305 relations: Action potential, Air conditioning, Albert Einstein, Alessandro Volta, Alexander Graham Bell, Alternating current, Aluminium, Amber, Ampère's circuital law, Ampere, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greek, André-Marie Ampère, Annalen der Physik, Anthony Carlisle, Antimatter, Antiparticle, Arabic, Arabs, Atom, Ányos Jedlik, Baghdad Battery, Benjamin Franklin, Bioelectrogenesis, Bioelectromagnetics, Burn, Capacitance, Capacitor, Capital punishment, Charged particle, Charles Algernon Parsons, Charles François de Cisternay du Fay, Charles Proteus Steinmetz, Charles Wheatstone, Charles-Augustin de Coulomb, Chemical bond, Communications satellite, Computation, Conservative force, Conserved quantity, Contour line, Coulomb, Coulomb's law, Crystal detector, De Magnete, Dielectric, Diode, Direct current, Drift velocity, Dynamo theory, ..., Earth, Earth's magnetic field, Economies of scale, Electric arc, Electric battery, Electric car, Electric catfish, Electric charge, Electric current, Electric discharge, Electric eel, Electric field, Electric fish, Electric generator, Electric heating, Electric light, Electric motor, Electric organ (biology), Electric potential, Electric potential energy, Electric power, Electric power industry, Electric power transmission, Electric ray, Electric spark, Electric utility, Electric vehicle, Electrical breakdown, Electrical conductor, Electrical energy, Electrical engineering, Electrical injury, Electrical network, Electrical resistance and conductance, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electrical telegraph, Electricity generation, Electricity market, Electricity meter, Electrochemical cell, Electrode, Electrolysis, Electromagnetic induction, Electromagnetic interference, Electromagnetic radiation, Electromagnetism, Electrometer, Electron, Electron hole, Electronic circuit, Electronic engineering, Electronics, Electroplating, Electroreception, Electroscope, Electrostatic generator, Electrostatics, Electrovibration, Encyclopedia Americana, Entropy, Environmental impact of electricity generation, Equipotential, Euclidean vector, Farad, Faraday cage, Faraday's law of induction, Fibrillation, Field (physics), First transcontinental telegraph, Flash memory, Force, Fossil fuel, Frankenstein, Friction, Fundamental interaction, Galileo Ferraris, Galvanic cell, Galvanism, Geography and cartography in medieval Islam, Georg Ohm, George Westinghouse, Germanium, Gout, Gradient, Gravity, Greek language, Greenwood Publishing Group, Ground (electricity), Gymnotiformes, Hans Christian Ørsted, Hard disk drive, Headache, Heat pump, Height, Heinrich Hertz, Henry (unit), High voltage, Homopolar generator, Homopolar motor, HVAC, Hydraulic analogy, Hydropower, Incandescent light bulb, Inductance, Inductor, Infinity, Information processing, Insulator (electricity), Integrated circuit, International System of Units, Inverse-square law, Ion, Jacques Curie, James Clerk Maxwell, James Prescott Joule, Jimmy Webb, Joseph Henry, Joseph Swan, Joule, Joule heating, Jules Verne, Kilowatt hour, Kinetic energy, Leyden jar, Light-emitting diode, Lighting, Lightning, Lightning rod, Line of force, Linearity, Lodestone, Luigi Galvani, Magnet, Magnetic field, Magnetic flux, Magnetism, Magnetite, Magnitude (mathematics), Mary Shelley, Mass, Matter, Maxwell's equations, Medicine in the medieval Islamic world, Mediterranean Sea, Mercury (element), Michael Faraday, Microprocessor, Motive power, Muscle, Network analysis (electrical circuits), Neuron, New Latin, New York City, Nikola Tesla, Nile, Nobel Prize in Physics, Nonlinear system, Ohm, Ohm's law, Oliver Heaviside, On Physical Lines of Force, Operating reserve, Optical fiber, Optoelectronics, Ottó Bláthy, Otto von Guericke, Pantograph (transport), Parthia, Passivity (engineering), Photodetector, Photoelectric effect, Physics, Pierre Curie, Piezoelectricity, Plasma (physics), Pliny the Elder, Popular culture, Power (physics), Power station, Printed circuit board, Proton, Pseudodoxia Epidemica, Quantum, Quartz, Radio, Radio frequency, Random-access memory, Refrigeration, Reginald Fessenden, Relative direction, Renewable energy, Resistor, Robert Boyle, Roman Empire, Rudyard Kipling, Scalar (physics), Scribonius Largus, Second, Second Industrial Revolution, Semiconductor, Sensor, Shark, Signal processing, Sine wave, Solar panel, Solid-state