194 relations: Absolute zero, Admittance, Aluminium, Amorphous carbon, Anisotropy, Annealing (metallurgy), Astrophysics, Atmosphere of Earth, Atom, Augustus Matthiessen, Beryllium, Boltzmann relation, Brady Haran, Bravais lattice, Calcium, Carbon steel, Cell membrane, Celsius, Ceramic, Charge density, Charge transport mechanisms, Claude Pouillet, Collision, Complex number, Concentration, Conductivity near the percolation threshold, Constantan, Contact resistance, Continuity equation, Conventional superconductor, Copper, Coulomb's law, CRC Press, Cross section (geometry), Crystal, Crystal structure, Cuprate superconductor, Current density, Debye length, Debye model, Debye sheath, Density, Diamond, Dielectric spectroscopy, Discipline (academia), Dopant, Doping (semiconductor), Double layer (plasma physics), Drift velocity, Drinking water, ..., Ebonite, Eddy current, Electric charge, Electric current, Electric field, Electric-field screening, Electrical conductivity meter, Electrical conductor, Electrical contacts, Electrical impedance, Electrical impedance tomography, Electrical reactance, Electrical resistance and conductance, Electrical resistivities of the elements (data page), Electrical resistivity tomography, Electrical steel, Electrolyte, Electron, Electron hole, Electrostatic units, Exponential decay, Extrinsic semiconductor, Fahrenheit, Fermi level, Fermi surface, Finite element method, Free electron model, Fused quartz, Gallium, Gallium arsenide, Gamma, George Gamow, Germanium, Glass, Gold, Graphite, Gravity, Greek alphabet, Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, High-temperature superconductivity, History of superconductivity, Hydraulic analogy, Impurity, Instability, Insulator (electricity), International System of Units, Intrinsic and extrinsic properties, Intrinsic semiconductor, Invertible matrix, Ion, Ion channel, Ionic liquid, Ionization, Iron, Kappa, Kelvin, Lead, Length, Light, Linear approximation, Liquid nitrogen, Lithium, Magnesium, Magnetic field, Magnetohydrodynamics, Magnitude (mathematics), Magnon, Manganin, Mathematical descriptions of opacity, Matrix multiplication, Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution, Mercury (element), Metal, Metre, Neutron, Newton's cradle, Nichrome, Nickel, Ohm, Ohm's law, Opacity (optics), Overhead power line, Partial differential equation, Pauli exclusion principle, Permittivity, Perovskite (structure), Phonon, Platinum, Poisson's equation, Polyethylene terephthalate, Polytetrafluoroethylene, Potassium, Prentice Hall, Properties of water, Proton, Purified water, Quantum mechanics, Quantum tunnelling, Resistor, Rho, Saline water, Salt (chemistry), Seawater, Second, Semiconductor, Sheet resistance, SI electromagnetism units, Siemens (unit), Sigma, Significand, Silicon, Silver, Skin effect, Sodium, Solution, Speed of electricity, Speed of light, Spitzer resistivity, Spreading resistance profiling, Stainless steel, State of matter, Steinhart–Hart equation, Sulfur, Supercapacitor, Superconducting wire, Superconductivity, Superinsulator, Susceptance, Temperature, Temperature coefficient, Tensor, Thermistor, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Tin, Titanium, Tungsten, University of Nottingham, Valence and conduction bands, Variable-range hopping, Vector field, Voltage, Waves in plasmas, Wood, Zinc. Expand index (144 more) »

## Absolute zero

Absolute zero is the lower limit of the thermodynamic temperature scale, a state at which the enthalpy and entropy of a cooled ideal gas reach their minimum value, taken as 0.

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## Admittance

In electrical engineering, admittance is a measure of how easily a circuit or device will allow a current to flow.

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## Aluminium

Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.

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## Amorphous carbon

Amorphous carbon is free, reactive carbon that does not have any crystalline structure (also called diamond-like carbon).

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## Anisotropy

Anisotropy, is the property of being directionally dependent, which implies different properties in different directions, as opposed to isotropy.

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## Annealing (metallurgy)

Annealing, in metallurgy and materials science, is a heat treatment that alters the physical and sometimes chemical properties of a material to increase its ductility and reduce its hardness, making it more workable.

