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# Electrical resistance and conductance

The electrical resistance of an electrical conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through that conductor. [1]

124 relations: AA battery, Admittance, Alternating current, Angular frequency, Biasing, Busbar, Capacitor, Cavity magnetron, Chord (geometry), Complex number, Compression (physics), Conductance quantum, Conductivity (electrolytic), Constant (mathematics), Copper, Current density, Current–voltage characteristic, Deep-level trap, Deformation (mechanics), Derivative, Diode, Dissipation, Drude model, Electric battery, Electric current, Electric heating, Electric power, Electric power transmission, Electric stove, Electrical conductor, Electrical element, Electrical impedance, Electrical injury, Electrical measurements, Electrical reactance, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electrical substation, Electrolyte, Electron, Electron configuration, Feedback, Fluorescent lamp, Four-terminal sensing, Friction, Fuse (electrical), Gunn diode, Gyrator, High-temperature superconductivity, Hydraulic analogy, Hysteresis, ... Expand index (74 more) »

## AA battery

The AA battery—also called a double A or Mignon (French for "dainty") battery—is a standard size single cell cylindrical dry battery.

In electrical engineering, admittance is a measure of how easily a circuit or device will allow a current to flow.

## Alternating current

Alternating current (AC) is an electric current which periodically reverses direction, in contrast to direct current (DC) which flows only in one direction.

## Angular frequency

In physics, angular frequency ω (also referred to by the terms angular speed, radial frequency, circular frequency, orbital frequency, radian frequency, and pulsatance) is a scalar measure of rotation rate.

## Biasing

Biasing in electronics means establishing predetermined voltages or currents at various points of an electronic circuit for the purpose of establishing proper operating conditions in electronic components.

## Busbar

In electric power distribution, a busbar (also bus bar, and sometimes misspelled as buss bar or bussbar) is a metallic strip or bar, typically housed inside switchgear, panel boards, and busway enclosures for local high current power distribution.

## Capacitor

A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores potential energy in an electric field.

## Cavity magnetron

The cavity magnetron is a high-powered vacuum tube that generates microwaves using the interaction of a stream of electrons with a magnetic field while moving past a series of open metal cavities (cavity resonators).

## Chord (geometry)

A chord of a circle is a straight line segment whose endpoints both lie on the circle.

## Complex number

A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form, where and are real numbers, and is a solution of the equation.

## Compression (physics)

In mechanics, compression is the application of balanced inward ("pushing") forces to different points on a material or structure, that is, forces with no net sum or torque directed so as to reduce its size in one or more directions.

## Conductance quantum

The conductance quantum, denoted by the symbol is the quantized unit of electrical conductance.

## Conductivity (electrolytic)

Conductivity (or specific conductance) of an electrolyte solution is a measure of its ability to conduct electricity.

## Constant (mathematics)

In mathematics, the adjective constant means non-varying.

## Copper

Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

## Current density

In electromagnetism, current density is the electric current per unit area of cross section.

## Current–voltage characteristic

A current–voltage characteristic or I–V curve (current–voltage curve) is a relationship, typically represented as a chart or graph, between the electric current through a circuit, device, or material, and the corresponding voltage, or potential difference across it.

## Deep-level trap

Deep-level traps or deep-level defects are a generally undesirable type of electronic defect in semiconductors.

## Deformation (mechanics)

Deformation in continuum mechanics is the transformation of a body from a reference configuration to a current configuration.

## Derivative

The derivative of a function of a real variable measures the sensitivity to change of the function value (output value) with respect to a change in its argument (input value).

## Diode

A diode is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts current primarily in one direction (asymmetric conductance); it has low (ideally zero) resistance in one direction, and high (ideally infinite) resistance in the other.

## Dissipation

Dissipation is the result of an irreversible process that takes place in homogeneous thermodynamic systems.

## Drude model

The Drude model of electrical conduction was proposed in 1900 by Paul Drude to explain the transport properties of electrons in materials (especially metals).

## Electric battery

An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.

