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Electrical impedance

Index Electrical impedance

Electrical impedance is the measure of the opposition that a circuit presents to a current when a voltage is applied. [1]

85 relations: Admittance, Alternating current, Ampere, Antenna (radio), Arthur E. Kennelly, Bioelectrical impedance analysis, Bridge circuit, Capacitance, Capacitor, Cartesian coordinate system, Characteristic impedance, Complex number, Current divider, Dielectric, Dimensional analysis, Direct current, Electric charge, Electric current, Electric field, Electrical characteristics of dynamic loudspeakers, Electrical network, Electrical reactance, Electrical resistance and conductance, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electromotive force, Equivalent impedance transforms, Euler's formula, Faraday's law of induction, Fast Fourier transform, Fourier analysis, Frequency, Frequency domain, High impedance, Imaginary number, Imaginary unit, Immittance, Impedance bridging, Impedance cardiography, Impedance control, Impedance matching, Impedance microbiology, Impedance parameters, In-phase and quadrature components, Inductance, Inductor, Insulator (electricity), International System of Units, Laplace transform, LC circuit, LCR meter, ..., Linear time-invariant theory, Magnetic field, Multiplicative inverse, Negative impedance converter, Norton's theorem, Ohm, Ohm's law, Oliver Heaviside, Phase (waves), Phase angle, Phase factor, Polar coordinate system, Port (circuit theory), Potential, Proportionality (mathematics), Radio, Ratio, Real number, Reflection coefficient, Resistance distance, Resistor, S-plane, Short circuit, Siemens (unit), Signal, Sine wave, Standing wave ratio, Superposition principle, Thévenin's theorem, Time domain, Tuner (radio), Varicap, Voltage, Voltage divider, Wheatstone bridge. Expand index (35 more) »


In electrical engineering, admittance is a measure of how easily a circuit or device will allow a current to flow.

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Alternating current

Alternating current (AC) is an electric current which periodically reverses direction, in contrast to direct current (DC) which flows only in one direction.

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The ampere (symbol: A), often shortened to "amp",SI supports only the use of symbols and deprecates the use of abbreviations for units.

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Antenna (radio)

In radio, an antenna is the interface between radio waves propagating through space and electric currents moving in metal conductors, used with a transmitter or receiver.

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Arthur E. Kennelly

Arthur Edwin Kennelly (December 17, 1861 – June 18, 1939), was an Irish-American electrical engineer.

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Bioelectrical impedance analysis

Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a commonly used method for estimating body composition, and in particular body fat.

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Bridge circuit

A bridge circuit is a topology of electrical circuitry in which two circuit branches (usually in parallel with each other) are "bridged" by a third branch connected between the first two branches at some intermediate point along them.

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Capacitance is the ratio of the change in an electric charge in a system to the corresponding change in its electric potential.

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A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores potential energy in an electric field.

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Cartesian coordinate system

A Cartesian coordinate system is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances to the point from two fixed perpendicular directed lines, measured in the same unit of length.

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Characteristic impedance

The characteristic impedance or surge impedance (usually written Z0) of a uniform transmission line is the ratio of the amplitudes of voltage and current of a single wave propagating along the line; that is, a wave travelling in one direction in the absence of reflections in the other direction.

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Complex number

A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form, where and are real numbers, and is a solution of the equation.

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Current divider

In electronics, a current divider is a simple linear circuit that produces an output current (IX) that is a fraction of its input current (IT).

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A dielectric (or dielectric material) is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field.

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Dimensional analysis

In engineering and science, dimensional analysis is the analysis of the relationships between different physical quantities by identifying their base quantities (such as length, mass, time, and electric charge) and units of measure (such as miles vs. kilometers, or pounds vs. kilograms) and tracking these dimensions as calculations or comparisons are performed.

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Direct current

Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge.

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Electric charge

Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.

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Electric current

An electric current is a flow of electric charge.

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Electric field

An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.

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Electrical characteristics of dynamic loudspeakers

The chief electrical characteristic of a dynamic loudspeaker's driver is its electrical impedance as a function of frequency.

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Electrical network

An electrical network is an interconnection of electrical components (e.g. batteries, resistors, inductors, capacitors, switches) or a model of such an interconnection, consisting of electrical elements (e.g. voltage sources, current sources, resistances, inductances, capacitances).

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Electrical reactance

In electrical and electronic systems, reactance is the opposition of a circuit element to a change in current or voltage, due to that element's inductance or capacitance.

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Electrical resistance and conductance

The electrical resistance of an electrical conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through that conductor.

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Electrical resistivity and conductivity

Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.

