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Index Electrocardiography

Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin. [1]

197 relations: Acute pericarditis, Alexander Muirhead, AMA Manual of Style, American Academy of Family Physicians, American English, American Medical Association, Analog-to-digital converter, Analogue electronics, Anatomical terms of location, Anesthesia, Anterior interventricular branch of left coronary artery, Artificial cardiac pacemaker, Atrial fibrillation, Atrial flutter, Atrial tachycardia, Atrioventricular node, Atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia, Atrium (heart), Augustus Desiré Waller, AV nodal reentrant tachycardia, Axillary lines, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Bifascicular block, Biotelemetry, Bradycardia, British English, Brugada syndrome, Bundle of His, Cardiac aberrancy, Cardiac arrest, Cardiac cycle, Cardiac muscle, Cardiac pacemaker, Cardiac stress test, Cardiology, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Cardiothoracic surgery, Cardiovascular technologist, Catheter, Choosing Wisely, Circumflex branch of left coronary artery, Clément Ader, Clinical cardiac electrophysiology, Common-mode interference, Computed tomography angiography, Consumer Reports, Coronal plane, Coronary arteries, Coronary artery disease, Defibrillation, ..., Depolarization, Dextrocardia, Dictionary of National Biography, Digital electronics, Digoxin, Digoxin toxicity, Drug-induced QT prolongation, Echocardiography, Ectopic pacemaker, Einthoven's triangle, Electric potential, Electrical conduction system of the heart, Electrode, Electroencephalography, Electrogastrogram, Electrography (disambiguation), Electromagnetism, Electropalatography, Electrophysiology, Electrophysiology study, Electroretinography, Electrostatic discharge, Emergency medicine, Epileptic seizure, Esophagus, Euclidean vector, Femoral vein, First-degree atrioventricular block, Font, Fourth heart sound, General anaesthesia, Geometry, Greek language, Heart, Heart arrhythmia, Heart block, Heart murmur, Heart rate monitor, Hexaxial reference system, High Frequency QRS, Hypercalcaemia, Hyperkalemia, Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Hypocalcaemia, Hypokalemia, Hypothermia, Instrumentation amplifier, Intercostal space, International scientific vocabulary, Interventricular septum, Intracranial pressure, Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, J wave, Junctional ectopic tachycardia, Left anterior fascicular block, Left axis deviation, Left bundle branch block, Left posterior fascicular block, Left ventricular hypertrophy, Leiden, Lewis lead, Lippmann electrometer, List of anatomical lines, Loanword, London, Long QT syndrome, Lown–Ganong–Levine syndrome, Magnetic resonance angiography, Mains electricity, Medical emergency, Merriam-Webster, Multifocal atrial tachycardia, Myocardial infarction, Netherlands, New Latin, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Non-invasive procedure, P wave (electrocardiography), Palpitations, Pathognomonicity, Pathology, Pericardial effusion, Pericarditis, Perioperative, Population study, Potassium chloride, PR interval, Pre-excitation syndrome, Premature atrial contraction, Premature ventricular contraction, Pulmonary embolism, Pulseless electrical activity, Purkinje fibers, QRS complex, QT interval, René Descartes, Repolarization, Restrictive cardiomyopathy, Right axis deviation, Right bundle branch block, Right coronary artery, Right heart strain, Right ventricular hypertrophy, Second-degree atrioventricular block, Septum, Sgarbossa's criteria, Short QT syndrome, Shortness of breath, Sick sinus syndrome, Silver chloride, Sinoatrial arrest, Sinoatrial block, Sinoatrial node, Sinus bradycardia, Sinus rhythm, Sinus tachycardia, Sports physical examination, St Bartholomew's Hospital, ST depression, ST elevation, St Mary's Hospital, London, ST segment, String galvanometer, Supraventricular tachycardia, Syncope (medicine), T wave, Tachycardia, Taro Takemi, Third heart sound, Third-degree atrioventricular block, Thrombolysis, Torsades de pointes, Transverse plane, Tricyclic antidepressant overdose, Trifascicular block, U wave, United States Preventive Services Task Force, University of Utah, Vagal tone, Ventricle (heart), Ventricular fibrillation, Ventricular flutter, Ventricular tachycardia, Vital signs, Wellens' syndrome, Willem Einthoven, Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome. Expand index (147 more) »

Acute pericarditis

Acute pericarditis is a type of pericarditis (inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart, the pericardium) usually lasting less than 6 weeks.

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Alexander Muirhead

Alexander Muirhead, FRS, (26 May 1848 – 13 December 1920) born in East Saltoun, East Lothian, Scotland was an electrical engineer specialising in wireless telegraphy.

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AMA Manual of Style

AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors is the style guide of the American Medical Association.

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American Academy of Family Physicians

The American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) was founded in 1947 to promote the science and art of family medicine.

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American English

American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.

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American Medical Association

The American Medical Association (AMA), founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897, is the largest association of physicians—both MDs and DOs—and medical students in the United States.