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## Astrophysics

Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects, rather than their positions or motions in space".

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## Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.

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## Atom

An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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## Augustus Matthiessen

Augustus Matthiessen, FRS (2 January 1831, in London – 6 October 1870, in London), the son of a merchant, was a British chemist and physicist who obtained his PhD in Germany at the University of Gießen in 1852 with Johann Heinrich Buff.

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## Beryllium

Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.

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## Boltzmann relation

In a plasma, the Boltzmann relation describes the number density of an isothermal charged particle fluid when the thermal and the electrostatic forces acting on the fluid have reached equilibrium.

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## Brady Haran

Brady John Haran (born 18 June 1976) is an Australian-born British independent filmmaker and video journalist who is known for his educational videos and documentary films produced for BBC News and his YouTube channels, the most notable being Periodic Videos and Numberphile.

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## Bravais lattice

In geometry and crystallography, a Bravais lattice, named after, is an infinite array of discrete points in three dimensional space generated by a set of discrete translation operations described by: where ni are any integers and ai are known as the primitive vectors which lie in different directions and span the lattice.

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## Calcium

Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.

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## Carbon steel

Carbon steel is a steel with carbon content up to 2.1% by weight.

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## Cell membrane

The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).

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## Celsius

The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).

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## Ceramic

A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.

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## Charge density

In electromagnetism, charge density is a measure of the amount of electric charge per unit length, surface area, or volume.

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## Charge transport mechanisms

Charge transport mechanisms are theoretical models that aim to quantitatively describe the electric current flow through a given medium.

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## Claude Pouillet

Claude Servais Mathias Pouillet (16 February 1790 – 14 June 1868) was a French physicist and a professor of physics at the Sorbonne and member of the French Academy of Sciences (elected 1837).

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## Collision

A collision is an event in which two or more bodies exert forces on each other for a relatively short time.

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## Complex number

A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form, where and are real numbers, and is a solution of the equation.

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## Concentration

In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.

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## Conductivity near the percolation threshold

In a mixture between a dielectric and a metallic component, the conductivity \sigma and the dielectric constant \epsilon of this mixture show a critical behavior if the fraction of the metallic component reaches the percolation threshold.

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## Constantan

Constantan is a copper–nickel alloy also known as Eureka, Advance, and Ferry.

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## Contact resistance

The term contact resistance refers to the contribution to the total resistance of a system which can be attributed to the contacting interfaces of electrical leads and connections as opposed to the intrinsic resistance, which is an inherent property, independent of the measurement method.

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## Continuity equation

A continuity equation in physics is an equation that describes the transport of some quantity.

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## Conventional superconductor

Conventional superconductors are materials that display superconductivity as described by BCS theory or its extensions.

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## Copper

Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

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## Coulomb's law

Coulomb's law, or Coulomb's inverse-square law, is a law of physics for quantifying the amount of force with which stationary electrically charged particles repel or attract each other.

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## CRC Press

The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.

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## Cross section (geometry)

In geometry and science, a cross section is the non-empty intersection of a solid body in three-dimensional space with a plane, or the analog in higher-dimensional spaces.

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## Crystal

A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.

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## Crystal structure

In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.

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## Cuprate superconductor

Interest in cuprates sharply increased in 1986 with the discovery of high-temperature superconductivity in the Non-stoichiometric cuprate lanthanum barium copper oxide La2−xBaxCuO4.

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## Current density

In electromagnetism, current density is the electric current per unit area of cross section.

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## Debye length

In plasmas and electrolytes, the Debye length (also called Debye radius), named after the Dutch physicist and physical chemist Peter Debye, is a measure of a charge carrier's net electrostatic effect in solution and how far its electrostatic effect persists.

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## Debye model

In thermodynamics and solid state physics, the Debye model is a method developed by Peter Debye in 1912 for estimating the phonon contribution to the specific heat (heat capacity) in a solid.

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## Debye sheath

The Debye sheath (also electrostatic sheath) is a layer in a plasma which has a greater density of positive ions, and hence an overall excess positive charge, that balances an opposite negative charge on the surface of a material with which it is in contact.

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## Density

The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.

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## Diamond

Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.