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Electromotive force

Electromotive force, abbreviated emf (denoted \mathcal and measured in volts), is the electrical intensity or "pressure" developed by a source of electrical energy such as a battery or generator.

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Equivalent impedance transforms

An equivalent impedance is an equivalent circuit of an electrical network of impedance elements which presents the same impedance between all pairs of terminals as did the given network.

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Euler's formula

Euler's formula, named after Leonhard Euler, is a mathematical formula in complex analysis that establishes the fundamental relationship between the trigonometric functions and the complex exponential function.

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Faraday's law of induction

Faraday's law of induction is a basic law of electromagnetism predicting how a magnetic field will interact with an electric circuit to produce an electromotive force (EMF)—a phenomenon called electromagnetic induction.

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Fast Fourier transform

A fast Fourier transform (FFT) is an algorithm that samples a signal over a period of time (or space) and divides it into its frequency components.

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Fourier analysis

In mathematics, Fourier analysis is the study of the way general functions may be represented or approximated by sums of simpler trigonometric functions.

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Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.

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Frequency domain

In electronics, control systems engineering, and statistics, the frequency domain refers to the analysis of mathematical functions or signals with respect to frequency, rather than time.

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High impedance

In electronics, high impedance means that a point in a circuit (a node) allows a relatively small amount of current through, per unit of applied voltage at that point.

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Imaginary number

An imaginary number is a complex number that can be written as a real number multiplied by the imaginary unit,j is usually used in Engineering contexts where i has other meanings (such as electrical current) which is defined by its property.

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Imaginary unit

The imaginary unit or unit imaginary number is a solution to the quadratic equation.

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In electrical engineering and acoustics, immittance is a concept combining the '''im'''pedance and ad'''mittance''' of a system or circuit.

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Impedance bridging

In electronics, especially audio and sound recording, a high impedance bridging, voltage bridging, or simply bridging connection is one in which the load impedance is much larger than the source impedance.

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Impedance cardiography

Impedance cardiography (ICG) is a noninvasive technology measuring total electrical conductivity of the thorax and its changes in time to process continuously a number of cardiodynamic parameters, such as Stroke Volume, SV, Heart Rate, HR, Cardiac Output, CO, Ventricular Ejection Time, VET, Pre-ejection Period and used to detect the impedance changes caused by a high-frequency, low magnitude current flowing through the thorax between additional two pairs of electrodes located outside of the measured segment.

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Impedance control

Impedance control is an approach to the control of dynamic interaction between a manipulator and its environment.

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Impedance matching

In electronics, impedance matching is the practice of designing the input impedance of an electrical load or the output impedance of its corresponding signal source to maximize the power transfer or minimize signal reflection from the load.

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Impedance microbiology

Impedance microbiology is a rapid microbiological technique used to measure the microbial number density (mainly bacteria but also yeasts) of a sample by monitoring the electrical parameters of the growth medium.

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Impedance parameters

Impedance parameters or Z-parameters (the elements of an impedance matrix or Z-matrix) are properties used in electrical engineering, electronic engineering, and communication systems engineering to describe the electrical behavior of linear electrical networks.

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In-phase and quadrature components

In electrical engineering, a sinusoid with angle modulation can be decomposed into, or synthesized from, two amplitude-modulated sinusoids that are offset in phase by one-quarter cycle (/2 radians).

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In electromagnetism and electronics, inductance is the property of an electrical conductor by which a change in electric current through it induces an electromotive force (voltage) in the conductor.

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An inductor, also called a coil, choke or reactor, is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores energy in a magnetic field when electric current flows through it.

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Insulator (electricity)

An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely; very little electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field.

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International System of Units

The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.

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Laplace transform

In mathematics, the Laplace transform is an integral transform named after its discoverer Pierre-Simon Laplace.

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LC circuit

An LC circuit, also called a resonant circuit, tank circuit, or tuned circuit, is an electric circuit consisting of an inductor, represented by the letter L, and a capacitor, represented by the letter C, connected together.

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LCR meter

An LCR meter is a type of electronic test equipment used to measure the inductance (L), capacitance (C), and resistance (R) of an electronic component.

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Linear time-invariant theory

Linear time-invariant theory, commonly known as LTI system theory, comes from applied mathematics and has direct applications in NMR spectroscopy, seismology, circuits, signal processing, control theory, and other technical areas.

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Magnetic field

A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.

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Multiplicative inverse

In mathematics, a multiplicative inverse or reciprocal for a number x, denoted by 1/x or x−1, is a number which when multiplied by x yields the multiplicative identity, 1.

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Negative impedance converter

The negative impedance converter (NIC) is a one-port op-amp circuit acting as a negative load which injects energy into circuits in contrast to an ordinary load that consumes energy from them.