drive, Solid-state electronics, Solid-state physics, Somatosensory system, Speed of light, Static electricity, Steady state, Steam, Steam turbine, Stephen Gray (scientist), Strong interaction, Subatomic particle, Sugar, Switch, System, Telecommunication, Test particle, Thales of Miletus, The Sons of Martha, Thomas Browne, Thomas Edison, Time derivative, Tom Swift, Torture, Transatlantic telegraph cable, Transformer, Transient response, Transistor, Triboelectric effect, USB flash drive, Vacuum tube, Vector field, Volt, Voltage, Voltaic pile, Watt, Wave, Werner von Siemens, Western world, Wichita Lineman, William Ewart Gladstone, William Fothergill Cooke, William Gilbert (astronomer), William Nicholson (chemist), William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, Winch, Wind power, Work (electrical), Work (physics), 28th century BC. 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In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.
Air conditioning (often referred to as AC, A/C, or air con) is the process of removing heat and moisture from the interior of an occupied space, to improve the comfort of occupants.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (18 February 1745 – 5 March 1827) was an Italian physicist, chemist, and a pioneer of electricity and power,Giuliano Pancaldi, "Volta: Science and culture in the age of enlightenment", Princeton University Press, 2003.
Alexander Graham Bell (March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922) was a Scottish-born scientist, inventor, engineer, and innovator who is credited with inventing and patenting the first practical telephone.
Alternating current (AC) is an electric current which periodically reverses direction, in contrast to direct current (DC) which flows only in one direction.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Amber is fossilized tree resin, which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times.
In classical electromagnetism, Ampère's circuital law (not to be confused with Ampère's force law that André-Marie Ampère discovered in 1823) relates the integrated magnetic field around a closed loop to the electric current passing through the loop.
The ampere (symbol: A), often shortened to "amp",SI supports only the use of symbols and deprecates the use of abbreviations for units.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
André-Marie Ampère (20 January 177510 June 1836) was a French physicist and mathematician who was one of the founders of the science of classical electromagnetism, which he referred to as "electrodynamics".
Annalen der Physik (English: Annals of Physics) is one of the oldest scientific journals on physics and has been published since 1799.
Sir Anthony Carlisle FRCS, FRS (15 February 1768 in Stillington, England – 2 November 1840 in London) was an English surgeon.
In modern physics, antimatter is defined as a material composed of the antiparticle (or "partners") to the corresponding particles of ordinary matter.
In particle physics, every type of particle has an associated antiparticle with the same mass but with opposite physical charges (such as electric charge).
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
Ányos István Jedlik (Jedlik Ányos István; Štefan Anián Jedlík; in older texts and publications: Stephanus Anianus Jedlik; 11 January 1800 – 13 December 1895) was a Hungarian inventor, engineer, physicist, and Benedictine priest.
The Baghdad Battery or Parthian Battery is a set of three artifacts which were found together: a ceramic pot, a tube of copper, and a rod of iron.
Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
Bioelectrogenesis is the generation of electricity by living organisms, a phenomenon that belongs to the science of electrophysiology.
Bioelectromagnetics, also known as bioelectromagnetism, is the study of the interaction between electromagnetic fields and biological entities.
A burn is a type of injury to skin, or other tissues, caused by heat, cold, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation.
Capacitance is the ratio of the change in an electric charge in a system to the corresponding change in its electric potential.
A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores potential energy in an electric field.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
In physics, a charged particle is a particle with an electric charge.