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Analog-to-digital converter

In electronics, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC, A/D, or A-to-D) is a system that converts an analog signal, such as a sound picked up by a microphone or light entering a digital camera, into a digital signal.

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Analogue electronics

Analogue electronics (also spelled analog electronics) are electronic systems with a continuously variable signal, in contrast to digital electronics where signals usually take only two levels.

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Anatomical terms of location

Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.

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In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry), anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek "without sensation") is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness.

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Anterior interventricular branch of left coronary artery

The anterior interventricular branch of left coronary artery, (also left anterior descending artery (LAD), or anterior descending branch) is a branch of the left coronary artery.

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Artificial cardiac pacemaker

A pacemaker (or artificial pacemaker, so as not to be confused with the heart's natural pacemaker) is a medical device that generates electrical impulses delivered by electrodes to contract the heart muscles and regulate the electrical conduction system of the heart.

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Atrial fibrillation

Atrial fibrillation (AF or A-fib) is an abnormal heart rhythm characterized by rapid and irregular beating of the atria.

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Atrial flutter

Atrial flutter (AFL) is a common abnormal heart rhythm that starts in the atrial chambers of the heart.

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Atrial tachycardia

Atrial tachycardia is a type of heart rhythm problem in which the heart's electrical impulse comes from an ectopic pacemaker (that is, an abnormally located cardiac pacemaker) in the upper chambers (atria) of the heart, rather than from the sinoatrial node, the normal origin of the heart's electrical activity.

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Atrioventricular node

The atrioventricular node, or AV node is a part of the electrical conduction system of the heart that coordinates the top of the heart.

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Atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia

Atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia (AVRT), or atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia, is a type of abnormal fast heart rhythm and is classified as a type of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT).

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Atrium (heart)

The atrium is the upper chamber in which blood enters the heart.

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Augustus Desiré Waller

Augustus Desiré Waller FRS (18 July 1856 – 11 March 1922) was a British physiologist and the son of Augustus Volney Waller.

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AV nodal reentrant tachycardia

AV nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT), or atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia, is a type of abnormal fast heart rhythm.

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Axillary lines

The axillary lines are the anterior axillary line, midaxillary line and the posterior axillary line.

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Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) in Boston, Massachusetts is a teaching hospital of Harvard Medical School.

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Bifascicular block

Bifascicular block is a conduction abnormality in the heart where two of the three main fascicles of the His/Purkinje system are blocked.

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Biotelemetry (or medical telemetry) involves the application of telemetry in biology, medicine, and other health care to remotely monitor various vital signs of ambulatory patients.

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Bradycardia is a condition wherein an individual has a very slow heart rate, typically defined as a resting heart rate of under 60 beats per minute (BPM) in adults.

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British English

British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.

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Brugada syndrome

Brugada syndrome (BrS) is a genetic condition that results in abnormal electrical activity within the heart, increasing the risk of sudden cardiac death.

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Bundle of His

The bundle of His or His bundle is a collection of heart muscle cells specialized for electrical conduction.

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Cardiac aberrancy

Cardiac aberrancy is a type of aberration of the electrical conduction system of the heart.

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Cardiac arrest

Cardiac arrest is a sudden loss of blood flow resulting from the failure of the heart to effectively pump.

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Cardiac cycle

The cardiac cycle is the performance of the human heart from the beginning of one heartbeat to the beginning of the next.

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Cardiac muscle

Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) is one of the three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle.

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Cardiac pacemaker

Image showing the cardiac pacemaker or SA node, the normal pacemaker within the electrical conduction system of the heart. The contraction of cardiac muscle (heart muscle) in all animals is initiated by electrical impulses known as action potentials.

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Cardiac stress test

A cardiac stress test (also referred to as a cardiac diagnostic test, cardiopulmonary exercise test, or abbreviated CPX test) is a cardiological test that measures the heart's ability to respond to external stress in a controlled clinical environment.

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Cardiology (from Greek καρδίᾱ kardiā, "heart" and -λογία -logia, "study") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory system.

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Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an emergency procedure that combines chest compressions often with artificial ventilation in an effort to manually preserve intact brain function until further measures are taken to restore spontaneous blood circulation and breathing in a person who is in cardiac arrest.

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Cardiothoracic surgery

Cardiothoracic surgery (also known as thoracic surgery) is the field of medicine involved in surgical treatment of organs inside the thorax (the chest)—generally treatment of conditions of the heart (heart disease) and lungs (lung disease).

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Cardiovascular technologist

Cardiovascular technologists (also known as a cardiovascular or vascular technicians) are health professionals that deal with the circulatory system.

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In medicine, a catheter is a thin tube made from medical grade materials serving a broad range of functions.

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Choosing Wisely

Choosing Wisely is a United States-based health educational campaign, led by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM).

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Circumflex branch of left coronary artery

The "LCX", or left circumflex artery (or circumflex artery, or circumflex branch of the left coronary artery) is an artery of the heart.