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Norton's theorem

Known in Europe as the Mayer–Norton theorem, Norton's theorem holds, to illustrate in DC circuit theory terms (see that image).

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The ohm (symbol: Ω) is the SI derived unit of electrical resistance, named after German physicist Georg Simon Ohm.

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Ohm's law

Ohm's law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the voltage across the two points.

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Oliver Heaviside

Oliver Heaviside FRS (18 May 1850 – 3 February 1925) was an English self-taught electrical engineer, mathematician, and physicist who adapted complex numbers to the study of electrical circuits, invented mathematical techniques for the solution of differential equations (equivalent to Laplace transforms), reformulated Maxwell's field equations in terms of electric and magnetic forces and energy flux, and independently co-formulated vector analysis.

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Phase (waves)

Phase is the position of a point in time (an instant) on a waveform cycle.

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Phase angle

In the context of phasors, phase angle refers to the angular component of the complex number representation of the function.

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Phase factor

For any complex number written in polar form (such as reiθ), the phase factor is the complex exponential factor (eiθ).

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Polar coordinate system

In mathematics, the polar coordinate system is a two-dimensional coordinate system in which each point on a plane is determined by a distance from a reference point and an angle from a reference direction.

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Port (circuit theory)

In electrical circuit theory, a port is a pair of terminals connecting an electrical network or circuit to an external circuit, a point of entry or exit for electrical energy.

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Potential generally refers to a currently unrealized ability.

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Proportionality (mathematics)

In mathematics, two variables are proportional if there is always a constant ratio between them.

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Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.

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In mathematics, a ratio is a relationship between two numbers indicating how many times the first number contains the second.

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Real number

In mathematics, a real number is a value of a continuous quantity that can represent a distance along a line.

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Reflection coefficient

In physics and electrical engineering the reflection coefficient is a parameter that describes how much of an electromagnetic wave is reflected by an impedance discontinuity in the transmission medium.

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Resistance distance

In graph theory, the resistance distance between two vertices of a simple connected graph, G, is equal to the resistance between two equivalent points on an electrical network, constructed so as to correspond to G, with each edge being replaced by a 1 ohm resistance.

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A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.

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In mathematics and engineering, the s-plane is the complex plane on which Laplace transforms are graphed.

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Short circuit

A short circuit (sometimes abbreviated to short or s/c) is an electrical circuit that allows a current to travel along an unintended path with no or a very low electrical impedance.

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Siemens (unit)

The siemens (symbol: S) is the derived unit of electric conductance, electric susceptance and electric admittance in the International System of Units (SI).

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A signal as referred to in communication systems, signal processing, and electrical engineering is a function that "conveys information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon".

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Sine wave

A sine wave or sinusoid is a mathematical curve that describes a smooth periodic oscillation.

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Standing wave ratio

In radio engineering and telecommunications, standing wave ratio (SWR) is a measure of impedance matching of loads to the characteristic impedance of a transmission line or waveguide.

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Superposition principle

In physics and systems theory, the superposition principle, also known as superposition property, states that, for all linear systems, the net response caused by two or more stimuli is the sum of the responses that would have been caused by each stimulus individually.

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Thévenin's theorem

As originally stated in terms of DC resistive circuits only, Thévenin's theorem holds that: In circuit theory terms, the theorem allows any one-port network to be reduced to a single voltage source and a single impedance.

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Time domain

Time domain is the analysis of mathematical functions, physical signals or time series of economic or environmental data, with respect to time.

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Tuner (radio)

A tuner is a subsystem that receives radio frequency (RF) transmissions like radio broadcasts and converts the selected carrier frequency and its associated bandwidth into a fixed frequency that is suitable for further processing, usually because a lower frequency is used on the output.

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In electronics, a varicap diode, varactor diode, variable capacitance diode, variable reactance diode or tuning diode is a type of diode designed to exploit the voltage-dependent capacitance of a reversed-biased p–n junction.

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Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.

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Voltage divider

In electronics, a voltage divider (also known as a potential divider) is a passive linear circuit that produces an output voltage (Vout) that is a fraction of its input voltage (Vin).

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Wheatstone bridge

A Wheatstone bridge is an electrical circuit used to measure an unknown electrical resistance by balancing two legs of a bridge circuit, one leg of which includes the unknown component.

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Capacitor impedance, Complex Impedance, Complex electric impedance, Complex impedance, Complex impedence, Conductor impedance, Deriving capacitor impedance, Electric complex impedance, Electric effective resistance, Electric impedance, Electrical impedence, Impedance (electrical), Impedance of different devices (derivations), Impedances, Inductive impedance, Inductor impedance, Phasor impedance, Resistor impedance.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_impedance

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