Sir Charles Algernon Parsons, (13 June 1854 – 11 February 1931), the son of a member of the Irish peerage,http://www.tcd.ie/Secretary/FellowsScholars/discourses/discourses/1968_Lord%20Rosse%20on%20W.%20Parsons.pdf was an Anglo-Irish engineer, best known for his invention of the compound steam turbine, and as the namesake of C. A. Parsons and Company.
Charles François de Cisternay du Fay (14 September 1698 – 16 July 1739) was a French chemist and superintendent of the Jardin du Roi.
Charles Proteus Steinmetz (born Karl August Rudolph Steinmetz, April 9, 1865 – October 26, 1923) was a German-born American mathematician and electrical engineer and professor at Union College.
Sir Charles Wheatstone FRS (6 February 1802 – 19 October 1875), was an English scientist and inventor of many scientific breakthroughs of the Victorian era, including the English concertina, the stereoscope (a device for displaying three-dimensional images), and the Playfair cipher (an encryption technique).
Charles-Augustin de Coulomb (14 June 1736 – 23 August 1806) was a French military engineer and physicist.
A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.
A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth.
Computation is any type of calculation that includes both arithmetical and non-arithmetical steps and follows a well-defined model, for example an algorithm.
A conservative force is a force with the property that the total work done in moving a particle between two points is independent of the taken path.
In mathematics, a conserved quantity of a dynamical system is a function of the dependent variables whose value remains constant along each trajectory of the system.
A contour line (also isocline, isopleth, isarithm, or equipotential curve) of a function of two variables is a curve along which the function has a constant value, so that the curve joins points of equal value.
The coulomb (symbol: C) is the International System of Units (SI) unit of electric charge.
Coulomb's law, or Coulomb's inverse-square law, is a law of physics for quantifying the amount of force with which stationary electrically charged particles repel or attract each other.
A crystal detector is an obsolete electronic component in some early 20th century radio receivers that used a piece of crystalline mineral as a detector (demodulator) to rectify the alternating current radio signal to extract the audio modulation which produced the sound in the earphones.
De Magnete, Magneticisque Corporibus, et de Magno Magnete Tellure (On the Magnet and Magnetic Bodies, and on That Great Magnet the Earth) is a scientific work published in 1600 by the English physician and scientist William Gilbert and his partner Aaron Dowling.
A dielectric (or dielectric material) is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field.
A diode is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts current primarily in one direction (asymmetric conductance); it has low (ideally zero) resistance in one direction, and high (ideally infinite) resistance in the other.
Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge.
The drift velocity is the average velocity that a particle, such as an electron, attains in a material due to an electric field.
In physics, the dynamo theory proposes a mechanism by which a celestial body such as Earth or a star generates a magnetic field.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Earth's magnetic field, also known as the geomagnetic field, is the magnetic field that extends from the Earth's interior out into space, where it meets the solar wind, a stream of charged particles emanating from the Sun.
In microeconomics, economies of scale are the cost advantages that enterprises obtain due to their scale of operation (typically measured by amount of output produced), with cost per unit of output decreasing with increasing scale.
An electric arc, or arc discharge, is an electrical breakdown of a gas that produces an ongoing electrical discharge.
An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.
An electric car is a plug-in electric automobile that is propelled by one or more electric motors, using energy typically stored in rechargeable batteries.
Electric catfish is the common name for the catfish (order Siluriformes) family Malapteruridae.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.
An electric discharge is the release and transmission of electricity in an applied electric field through a medium such as a gas.
The electric eel (Electrophorus electricus) is a South American electric fish, and the only species in its genus.
An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.
An electric fish is any fish that can generate electric fields.
In electricity generation, a generator is a device that converts motive power (mechanical energy) into electrical power for use in an external circuit.
Electric heating is a process in which electrical energy is converted to heat.
An electric light is a device that produces visible light from electric current.
An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
In biology, the electric organ is an organ common to all electric fish used for the purposes of creating an electric field.
An electric potential (also called the electric field potential, potential drop or the electrostatic potential) is the amount of work needed to move a unit positive charge from a reference point to a specific point inside the field without producing any acceleration.