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## Dielectric spectroscopy

Dielectric spectroscopy (which falls in a subcategory of impedance spectroscopy) measures the dielectric properties of a medium as a function of frequency.

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## Discipline (academia)

An academic discipline or academic field is a branch of knowledge.

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## Dopant

A dopant, also called a doping agent, is a trace impurity element that is inserted into a substance (in very low concentrations) to alter the electrical or optical properties of the substance.

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## Doping (semiconductor)

In semiconductor production, doping is the intentional introduction of impurities into an intrinsic semiconductor for the purpose of modulating its electrical properties.

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## Double layer (plasma physics)

A double layer is a structure in a plasma consisting of two parallel layers of opposite electrical charge.

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## Drift velocity

The drift velocity is the average velocity that a particle, such as an electron, attains in a material due to an electric field.

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## Drinking water

Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation.

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## Ebonite

Ebonite is a brand name for very hard rubber first obtained by Charles Goodyear by vulcanizing natural rubber for prolonged periods.

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## Eddy current

Eddy currents (also called Foucault currents) are loops of electrical current induced within conductors by a changing magnetic field in the conductor due to Faraday's law of induction.

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## Electric charge

Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.

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## Electric current

An electric current is a flow of electric charge.

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## Electric field

An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.

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## Electric-field screening

In physics, screening is the damping of electric fields caused by the presence of mobile charge carriers.

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## Electrical conductivity meter

An electrical conductivity meter (EC meter) measures the electrical conductivity in a solution.

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## Electrical conductor

In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions.

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## Electrical contacts

An electrical contact is an electrical circuit component found in electrical switches, relays, connectors and circuit breakers.

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## Electrical impedance

Electrical impedance is the measure of the opposition that a circuit presents to a current when a voltage is applied.

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## Electrical impedance tomography

Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a noninvasive type of medical imaging in which the electrical conductivity, permittivity, and impedance of a part of the body is inferred from surface electrode measurements and used to form a tomographic image of that part.

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## Electrical reactance

In electrical and electronic systems, reactance is the opposition of a circuit element to a change in current or voltage, due to that element's inductance or capacitance.

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## Electrical resistance and conductance

The electrical resistance of an electrical conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through that conductor.

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## Electrical resistivities of the elements (data page)

As quoted at http://www.webelements.com/ from these sources.

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## Electrical resistivity tomography

Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) or electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) is a geophysical technique for imaging sub-surface structures from electrical resistivity measurements made at the surface, or by electrodes in one or more boreholes.

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## Electrical steel

Electrical steel (lamination steel, silicon electrical steel, silicon steel, relay steel, transformer steel) is a special steel tailored to produce specific magnetic properties: small hysteresis area resulting in low power loss per cycle, low core loss, and high permeability.

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## Electrolyte

An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.

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## Electron

The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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## Electron hole

In physics, chemistry, and electronic engineering, an electron hole (often simply called a hole) is the lack of an electron at a position where one could exist in an atom or atomic lattice.

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## Electrostatic units

The electrostatic system of units (ESU) is a system of units used to measure quantities of electric charge, electric current, and voltage within the centimeter-gram-second (or "CGS") system of metric units.

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## Exponential decay

A quantity is subject to exponential decay if it decreases at a rate proportional to its current value.

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## Extrinsic semiconductor

An extrinsic semiconductor is one that has been doped, that is, into which a doping agent has been introduced, giving it different electrical properties than the intrinsic (pure) semiconductor.

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## Fahrenheit

The Fahrenheit scale is a temperature scale based on one proposed in 1724 by Dutch-German-Polish physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736).

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## Fermi level

The Fermi level chemical potential for electrons (or electrochemical potential for electrons), usually denoted by µ or EF, of a body is a thermodynamic quantity, whose significance is the thermodynamic work required to add one electron to the body (not counting the work required to remove the electron from wherever it came from).

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## Fermi surface

In condensed matter physics, the Fermi surface is the surface in reciprocal space which separates occupied from unoccupied electron states at zero temperature.

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## Finite element method

The finite element method (FEM), is a numerical method for solving problems of engineering and mathematical physics.

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## Free electron model

In solid-state physics, the free electron model is a simple model for the behaviour of charge carriers in a metallic solid.

