric car is a plug-in electric automobile that is propelled by one or more electric motors, using energy typically stored in rechargeable batteries.

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Electric charge

Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.

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Electric current

An electric current is a flow of electric charge.

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Electric power

Electric power is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit.

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Electric vehicle battery

An electric-vehicle battery (EVB) or traction battery is a battery used to power the propulsion of battery electric vehicles (BEVs).

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Electrical energy

Electrical energy is the energy newly derived from electric potential energy or kinetic energy.

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Electrical grid

An electrical grid is an interconnected network for delivering electricity from producers to consumers.

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Electrical load

An electrical load is an electrical component or portion of a circuit that consumes (active) electric power.

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Electrical telegraph

An electrical telegraph is a telegraph that uses electrical signals, usually conveyed via dedicated telecommunication circuit or radio.

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Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.

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Electrochemical cell

An electrochemical cell (EC) is a device capable of either generating electrical energy from chemical reactions or using electrical energy to cause chemical reactions.

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Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa.

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An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air).

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In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.

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An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.

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Electrolytic cell

An electrolytic cell is an electrochemical cell that drives a non-spontaneous redox reaction through the application of electrical energy.

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Electromotive force

Electromotive force, abbreviated emf (denoted \mathcal and measured in volts), is the electrical intensity or "pressure" developed by a source of electrical energy such as a battery or generator.

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Electronic symbol

An electronic symbol is a pictogram used to represent various electrical and electronic devices or functions, such as wires, batteries, resistors, and transistors, in a schematic diagram of an electrical or electronic circuit.

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Electronic waste

Electronic waste or e-waste describes discarded electrical or electronic devices.

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Energy & Environmental Science

Energy & Environmental Science is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing original (primary) research and review articles.

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Energy density

Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume.

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Fairbanks, Alaska

Fairbanks is a home rule city and the borough seat of the Fairbanks North Star Borough in the U.S. state of Alaska.

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A flashlight (more often called a torch outside North America) is a portable hand-held electric light.

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Flow battery

A flow battery, or redox flow battery (after reduction–oxidation), is a type of electrochemical cell where chemical energy is provided by two chemical components dissolved in liquids contained within the system and separated by a membrane.

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Franklin Leonard Pope

Franklin Leonard Pope (2 December 1840 – 13 October 1895) was an American engineer, explorer, and inventor.

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A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work.

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Fuel cell

A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through an electrochemical reaction of hydrogen fuel with oxygen or another oxidizing agent.

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In military munitions, a fuze (sometimes fuse) is the part of the device that initiates function.

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Galvanic cell

A galvanic cell, or voltaic cell, named after Luigi Galvani, or Alessandro Volta respectively, is an electrochemical cell that derives electrical energy from spontaneous redox reactions taking place within the cell.

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Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.

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Grid energy storage

Grid energy storage (also called large-scale energy storage) is a collection of methods used to store electrical energy on a large scale within an electrical power grid.

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Grove cell

The Grove cell was an early electric primary cell named after its inventor, Welsh physical scientist William Robert Grove, and consisted of a zinc anode in dilute sulfuric acid and a platinum cathode in concentrated nitric acid, the two separated by a porous ceramic pot.

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A half-cell is a structure that contains a conductive electrode and a surrounding conductive electrolyte separated by a naturally occurring Helmholtz double layer.

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A half reaction is either the oxidation or reduction reaction component of a redox reaction.

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Hearing aid

A hearing aid is a device designed to improve hearing by making sound audible to a person with hearing loss.

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Hebei (postal: Hopeh) is a province of China in the North China region.

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Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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International Electrotechnical Commission

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC; in French: Commission électrotechnique internationale) is an international standards organization that prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies – collectively known as "electrotechnology".

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Internet Archive

The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books.

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An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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John B. Goodenough

John Bannister Goodenough (born 25 July 1922 in Jena, Germany) is a German-born American professor and solid-state physicist.