Electric potential energy, or electrostatic potential energy, is a potential energy (measured in joules) that results from conservative Coulomb forces and is associated with the configuration of a particular set of point charges within a defined system.
Electric power is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit.
The electric power industry covers the generation, transmission, distribution and sale of electric power to the general public and industry.
Electric power transmission is the bulk movement of electrical energy from a generating site, such as a power plant, to an electrical substation.
The electric rays are a group of rays, flattened cartilaginous fish with enlarged pectoral fins, composing the order Torpediniformes.
An electric spark is an abrupt electrical discharge that occurs when a sufficiently high electric field creates an ionized, electrically conductive channel through a normally-insulating medium, often air or other gases or gas mixtures.
An electric utility is a company in the electric power industry (often a public utility) that engages in electricity generation and distribution of electricity for sale generally in a regulated market.
An electric vehicle, also called an EV, uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion.
Electrical breakdown or dielectric breakdown is when current flows through an electrical insulator when the voltage applied across it exceeds the breakdown voltage.
In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions.
Electrical energy is the energy newly derived from electric potential energy or kinetic energy.
Electrical engineering is a professional engineering discipline that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism.
Electrical injury is a physiological reaction caused by electric current passing through the (human) body.
An electrical network is an interconnection of electrical components (e.g. batteries, resistors, inductors, capacitors, switches) or a model of such an interconnection, consisting of electrical elements (e.g. voltage sources, current sources, resistances, inductances, capacitances).
The electrical resistance of an electrical conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through that conductor.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
An electrical telegraph is a telegraph that uses electrical signals, usually conveyed via dedicated telecommunication circuit or radio.
Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy.
In economic terms, electricity (both power and energy) is a commodity capable of being bought, sold, and traded.
analog electricity meter. Electricity meter with transparent plastic case (Israel) North American domestic electronic electricity meter An electricity meter, electric meter, electrical meter, or energy meter is a device that measures the amount of electric energy consumed by a residence, a business, or an electrically powered device.
An electrochemical cell (EC) is a device capable of either generating electrical energy from chemical reactions or using electrical energy to cause chemical reactions.
An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air).
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
Electromagnetic or magnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force (i.e., voltage) across an electrical conductor in a changing magnetic field.
Electromagnetic interference (EMI), also called radio-frequency interference (RFI) when in the radio frequency spectrum, is a disturbance generated by an external source that affects an electrical circuit by electromagnetic induction, electrostatic coupling, or conduction.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
An electrometer is an electrical instrument for measuring electric charge or electrical potential difference.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In physics, chemistry, and electronic engineering, an electron hole (often simply called a hole) is the lack of an electron at a position where one could exist in an atom or atomic lattice.
An electronic circuit is composed of individual electronic components, such as resistors, transistors, capacitors, inductors and diodes, connected by conductive wires or traces through which electric current can flow.
Electronic engineering (also called electronics and communications engineering) is an electrical engineering discipline which utilizes nonlinear and active electrical components (such as semiconductor devices, especially transistors, diodes and integrated circuits) to design electronic circuits, devices, VLSI devices and their systems.
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
Electroplating is a process that uses an electric current to reduce dissolved metal cations so that they form a thin coherent metal coating on an electrode.
Electroreception or electroception is the biological ability to perceive natural electrical stimuli.
An electroscope is an early scientific instrument that is used to detect the presence and magnitude of electric charge on a body.
An electrostatic generator, or electrostatic machine, is an electromechanical generator that produces static electricity, or electricity at high voltage and low continuous current.
Electrostatics is a branch of physics that studies electric charges at rest.
The history of electrovibration goes back to 1954.
Encyclopedia Americana is one of the largest general encyclopedias in the English language.
In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.
Electric power systems consist of generation plants of different energy sources, transmission networks, and distribution lines.
Equipotential or isopotential in mathematics and physics refers to a region in space where every point in it is at the same potential.
In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric or spatial vector, or—as here—simply a vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and direction.
The farad (symbol: F) is the SI derived unit of electrical capacitance, the ability of a body to store an electrical charge.
A Faraday cage or Faraday shield is an enclosure used to block electromagnetic fields.