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## Fused quartz

Fused quartz or fused silica is glass consisting of silica in amorphous (non-crystalline) form.

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## Gallium

Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31.

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## Gallium arsenide

Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is a compound of the elements gallium and arsenic.

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## Gamma

Gamma (uppercase, lowercase; gámma) is the third letter of the Greek alphabet.

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## George Gamow

George Gamow (March 4, 1904- August 19, 1968), born Georgiy Antonovich Gamov, was a Russian-American theoretical physicist and cosmologist.

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## Germanium

Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32.

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## Glass

Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.

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## Gold

Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.

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## Graphite

Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.

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## Gravity

Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

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## Greek alphabet

The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.

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## Heike Kamerlingh Onnes

Professor Heike Kamerlingh Onnes FRSFor HFRSE FCS (21 September 1853 – 21 February 1926) was a Dutch physicist and Nobel laureate.

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## High-temperature superconductivity

High-temperature superconductors (abbreviated high-Tc or HTS) are materials that behave as superconductors at unusually high temperatures.

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## History of superconductivity

Superconductivity is the phenomenon of certain materials exhibiting zero electrical resistance and the expulsion of magnetic fields below a characteristic temperature.

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## Hydraulic analogy

The electronic–hydraulic analogy (derisively referred to as the drain-pipe theory by Oliver Lodge) is the most widely used analogy for "electron fluid" in a metal conductor.

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## Impurity

Impurities are either naturally occurring or added during synthesis of a chemical or commercial product.

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## Instability

In numerous fields of study, the component of instability within a system is generally characterized by some of the outputs or internal states growing without bounds.

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## Insulator (electricity)

An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely; very little electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field.

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## International System of Units

The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.

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## Intrinsic and extrinsic properties

An intrinsic property is a property of a system or of a material itself or within.

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## Intrinsic semiconductor

An intrinsic(pure) semiconductor, also called an undoped semiconductor or i-type semiconductor, is a pure semiconductor without any significant dopant species present.

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## Invertible matrix

In linear algebra, an n-by-n square matrix A is called invertible (also nonsingular or nondegenerate) if there exists an n-by-n square matrix B such that where In denotes the n-by-n identity matrix and the multiplication used is ordinary matrix multiplication.

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## Ion

An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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## Ion channel

Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.

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## Ionic liquid

An ionic liquid (IL) is a salt in the liquid state.

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## Ionization

Ionization or ionisation, is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.

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## Iron

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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## Kappa

Kappa (uppercase Κ, lowercase κ or cursive ϰ; κάππα, káppa) is the 10th letter of the Greek alphabet, used to represent the sound in Ancient and Modern Greek.

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## Kelvin

The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.

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## Lead

Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.

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## Length

In geometric measurements, length is the most extended dimension of an object.

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## Light

Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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## Linear approximation

In mathematics, a linear approximation is an approximation of a general function using a linear function (more precisely, an affine function).

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## Liquid nitrogen

Liquid nitrogen is nitrogen in a liquid state at an extremely low temperature.

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## Lithium

Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.

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## Magnesium

Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.

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## Magnetic field

A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.

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## Magnetohydrodynamics

Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD; also magneto-fluid dynamics or hydro­magnetics) is the study of the magnetic properties of electrically conducting fluids.

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## Magnitude (mathematics)

In mathematics, magnitude is the size of a mathematical object, a property which determines whether the object is larger or smaller than other objects of the same kind.

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## Magnon

A magnon is a quasiparticle, a collective excitation of the electrons' spin structure in a crystal lattice.

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## Manganin

| specific_heat.

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## Mathematical descriptions of opacity

When an electromagnetic wave travels through a medium in which it gets attenuated (this is called an "opaque" or "attenuating" medium), it undergoes exponential decay as described by the Beer–Lambert law.

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## Matrix multiplication

In mathematics, matrix multiplication or matrix product is a binary operation that produces a matrix from two matrices with entries in a field, or, more generally, in a ring or even a semiring.

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## Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution

In physics (in particular in statistical mechanics), the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution is a particular probability distribution named after James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann.

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## Mercury (element)

Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.

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## Metal

A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.

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## Metre

The metre (British spelling and BIPM spelling) or meter (American spelling) (from the French unit mètre, from the Greek noun μέτρον, "measure") is the base unit of length in some metric systems, including the International System of Units (SI).