## Electric current

An electric current is a flow of electric charge.

## Electric heating

Electric heating is a process in which electrical energy is converted to heat.

## Electric power

Electric power is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit.

## Electric power transmission

Electric power transmission is the bulk movement of electrical energy from a generating site, such as a power plant, to an electrical substation.

## Electric stove

An electric stove or electric range is a stove with an integrated electrical heating device to cook and bake.

## Electrical conductor

In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions.

## Electrical element

Electrical elements are conceptual abstractions representing idealized electrical components, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors, used in the analysis of electrical networks.

## Electrical impedance

Electrical impedance is the measure of the opposition that a circuit presents to a current when a voltage is applied.

## Electrical injury

Electrical injury is a physiological reaction caused by electric current passing through the (human) body.

## Electrical measurements

Electrical measurements are the methods, devices and calculations used to measure electrical quantities.

## Electrical reactance

In electrical and electronic systems, reactance is the opposition of a circuit element to a change in current or voltage, due to that element's inductance or capacitance.

## Electrical resistivity and conductivity

Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.

## Electrical substation

A substation is a part of an electrical generation, transmission, and distribution system.

## Electrolyte

An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.

## Electron

The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

## Electron configuration

In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.

## Feedback

Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop.

## Fluorescent lamp

A fluorescent lamp, or fluorescent tube, is a low-pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light.

## Four-terminal sensing

Four-terminal sensing (4T sensing), 4-wire sensing, or 4-point probes method is an electrical impedance measuring technique that uses separate pairs of current-carrying and voltage-sensing electrodes to make more accurate measurements than the simpler and more usual two-terminal (2T) sensing.

## Friction

Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.

## Fuse (electrical)

In electronics and electrical engineering, a fuse is an electrical safety device that operates to provide overcurrent protection of an electrical circuit.

## Gunn diode

A Gunn diode, also known as a transferred electron device (TED), is a form of diode, a two-terminal passive semiconductor electronic component, with negative resistance, used in high-frequency electronics.

## Gyrator

A gyrator is a passive, linear, lossless, two-port electrical network element proposed in 1948 by Bernard D. H. Tellegen as a hypothetical fifth linear element after the resistor, capacitor, inductor and ideal transformer.

## High-temperature superconductivity

High-temperature superconductors (abbreviated high-Tc or HTS) are materials that behave as superconductors at unusually high temperatures.

## Hydraulic analogy

The electronic&ndash;hydraulic analogy (derisively referred to as the drain-pipe theory by Oliver Lodge) is the most widely used analogy for "electron fluid" in a metal conductor.

## Hysteresis

Hysteresis is the dependence of the state of a system on its history.

## Imaginary unit

The imaginary unit or unit imaginary number is a solution to the quadratic equation.

## IMPATT diode

An IMPATT diode (IMPact ionization Avalanche Transit-Time diode) is a form of high-power semiconductor diode used in high-frequency microwave electronics devices.

## Incandescence

Incandescence is the emission of electromagnetic radiation (including visible light) from a hot body as a result of its temperature.

## Incandescent light bulb

An incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is an electric light with a wire filament heated to such a high temperature that it glows with visible light (incandescence).

## Inductor

An inductor, also called a coil, choke or reactor, is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores energy in a magnetic field when electric current flows through it.

## Insulator (electricity)

An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely; very little electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field.

## Internal resistance

A practical electrical power source which is a linear electric circuit may, according to Thévenin's theorem, be represented as an ideal voltage source in series with an impedance.

## International System of Units

The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.

## James Prescott Joule

James Prescott Joule (24 December 1818 11 October 1889) was an English physicist, mathematician and brewer, born in Salford, Lancashire.

## Johnson–Nyquist noise

Johnson–Nyquist noise (thermal noise, Johnson noise, or Nyquist noise) is the electronic noise generated by the thermal agitation of the charge carriers (usually the electrons) inside an electrical conductor at equilibrium, which happens regardless of any applied voltage.