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John Frederic Daniell

John Frederic Daniell FRS (12 March 1790 – 13 March 1845) was an English chemist and physicist.

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The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.

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Jumper cable

Jumper cables are electric cables to connect two rail or road vehicles.

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A laptop, also called a notebook computer or just notebook, is a small, portable personal computer with a "clamshell" form factor, having, typically, a thin LCD or LED computer screen mounted on the inside of the upper lid of the "clamshell" and an alphanumeric keyboard on the inside of the lower lid.

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Lead–acid battery

The lead–acid battery was invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planté and is the oldest type of rechargeable battery.

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Leclanché cell

The Leclanché cell is a battery invented and patented by the French scientist Georges Leclanché in 1866.

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Lemon battery

A lemon battery is a simple battery often made for the purpose of education.

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Leyden jar

A Leyden jar (or Leiden jar) stores a high-voltage electric charge (from an external source) between electrical conductors on the inside and outside of a glass jar.

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List of battery sizes

This article lists the sizes, shapes, and general characteristics of some common primary and secondary battery types in household and light industrial use.

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List of battery types

This page is a list of notable battery types grouped by types of battery.

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Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.

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Lithium battery

Lithium batteries are primary batteries that have lithium as an anode.

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Lithium iron phosphate

Lithium iron phosphate, also known as LFP, is an inorganic compound with the formula.

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Lithium iron phosphate battery

The lithium iron phosphate battery, also called LFP battery (with "LFP" standing for "lithium ferrophosphate"), is a type of rechargeable battery, specifically a lithium-ion battery, which uses 4 as a cathode material, and a graphitic carbon electrode with a metallic current collector grid as the anode.

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Lithium polymer battery

A lithium polymer battery, or more correctly lithium-ion polymer battery (abbreviated as LiPo, LIP, Li-poly, lithium-poly and others), is a rechargeable battery of lithium-ion technology using a polymer electrolyte instead of a liquid electrolyte.

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Lithium-ion battery

A lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery (abbreviated as LIB) is a type of rechargeable battery in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge and back when charging.

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Lithium–sulfur battery

The lithium–sulfur battery (Li–S battery) is a type of rechargeable battery, notable for its high specific energy.

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Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.

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Manganese dioxide

Manganese(IV) oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula.

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Medical equipment

Medical equipment (also known as armamentarium) is designed to aid in the diagnosis, monitoring or treatment of medical conditions.

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Memory effect

Memory effect, also known as battery effect, lazy battery effect, or battery memory, is an effect observed in nickel-cadmium and nickel–metal hydride rechargeable batteries that causes them to hold less charge.

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Mercury (element)

Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.

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Mercury battery

A mercury battery (also called mercuric oxide battery, or mercury cell) is a non-rechargeable electrochemical battery, a primary cell.

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Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act

In the United States, the Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act (the Battery Act) (Public law 104-142) was signed into law on May 13, 1996.

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Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.

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Moixa is a British technology company, founded by Simon Daniel and Chris Wright in 2004, which focuses on energy innovation.

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Molten-salt battery

Molten-salt batteries (including liquid-metal batteries) are a class of battery that uses molten salts as an electrolyte and offers both a high energy density and a high power density.

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Nanoball batteries

Nanoball batteries are an experimental type of battery with either the cathode or anode made of nanosized balls that can be composed of various materials such as carbon and lithium iron phosphate.

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Nanowire battery

A nanowire battery uses nanowires to increase the surface area of one or both of its electrodes.

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Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.

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Nickel oxyhydroxide battery

Nickel oxyhydroxide battery (abbr. NiOx, IEC code: Z) is a type of primary cell.

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Nickel–cadmium battery

The nickel–cadmium battery (NiCd battery or NiCad battery) is a type of rechargeable battery using nickel oxide hydroxide and metallic cadmium as electrodes.

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Nickel–metal hydride battery

A nickel metal hydride battery, abbreviated NiMH or Ni–MH, is a type of rechargeable battery.