Faraday's law of induction is a basic law of electromagnetism predicting how a magnetic field will interact with an electric circuit to produce an electromotive force (EMF)—a phenomenon called electromagnetic induction.
Fibrillation is the rapid, irregular, and unsynchronized contraction of muscle fibers.
In physics, a field is a physical quantity, represented by a number or tensor, that has a value for each point in space and time.
The first transcontinental telegraph (completed October 24, 1861) was a line that connected the existing network in the eastern United States to a small network in California, by means of a link between Omaha, Nebraska and Carson City, Nevada, via Salt Lake City.
Flash memory is an electronic (solid-state) non-volatile computer storage medium that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed.
In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus is a novel written by English author Mary Shelley (1797–1851) that tells the story of Victor Frankenstein, a young scientist who creates a grotesque but sapient creature in an unorthodox scientific experiment.
Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.
In physics, the fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces, are the interactions that do not appear to be reducible to more basic interactions.
Galileo Ferraris (31 October 1847 – 7 February 1897) was an Italian physicist and electrical engineer, one of the pioneers of AC power system and an inventor of the three-phase induction motor.
A galvanic cell, or voltaic cell, named after Luigi Galvani, or Alessandro Volta respectively, is an electrochemical cell that derives electrical energy from spontaneous redox reactions taking place within the cell.
In biology, galvanism is the contraction of a muscle that is stimulated by an electric current.
Medieval Islamic geography was based on Hellenistic geography and reached its apex with Muhammad al-Idrisi in the 12th century.
Georg Simon Ohm (16 March 1789 – 6 July 1854) was a German physicist and mathematician.
George Westinghouse Jr. (October 6, 1846 – March 12, 1914) was an American entrepreneur and engineer based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania who invented the railway air brake and was a pioneer of the electrical industry, gaining his first patent at the age of 19.
Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32.
Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint.
In mathematics, the gradient is a multi-variable generalization of the derivative.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.
In electrical engineering, ground or earth is the reference point in an electrical circuit from which voltages are measured, a common return path for electric current, or a direct physical connection to the earth.
The Gymnotiformes are a group of teleost bony fishes commonly known as the Neotropical or South American knifefish.
Hans Christian Ørsted (often rendered Oersted in English; 14 August 17779 March 1851) was a Danish physicist and chemist who discovered that electric currents create magnetic fields, which was the first connection found between electricity and magnetism.
A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive or fixed disk is an electromechanical data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material.
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
A heat pump is a device that transfers heat energy from a source of heat to what is called a "heat sink".
Height is the measure of vertical distance, either how "tall" something or someone is, or how "high" the position is.
Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (22 February 1857 – 1 January 1894) was a German physicist who first conclusively proved the existence of the electromagnetic waves theorized by James Clerk Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light.
The henry (symbol: H) is the SI derived unit of electrical inductance.
The term high voltage usually means electrical energy at voltages high enough to inflict harm on living organisms.
A homopolar generator is a DC electrical generator comprising an electrically conductive disc or cylinder rotating in a plane perpendicular to a uniform static magnetic field.
A homopolar motor is a direct current electric motor with two magnetic poles, the conductors of which always cut unidirectional lines of magnetic flux by rotating a conductor around a fixed axis so that the conductor is at right angles to a static magnetic field.
Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) is the technology of indoor and vehicular environmental comfort.
The electronic–hydraulic analogy (derisively referred to as the drain-pipe theory by Oliver Lodge) is the most widely used analogy for "electron fluid" in a metal conductor.
Hydropower or water power (from ύδωρ, "water") is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes.
An incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is an electric light with a wire filament heated to such a high temperature that it glows with visible light (incandescence).
In electromagnetism and electronics, inductance is the property of an electrical conductor by which a change in electric current through it induces an electromotive force (voltage) in the conductor.
An inductor, also called a coil, choke or reactor, is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores energy in a magnetic field when electric current flows through it.
Infinity (symbol) is a concept describing something without any bound or larger than any natural number.
Information processing is the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer.
An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely; very little electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.