## Joule heating

Joule heating, also known as Ohmic heating and resistive heating, is the process by which the passage of an electric current through a conductor produces heat.

## Kramers–Kronig relations

The Kramers–Kronig relations are bidirectional mathematical relations, connecting the real and imaginary parts of any complex function that is analytic in the upper half-plane.

## Letter and digit code

The letter and digit code for resistance and capacitance values and tolerances, which is also known as RKM code or "R notation", is a notation to specify resistor and capacitor values defined in the international standard IEC 60062 (formerly IEC 62) since 1952.

## Linear approximation

In mathematics, a linear approximation is an approximation of a general function using a linear function (more precisely, an affine function).

## Liquid helium

At standard pressure, the chemical element helium exists in a liquid form only at the extremely low temperature of −270 °C (about 4 K or −452.2 °F).

## Liquid nitrogen

Liquid nitrogen is nitrogen in a liquid state at an extremely low temperature.

## Mains electricity

Mains electricity (as it is known in the UK; US terms include grid power, wall power, and domestic power) is the general-purpose alternating-current (AC) electric power supply.

## Metre

The metre (British spelling and BIPM spelling) or meter (American spelling) (from the French unit mètre, from the Greek noun μέτρον, "measure") is the base unit of length in some metric systems, including the International System of Units (SI).

## Monotonic function

In mathematics, a monotonic function (or monotone function) is a function between ordered sets that preserves or reverses the given order.

## Multiplicative inverse

In mathematics, a multiplicative inverse or reciprocal for a number x, denoted by 1/x or x&minus;1, is a number which when multiplied by x yields the multiplicative identity, 1.

## National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.

## Natural rubber

Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water.

## Negative resistance

In electronics, negative resistance (NR) is a property of some electrical circuits and devices in which an increase in voltage across the device's terminals results in a decrease in electric current through it.

## Niobium–tin

Niobium-tin (Nb3Sn) or triniobium-tin is an intermetallic compound of niobium (Nb) and tin (Sn), used industrially as a type II superconductor.

## Ohm

The ohm (symbol: Ω) is the SI derived unit of electrical resistance, named after German physicist Georg Simon Ohm.

## Ohm's law

Ohm's law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the voltage across the two points.

## Ohmmeter

An ohmmeter is an electrical instrument that measures electrical resistance, the opposition to an electric current.

## Omega

Omega (capital: Ω, lowercase: ω; Greek ὦ, later ὦ μέγα, Modern Greek ωμέγα) is the 24th and last letter of the Greek alphabet.

## Operational amplifier

An operational amplifier (often op-amp or opamp) is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential input and, usually, a single-ended output.

An overhead power line is a structure used in electric power transmission and distribution to transmit electrical energy along large distances.

## Passivity (engineering)

Passivity is a property of engineering systems, used in a variety of engineering disciplines, but most commonly found in analog electronics and control systems.

## Phase (waves)

Phase is the position of a point in time (an instant) on a waveform cycle.

## Photoconductivity

Photoconductivity is an optical and electrical phenomenon in which a material becomes more electrically conductive due to the absorption of electromagnetic radiation such as visible light, ultraviolet light, infrared light, or gamma radiation.

## Photodetector

Photosensors or photodetectors are sensors of light or other electromagnetic energy.

## Photoresistor

A photoresistor (or light-dependent resistor, LDR, or photo-conductive cell) is a light-controlled variable resistor.

## Polytetrafluoroethylene

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that has numerous applications.

## Pressure drop

Pressure drop is defined as the difference in total pressure between two points of a fluid carrying network.

## Proximity effect (electromagnetism)

In a conductor carrying alternating current, if currents are flowing through one or more other nearby conductors, such as within a closely wound coil of wire, the distribution of current within the first conductor will be constrained to smaller regions.

## Quantum Hall effect

The quantum Hall effect (or integer quantum Hall effect) is a quantum-mechanical version of the Hall effect, observed in two-dimensional electron systems subjected to low temperatures and strong magnetic fields, in which the Hall conductance undergoes quantum Hall transitions to take on the quantized values where is the channel current, is the Hall voltage, is the elementary charge and is Planck's constant.