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Nickel–zinc battery

A nickel–zinc battery, abbreviated NiZn, is a type of rechargeable battery similar to NiMH batteries, but with a higher voltage of 1.6 V.

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Nine-volt battery

The nine-volt battery, or 9-volt battery, is a common size of battery that was introduced for the early transistor radios.

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The ohm (symbol: Ω) is the SI derived unit of electrical resistance, named after German physicist Georg Simon Ohm.

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Open-circuit voltage

Open-circuit voltage (abbreviated as OCV or VOC) is the difference of electrical potential between two terminals of a device when disconnected from any circuit.

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Oxford Electric Bell

The Oxford Electric Bell or Clarendon Dry Pile is an experimental electric bell that was set up in 1840 and which has run nearly continuously ever since.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Paper towel

A kitchen roll (or kitchen paper) is an absorbent towel made from tissue paper instead of cloth.

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A penny is a coin (. pennies) or a unit of currency (pl. pence) in various countries.

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Peukert's law

Peukert's law, presented by the German scientist Wilhelm Peukert in 1897, expresses approximately the change in capacity of rechargeable lead–acid batteries at different rates of discharge.

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Power density

Power density (or volume power density or volume specific power) is the amount of power (time rate of energy transfer) per unit volume.

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Power tool

A power tool is a tool that is actuated by an additional power source and mechanism other than the solely manual labor used with hand tools.

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Primary cell

A primary cell is a battery that is designed to be used once and discarded, and not recharged with electricity and reused like a secondary cell (rechargeable battery).

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Rechargeable battery

A rechargeable battery, storage battery, secondary cell, or accumulator is a type of electrical battery which can be charged, discharged into a load, and recharged many times, as opposed to a disposable or primary battery, which is supplied fully charged and discarded after use.

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Recycling is the process of converting waste materials into new materials and objects.

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Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.

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Reduction potential

Reduction potential (also known as redox potential, oxidation / reduction potential, ORP, pE, ε, or E_) is a measure of the tendency of a chemical species to acquire electrons and thereby be reduced.

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A refrigerator (colloquially fridge, or fridgefreezer in the UK) is a popular household appliance that consists of a thermally insulated compartment and a heat pump (mechanical, electronic or chemical) that transfers heat from the inside of the fridge to its external environment so that the inside of the fridge is cooled to a temperature below the ambient temperature of the room.

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Reserve battery

A reserve battery, also called stand-by battery, is a primary battery where part is isolated until the battery needs to be used.

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Room temperature

Colloquially, room temperature is the range of air temperatures that most people prefer for indoor settings, which feel comfortable when wearing typical indoor clothing.

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Saline water

Saline water (more commonly known as salt water) is water that contains a high concentration of dissolved salts (mainly NaCl).

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Search for the Super Battery

Search for the Super Battery: discover the powerful world of batteries is a 2017 American documentary film about energy storage and how it may help provide an environmentally friendly, or green, future.

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Series and parallel circuits

Components of an electrical circuit or electronic circuit can be connected in many different ways.

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Shelf life

Shelf life is the length of time that a commodity may be stored without becoming unfit for use, consumption, or sale.

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Short circuit

A short circuit (sometimes abbreviated to short or s/c) is an electrical circuit that allows a current to travel along an unintended path with no or a very low electrical impedance.

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Silver-oxide battery

A silver-oxide battery (IEC code: S) is a primary cell with a very high energy-to-weight ratio.

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Smart Battery

A smart battery or a smart battery pack is a rechargeable battery pack with a built-in battery management system (BMS), usually designed for use in a portable computer such as a laptop.

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A smartphone is a handheld personal computer with a mobile operating system and an integrated mobile broadband cellular network connection for voice, SMS, and Internet data communication; most, if not all, smartphones also support Wi-Fi.

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Sodium–sulfur battery

A sodium–sulfur battery is a type of molten-salt battery constructed from liquid sodium (Na) and sulfur (S).