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## Neutron

| magnetic_moment.

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## Newton's cradle

Newton’s cradle is a device that demonstrates conservation of momentum and energy using a series of swinging spheres.

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## Nichrome

Nichrome (NiCr, nickel-chrome, chrome-nickel, etc.) is any of various alloys of nickel, chromium, and often iron (and possibly other elements).

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## Nickel

Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.

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## Ohm

The ohm (symbol: Ω) is the SI derived unit of electrical resistance, named after German physicist Georg Simon Ohm.

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## Ohm's law

Ohm's law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the voltage across the two points.

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## Opacity (optics)

Opacity is the measure of impenetrability to electromagnetic or other kinds of radiation, especially visible light.

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## Overhead power line

An overhead power line is a structure used in electric power transmission and distribution to transmit electrical energy along large distances.

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## Partial differential equation

In mathematics, a partial differential equation (PDE) is a differential equation that contains unknown multivariable functions and their partial derivatives.

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## Pauli exclusion principle

The Pauli exclusion principle is the quantum mechanical principle which states that two or more identical fermions (particles with half-integer spin) cannot occupy the same quantum state within a quantum system simultaneously.

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## Permittivity

In electromagnetism, absolute permittivity, often simply called permittivity, usually denoted by the Greek letter ε (epsilon), is the measure of resistance that is encountered when forming an electric field in a particular medium.

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## Perovskite (structure)

A perovskite is any material with the same type of crystal structure as calcium titanium oxide (CaTiO3), known as the perovskite structure, or XIIA2+VIB4+X2−3 with the oxygen in the edge centers.

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## Phonon

In physics, a phonon is a collective excitation in a periodic, elastic arrangement of atoms or molecules in condensed matter, like solids and some liquids.

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## Platinum

Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.

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## Poisson's equation

In mathematics, Poisson's equation is a partial differential equation of elliptic type with broad utility in mechanical engineering and theoretical physics.

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## Polyethylene terephthalate

Polyethylene terephthalate (sometimes written poly(ethylene terephthalate)), commonly abbreviated PET, PETE, or the obsolete PETP or PET-P, is the most common thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used in fibres for clothing, containers for liquids and foods, thermoforming for manufacturing, and in combination with glass fibre for engineering resins.

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## Polytetrafluoroethylene

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that has numerous applications.

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## Potassium

Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.

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## Prentice Hall

Prentice Hall is a major educational publisher owned by Pearson plc.

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## Properties of water

Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" and the "solvent of life". It is the most abundant substance on Earth and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface. It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to separate ions in salts and strongly bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them. Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. Water is amphoteric, meaning that it is both an acid and a base—it produces + and - ions by self-ionization.

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## Proton

| magnetic_moment.

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## Purified water

Purified water is water that has been mechanically filtered or processed to remove impurities and make it suitable for use.

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## Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

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## Quantum tunnelling

Quantum tunnelling or tunneling (see spelling differences) is the quantum mechanical phenomenon where a particle tunnels through a barrier that it classically cannot surmount.

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## Resistor

A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.

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## Rho

Rho (uppercase Ρ, lowercase ρ or ϱ; ῥῶ) is the 17th letter of the Greek alphabet.

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## Saline water

Saline water (more commonly known as salt water) is water that contains a high concentration of dissolved salts (mainly NaCl).

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## Salt (chemistry)

In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.

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## Seawater

Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.

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## Second

The second is the SI base unit of time, commonly understood and historically defined as 1/86,400 of a day – this factor derived from the division of the day first into 24 hours, then to 60 minutes and finally to 60 seconds each.

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## Semiconductor

A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.

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## Sheet resistance

Sheet resistance is a measure of resistance of thin films that are nominally uniform in thickness.

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## SI electromagnetism units

No description.

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## Siemens (unit)

The siemens (symbol: S) is the derived unit of electric conductance, electric susceptance and electric admittance in the International System of Units (SI).

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## Sigma

Sigma (upper-case Σ, lower-case σ, lower-case in word-final position ς; σίγμα) is the eighteenth letter of the Greek alphabet.