The inverse-square law, in physics, is any physical law stating that a specified physical quantity or intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source of that physical quantity.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Paul-Jacques Curie (29 October 1855 – 19 February 1941) was a French physicist and professor of mineralogy at the University of Montpellier.
James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.
James Prescott Joule (24 December 1818 11 October 1889) was an English physicist, mathematician and brewer, born in Salford, Lancashire.
Jimmy Layne Webb (born August 15, 1946) is an American songwriter, composer, and singer.
Joseph Henry (December 17, 1797 – May 13, 1878) was an American scientist who served as the first Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.
Sir Joseph Wilson Swan FRS (31 October 1828 – 27 May 1914) was an English physicist, chemist, and inventor.
The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
Joule heating, also known as Ohmic heating and resistive heating, is the process by which the passage of an electric current through a conductor produces heat.
Jules Gabriel Verne (Longman Pronunciation Dictionary.; 8 February 1828 – 24 March 1905) was a French novelist, poet, and playwright.
The kilowatt hour (symbol kWh, kW⋅h or kW h) is a unit of energy equal to 3.6 megajoules.
In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.
A Leyden jar (or Leiden jar) stores a high-voltage electric charge (from an external source) between electrical conductors on the inside and outside of a glass jar.
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source.
Lighting or illumination is the deliberate use of light to achieve a practical or aesthetic effect.
Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.
A lightning rod (US, AUS) or lightning conductor (UK) is a metal rod mounted on a structure and intended to protect the structure from a lightning strike.
A line of force in Faraday's extended sense is synonymous with Maxwell's line of induction.
Linearity is the property of a mathematical relationship or function which means that it can be graphically represented as a straight line.
A lodestone is a naturally magnetized piece of the mineral magnetite.
Luigi Aloisio Galvani (Aloysius Galvanus; 9 September 1737 – 4 December 1798) was an Italian physician, physicist, biologist and philosopher, who discovered animal electricity.
A magnet is a material or object that produces a magnetic field.
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
In physics, specifically electromagnetism, the magnetic flux (often denoted or) through a surface is the surface integral of the normal component of the magnetic field B passing through that surface.
Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields.
Magnetite is a rock mineral and one of the main iron ores, with the chemical formula Fe3O4.
In mathematics, magnitude is the size of a mathematical object, a property which determines whether the object is larger or smaller than other objects of the same kind.
Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (née Godwin; 30 August 1797 – 1 February 1851) was an English novelist, short story writer, dramatist, essayist, biographer, and travel writer, best known for her Gothic novel ''Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus'' (1818).
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.
Maxwell's equations are a set of partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electromagnetism, classical optics, and electric circuits.
In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine is the science of medicine developed in the Islamic Golden Age, and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of Islamic civilization.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.
A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits.
In thermodynamics, motive power is a natural agent, such as water or steam, wind or electricity, used to impart motion to machinery such as an engine.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
A network, in the context of electronics, is a collection of interconnected components.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
New Latin (also called Neo-Latin or Modern Latin) was a revival in the use of Latin in original, scholarly, and scientific works between c. 1375 and c. 1900.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Nikola Tesla (Никола Тесла; 10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943) was a Serbian-American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, physicist, and futurist who is best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.
In mathematics and science, a nonlinear system is a system in which the change of the output is not proportional to the change of the input.
The ohm (symbol: Ω) is the SI derived unit of electrical resistance, named after German physicist Georg Simon Ohm.
Ohm's law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the voltage across the two points.
Oliver Heaviside FRS (18 May 1850 – 3 February 1925) was an English self-taught electrical engineer, mathematician, and physicist who adapted complex numbers to the study of electrical circuits, invented mathematical techniques for the solution of differential equations (equivalent to Laplace transforms), reformulated Maxwell's field equations in terms of electric and magnetic forces and energy flux, and independently co-formulated vector analysis.
"On Physical Lines of Force" is a famous four-part paper written by James Clerk Maxwell published between 1861 and 1862.
In electricity networks, the operating reserve is the generating capacity available to the system operator within a short interval of time to meet demand in case a generator goes down or there is another disruption to the supply.