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Solid-state battery

Solid-state battery is a battery technology that uses both solid electrodes and solid electrolytes, instead of the liquid or polymer electrolytes found in Lithium-ion or Lithium polymer batteries.

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is a Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Kōnan, Minato, Tokyo.

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Specific energy

Specific energy is energy per unit mass.

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State of charge

State of charge (SoC) is the equivalent of a fuel gauge for the battery pack in a battery electric vehicle (BEV), hybrid vehicle (HV), or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV).

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State of health

State of health (SoH) is a figure of merit of the condition of a battery (or a cell, or a battery pack), compared to its ideal conditions.

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A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.

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Sulfuric acid

Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.

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Swallowing, sometimes called deglutition in scientific contexts, is the process in the human or animal body that allows for a substance to pass from the mouth, to the pharynx, and into the esophagus, while shutting the epiglottis.

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In an electric power system, switchgear is the combination of electrical disconnect switches, fuses or circuit breakers used to control, protect and isolate electrical equipment.

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Telegraphy (from Greek: τῆλε têle, "at a distance" and γράφειν gráphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message.

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Telephone exchange

A telephone exchange is a telecommunications system used in the public switched telephone network or in large enterprises.

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Tesla, Inc.

Tesla, Inc. (formerly Tesla Motors) was founded in 2003, and is an American multinational corporation based in Palo Alto, California, that specializes in electric vehicles, lithium-ion battery energy storage and solar panel manufacturing (through the subsidiary company SolarCity).

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Trickle charging

Trickle charging means charging a fully charged battery at a rate equal to its self-discharge rate, thus enabling the battery to remain at its fully charged level; this state occurs almost exclusively when the battery is not loaded, as trickle charging will not keep a battery charged if current is being drawn by a load.

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Two-way radio

A two-way radio is a radio that can do both transmit and receive a signal (a transceiver), unlike a broadcast receiver which only receives content.

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Uninterruptible power supply

An uninterruptible power supply or uninterruptible power source (UPS) is an electrical apparatus that provides emergency power to a load when the input power source or mains power fails.

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University of Texas at Austin

The University of Texas at Austin (UT, UT Austin, or Texas) is a public research university and the flagship institution of the University of Texas System.

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USB (abbreviation of Universal Serial Bus), is an industry standard that was developed to define cables, connectors and protocols for connection, communication, and power supply between personal computers and their peripheral devices.

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The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.

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Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.

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Voltaic pile

The voltaic pile was the first electrical battery that could continuously provide an electric current to a circuit.

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VRLA battery

A valve-regulated lead-acid battery (VRLA battery) sometimes called sealed lead-acid (SLA), gel cell, or maintenance free battery. Due to their construction, the gel and absorbent glass mat (AGM) types of VRLA can be mounted in any orientation, and do not require constant maintenance.

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Water-activated battery

A water-activated battery is a disposable reserve battery that does not contain an electrolyte and hence produces no voltage until it is soaked in water for several minutes.

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Weston cell

The Weston cell is a wet-chemical cell that produces a highly stable voltage suitable as a laboratory standard for calibration of voltmeters.

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Wind power

Wind power is the use of air flow through wind turbines to mechanically power generators for electricity.

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Zamboni pile

The Zamboni pile (also referred to as a Duluc Dry Pile) is an early electric battery, invented by Giuseppe Zamboni in 1812.

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Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.

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Zinc chloride

Zinc chloride is the name of chemical compounds with the formula ZnCl2 and its hydrates.

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Zinc–air battery

Zinc–air batteries (non-rechargeable; IEC codes: A, P), and zinc–air fuel cells (mechanically rechargeable) are metal-air batteries powered by oxidizing zinc with oxygen from the air.

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Zinc–carbon battery

A zinc–carbon battery is a dry cell primary battery that delivers about 1.5 volts of direct current from the electrochemical reaction between zinc and manganese dioxide.

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1,000,000,000 (one billion, short scale; one thousand million or milliard, yard, long scale) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_battery

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