## Resistance thermometer

Resistance thermometers, also called resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), are sensors used to measure temperature.

## Resistor

A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.

## Resonance

In physics, resonance is a phenomenon in which a vibrating system or external force drives another system to oscillate with greater amplitude at specific frequencies.

## Rho

Rho (uppercase Ρ, lowercase ρ or ϱ; ῥῶ) is the 17th letter of the Greek alphabet.

## Semiconductor

A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.

## Series and parallel circuits

Components of an electrical circuit or electronic circuit can be connected in many different ways.

## Sheet resistance

Sheet resistance is a measure of resistance of thin films that are nominally uniform in thickness.

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## Siemens (unit)

The siemens (symbol: S) is the derived unit of electric conductance, electric susceptance and electric admittance in the International System of Units (SI).

## Sigma

Sigma (upper-case Σ, lower-case σ, lower-case in word-final position ς; σίγμα) is the eighteenth letter of the Greek alphabet.

## Skin effect

Skin effect is the tendency of an alternating electric current (AC) to become distributed within a conductor such that the current density is largest near the surface of the conductor, and decreases with greater depths in the conductor.

## Slope

In mathematics, the slope or gradient of a line is a number that describes both the direction and the steepness of the line.

## Square metre

The square metre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures) or square meter (American spelling) is the SI derived unit of area, with symbol m2 (Unicode character). It is the area of a square whose sides measure exactly one metre.

## Steel

Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.

## Strain gauge

A strain gauge is a device used to measure strain on an object.

## Stress (mechanics)

In continuum mechanics, stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of a continuous material exert on each other, while strain is the measure of the deformation of the material.

## Superconducting magnet

A superconducting magnet is an electromagnet made from coils of superconducting wire.

## Superconductivity

Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.

## Susceptance

In electrical engineering, susceptance (B) is the imaginary part of admittance, where the real part is conductance.

## Tangent

In geometry, the tangent line (or simply tangent) to a plane curve at a given point is the straight line that "just touches" the curve at that point.

## Technological applications of superconductivity

Some of the technological applications of superconductivity include.

## Tension (physics)

In physics, tension may be described as the pulling force transmitted axially by the means of a string, cable, chain, or similar one-dimensional continuous object, or by each end of a rod, truss member, or similar three-dimensional object; tension might also be described as the action-reaction pair of forces acting at each end of said elements.

## Thermal expansion

Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature.

Thermal radiation is electromagnetic radiation generated by the thermal motion of charged particles in matter.

## Thermal resistance

Thermal resistance is a heat property and a measurement of a temperature difference by which an object or material resists a heat flow.

## Thermistor

A thermistor is a type of resistor whose resistance is dependent on temperature, more so than in standard resistors.

## Thermometer

A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or a temperature gradient.

## Transformer

A transformer is a static electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction.

## Tunnel diode

A tunnel diode or Esaki diode is a type of semiconductor that is capable of very fast operation, well into the microwave frequency region (up to), made possible by the use of the quantum mechanical effect called tunneling.

## Unijunction transistor

A unijunction transistor (UJT) is a three-lead electronic semiconductor device with only one junction that acts exclusively as an electrically controlled switch.

## Utility frequency

The utility frequency, (power) line frequency (American English) or mains frequency (British English) is the nominal frequency of the oscillations of alternating current (AC) in an electric power grid transmitted from a power station to the end-user.

## Voltage

Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.

## Voltage divider

In electronics, a voltage divider (also known as a potential divider) is a passive linear circuit that produces an output voltage (Vout) that is a fraction of its input voltage (Vin).

## Voltage drop

Voltage drop describes how the energy supplied by a voltage source is reduced as electric current moves through the passive elements (elements that do not supply voltage) of an electrical circuit.

## Von Klitzing

Von Klitzing is a surname.

## References

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