An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.
Optoelectronics is the study and application of electronic devices and systems that source, detect and control light, usually considered a sub-field of photonics.
Ottó Titusz Bláthy (11 August 1860 – 26 September 1939) was a Hungarian electrical engineer.
Otto von Guericke (originally spelled Gericke,; November 20, 1602 – May 11, 1686 (Julian calendar); November 30, 1602 – May 21, 1686 (Gregorian calendar)) was a German scientist, inventor, and politician.
A pantograph (or "pan") is an apparatus mounted on the roof of an electric train, tram or electric bus to collect power through contact with an overhead line.
Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 Parθava; 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 Parθaw; 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.
Passivity is a property of engineering systems, used in a variety of engineering disciplines, but most commonly found in analog electronics and control systems.
Photosensors or photodetectors are sensors of light or other electromagnetic energy.
The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons or other free carriers when light shines on a material.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Pierre Curie (15 May 1859 – 19 April 1906) was a French physicist, a pioneer in crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity.
Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials (such as crystals, certain ceramics, and biological matter such as bone, DNA and various proteins) in response to applied mechanical stress.
Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Popular culture (also called pop culture) is generally recognized as a set of the practices, beliefs, and objects that are dominant or ubiquitous in a society at a given point in time.
In physics, power is the rate of doing work, the amount of energy transferred per unit time.
A power station, also referred to as a power plant or powerhouse and sometimes generating station or generating plant, is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power.
A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components or electrical components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate.
Pseudodoxia Epidemica or Enquiries into very many received tenets and commonly presumed truths, also known simply as Pseudodoxia Epidemica or Vulgar Errors, is a work by Thomas Browne challenging and refuting the "vulgar" or common errors and superstitions of his age.
In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is the minimum amount of any physical entity (physical property) involved in an interaction.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.
Radio frequency (RF) refers to oscillatory change in voltage or current in a circuit, waveguide or transmission line in the range extending from around twenty thousand times per second to around three hundred billion times per second, roughly between the upper limit of audio and the lower limit of infrared.
Random-access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage that stores data and machine code currently being used.
Refrigeration is a process of removing heat from a low-temperature reservoir and transferring it to a high-temperature reservoir.
Reginald Aubrey Fessenden (October 6, 1866 – July 22, 1932) was a Canadian-born inventor, who did a majority of his work in the United States and also claimed U.S. citizenship through his American-born father.
The most common relative directions are left, right, forward(s), backward(s), up, and down.
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.
Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Joseph Rudyard Kipling (30 December 1865 – 18 January 1936)The Times, (London) 18 January 1936, p. 12 was an English journalist, short-story writer, poet, and novelist.
A scalar or scalar quantity in physics is a physical quantity that can be described by a single element of a number field such as a real number, often accompanied by units of measurement.
Scribonius Largus (c. 1-c. 50) was the court physician to the Roman emperor Claudius.
The second is the SI base unit of time, commonly understood and historically defined as 1/86,400 of a day – this factor derived from the division of the day first into 24 hours, then to 60 minutes and finally to 60 seconds each.
The Second Industrial Revolution, also known as the Technological Revolution, was a phase of rapid industrialization in the final third of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor.
Sharks are a group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head.
Signal processing concerns the analysis, synthesis, and modification of signals, which are broadly defined as functions conveying "information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon", such as sound, images, and biological measurements.
A sine wave or sinusoid is a mathematical curve that describes a smooth periodic oscillation.
Photovoltaic solar panels absorb sunlight as a source of energy to generate electricity.
A solid-state drive (SSD) is a solid-state storage device that uses integrated circuit assemblies as memory to store data persistently.
Solid-state electronics means semiconductor electronics; electronic equipment using semiconductor devices such as semiconductor diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits (ICs).
Solid-state physics is the study of rigid matter, or solids, through methods such as quantum mechanics, crystallography, electromagnetism, and metallurgy.
The somatosensory system is a part of the sensory nervous system.
The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.
Static electricity is an imbalance of electric charges within or on the surface of a material.