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## Significand

The significand (also mantissa or coefficient) is part of a number in scientific notation or a floating-point number, consisting of its significant digits.

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## Silicon

Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.

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## Silver

Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.

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## Skin effect

Skin effect is the tendency of an alternating electric current (AC) to become distributed within a conductor such that the current density is largest near the surface of the conductor, and decreases with greater depths in the conductor.

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## Sodium

Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.

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## Solution

In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.

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## Speed of electricity

The word electricity refers generally to the movement of electrons (or other charge carriers) through a conductor in the presence of potential and an electric field.

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## Speed of light

The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.

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## Spitzer resistivity

The Spitzer resistivity, or its opposite the Spitzer conductivity first formulated by Lyman Spitzer in 1950, is an equation showing the electrical resistance in a plasma decreases in proportion to the electron temperature as T_e^.

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## Spreading resistance profiling

Spreading resistance profiling (SRP), also known as spreading resistance analysis (SRA), is a technique used to analyze resistivity versus depth in semiconductors.

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## Stainless steel

In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French inoxydable (inoxidizable), is a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5% chromium content by mass.

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## State of matter

In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms in which matter can exist.

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## Steinhart–Hart equation

The Steinhart–Hart equation is a model of the resistance of a semiconductor at different temperatures.

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## Sulfur

Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.

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## Supercapacitor

A supercapacitor (SC) (also called a supercap, ultracapacitor or Goldcap) is a high-capacity capacitor with capacitance values much higher than other capacitors (but lower voltage limits) that bridge the gap between electrolytic capacitors and rechargeable batteries.

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## Superconducting wire

Superconducting wire is wire made of superconductors.

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## Superconductivity

Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.

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## Superinsulator

A superinsulator is a material that at low temperatures under certain conditions has an infinite resistance and no current will pass through it.

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## Susceptance

In electrical engineering, susceptance (B) is the imaginary part of admittance, where the real part is conductance.

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## Temperature

Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

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## Temperature coefficient

A temperature coefficient describes the relative change of a physical property that is associated with a given change in temperature.

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## Tensor

In mathematics, tensors are geometric objects that describe linear relations between geometric vectors, scalars, and other tensors.

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## Thermistor

A thermistor is a type of resistor whose resistance is dependent on temperature, more so than in standard resistors.

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## Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), commonly called Jefferson Lab or JLab, is a U.S. national laboratory located in Newport News, Virginia.

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## Tin

Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.

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## Titanium

Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.

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## Tungsten

Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.

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## University of Nottingham

The University of Nottingham is a public research university in Nottingham, United Kingdom.

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## Valence and conduction bands

In solid-state physics, the valence band and conduction band are the bands closest to the Fermi level and thus determine the electrical conductivity of the solid.

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## Variable-range hopping

Variable-range hopping, or Mott variable-range hopping, is a model describing low-temperature conduction in strongly disordered systems with localized charge-carrier states.

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## Vector field

In vector calculus and physics, a vector field is an assignment of a vector to each point in a subset of space.

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## Voltage

Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.

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## Waves in plasmas

In plasma physics, waves in plasmas are an interconnected set of particles and fields which propagates in a periodically repeating fashion.

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## Wood

Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.

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## Zinc

Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.

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## Redirects here:

Bloch-Gruneisen formula, Bloch-Gruneisen resistivity, Bloch-Grüneisen formula, Bloch-Grüneisen resistivity, Bloch–Gruneisen formula, Bloch–Grüneisen formula, Bloch–Grüneisen resistivity, Complex conductivity, Complex resistivity, Conduction of electricity, El. Resistivity, Electric conductivity, Electrical Conduction, Electrical Conductivity, Electrical Resistively, Electrical conduction, Electrical conductivity, Electrical conductivity of metals, Electrical material, Electrical resistivity, Electrical resistivity & conductivity, Electrically conducting, Electrically conductive, Electro-conductive, Electroconductivity, Electroconductor, Impeditivity, Ohm metre, Pouillet's law, Reactivity (electronics), Resistivities, Resistivity, S/m, Siemens per meter, Siemens per metre, Specific conductance, Specific conductivity, Specific electrical resistance, Table of resistivities, Table of resistivity, Volume resistivity, Ωm, Ω⋅m.

## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_resistivity_and_conductivity