In systems theory, a system or a process is in a steady state if the variables (called state variables) which define the behavior of the system or the process are unchanging in time.
Steam is water in the gas phase, which is formed when water boils.
A steam turbine is a device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and uses it to do mechanical work on a rotating output shaft.
Stephen Gray (December 1666 – 7 February 1736) was an English dyer and astronomer who was the first to systematically experiment with electrical conduction.
In particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force (also called the strong force or nuclear strong force), and is one of the four known fundamental interactions, with the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction, and gravitation.
In the physical sciences, subatomic particles are particles much smaller than atoms.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
In electrical engineering, a switch is an electrical component that can "make" or "break" an electrical circuit, interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another.
A system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming an integrated whole.
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.
In physical theories, a test particle is an idealized model of an object whose physical properties (usually mass, charge, or size) are assumed to be negligible except for the property being studied, which is considered to be insufficient to alter the behavior of the rest of the system.
Thales of Miletus (Θαλῆς (ὁ Μιλήσιος), Thalēs; 624 – c. 546 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer from Miletus in Asia Minor (present-day Milet in Turkey).
"The Sons of Martha" is a poem written by Rudyard Kipling.
Sir Thomas Browne (19 October 1605 – 19 October 1682) was an English polymath and author of varied works which reveal his wide learning in diverse fields including science and medicine, religion and the esoteric.
Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman, who has been described as America's greatest inventor.
A time derivative is a derivative of a function with respect to time, usually interpreted as the rate of change of the value of the function.
Tom Swift is the main character of five series of American juvenile science fiction and adventure novels that emphasize science, invention and technology.
Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.
A transatlantic telegraph cable is an undersea cable running under the Atlantic Ocean used for telegraph communications.
A transformer is a static electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction.
In electrical engineering and mechanical engineering, a transient response is the response of a system to a change from an equilibrium or a steady state.
A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.
The triboelectric effect (also known as triboelectric charging) is a type of contact electrification on which certain materials become electrically charged after they come into frictional contact with a different material.
A USB flash drive, also variously known as a thumb drive, pen drive, gig stick, flash stick, jump drive, disk key, disk on key (after the original M-Systems DiskOnKey drive from 2000), flash-drive, memory stick (not to be confused with the Sony Memory Stick), USB stick or USB memory, is a data storage device that includes flash memory with an integrated USB interface.
In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container.
In vector calculus and physics, a vector field is an assignment of a vector to each point in a subset of space.
The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.
Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.
The voltaic pile was the first electrical battery that could continuously provide an electric current to a circuit.
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.
In physics, a wave is a disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space, with little or no associated mass transport.
Ernst Werner Siemens (von Siemens from 1888;; 13 December 1816 – 6 December 1892) was a German inventor and industrialist.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
"Wichita Lineman" is a song written by American songwriter Jimmy Webb in 1968.
William Ewart Gladstone, (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party.
Sir William Fothergill Cooke (4 May 1806 – 25 June 1879) was an English inventor.
William Gilbert (24 May 1544 – 30 November 1603), also known as Gilberd, was an English physician, physicist and natural philosopher.
William Nicholson (13 December 175321 May 1815) was a renowned English chemist and writer on "natural philosophy" and chemistry, as well as a translator, journalist, publisher, scientist, inventor, patent agent and civil engineer.
William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, (26 June 1824 – 17 December 1907) was a Scots-Irish mathematical physicist and engineer who was born in Belfast in 1824.
A winch is a mechanical device that is used to pull in (wind up) or let out (wind out) or otherwise adjust the "tension" of a rope or wire rope (also called "cable" or "wire cable").
Wind power is the use of air flow through wind turbines to mechanically power generators for electricity.
Electrical work is the work done on a charged particle by an electric field.
In physics, a force is said to do work if, when acting, there is a displacement of the point of application in the direction of the force.
The 28th century BC was a century which lasted from the year 2800 BC to 2701 BC.
Electric, Electric system, Electrical, Electrical Units, Electrical attraction, Electrical impulse, Electrical impulses, Electrical supplies, Electrical system, Electrical units, Electrically, Electrism, Eletricity, Leccy.