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Clément Ader

Clément Ader (2 April 1841 – 3 May 1925) was a French inventor and engineer who was born in Muret, Haute-Garonne (a distant suburb of Toulouse), and died in Toulouse.

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Clinical cardiac electrophysiology

Cardiac Electrophysiology (also referred to as clinical cardiac electrophysiology, arrhythmia services, or electrophysiology), is a branch of the medical specialty of cardiology and is concerned with the study and treatment of rhythm disorders of the heart.

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Common-mode interference

In telecommunication, the term common-mode interference has the following meanings.

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Computed tomography angiography

Computed tomography angiography (also called CT angiography or CTA) is a computed tomography technique used to visualize arterial and venous vessels throughout the body.

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Consumer Reports

Consumer Reports is an American magazine published since 1930 by Consumers Union, a nonprofit organization dedicated to unbiased product testing, consumer-oriented research, public education, and advocacy.

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Coronal plane

A coronal plane (also known as the frontal plane) is any vertical plane that divides the body into ventral and dorsal (belly and back) sections.

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Coronary arteries

The coronary arteries are the arteries of the coronary circulation that transport blood into and out of the cardiac muscle.

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Coronary artery disease

Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.

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Defibrillation is a treatment for life-threatening cardiac dysrhythmias, specifically ventricular fibrillation (VF) and non-perfusing ventricular tachycardia (VT).

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In biology, depolarization is a change within a cell, during which the cell undergoes a shift in electric charge distribution, resulting in less negative charge inside the cell.

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Dextrocardia (from Latin dexter, meaning "right," and Greek kardia, meaning "heart") is a rare congenital condition in which the apex of the heart is located on the right side of the body.

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Dictionary of National Biography

The Dictionary of National Biography (DNB) is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published from 1885.

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Digital electronics

Digital electronics or digital (electronic) circuits are electronics that operate on digital signals.

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Digoxin, sold under the brand name Lanoxin among others, is a medication used to treat various heart conditions.

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Digoxin toxicity

Digoxin toxicity, also known as digoxin poisoning, is a type of poisoning that occurs in people who take too much of the medication digoxin or eat plants such as foxglove that contain a similar substance.

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Drug-induced QT prolongation

Drug-induced QT prolongation is seen with a QT interval above 0.45 ms on the ECG and is usually a result of treatment by anti-arrhythmic drugs, such as amiodarone and sotalol, or a number of other drugs that have been reported to cause this problem (e.g., cisapride).

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An echocardiogram, often referred to as a cardiac echo or simply an echo, is a sonogram of the heart.

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Ectopic pacemaker

An ectopic pacemaker or ectopic focus is an excitable group of cells that causes a premature heart beat outside the normally functioning SA node of the heart.

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Einthoven's triangle

Einthoven's triangle is an imaginary formation of three limb leads in a triangle used in electrocardiography, formed by the two shoulders and the pubis.

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Electric potential

An electric potential (also called the electric field potential, potential drop or the electrostatic potential) is the amount of work needed to move a unit positive charge from a reference point to a specific point inside the field without producing any acceleration.

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Electrical conduction system of the heart

The electrical conduction system of the heart transmits signals generated usually by the sinoatrial node to cause contraction of the heart muscle.

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An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air).

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Electroencephalography (EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain.

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An electrogastrogram (EGG) is a graphic produced by an electrogastrograph, which records the electrical signals that travel through the stomach muscles and control the muscles' contractions.

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Electrography (disambiguation)

Electrography often refers to electrophotography, that is, Kirlian photography.

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Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.

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Electropalatography (EPG) is a technique used to monitor contacts between the tongue and hard palate, particularly during articulation and speech.

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Electrophysiology (from Greek ἥλεκτρον, ēlektron, "amber"; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of the electrical properties of biological cells and tissues.

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Electrophysiology study

A cardiac electrophysiology study (EP test or EP study) is a minimally invasive procedure that tests the electrical conduction system of the heart to assess the electrical activity and conduction pathways of the heart.

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Electroretinography measures the electrical responses of various cell types in the retina, including the photoreceptors (rods and cones), inner retinal cells (bipolar and amacrine cells), and the ganglion cells.

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Electrostatic discharge

Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is the sudden flow of electricity between two electrically charged objects caused by contact, an electrical short, or dielectric breakdown.

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Emergency medicine

Emergency medicine, also known as accident and emergency medicine, is the medical specialty concerned with caring for undifferentiated, unscheduled patients with illnesses or injuries requiring immediate medical attention.

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Epileptic seizure

An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.

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The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the food pipe or gullet (gut), is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.

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Euclidean vector

In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric or spatial vector, or—as here—simply a vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and direction.

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Femoral vein

In the human body, the femoral vein is a blood vessel that accompanies the femoral artery in the femoral sheath.

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First-degree atrioventricular block

First-degree atrioventricular block (AV block), or PR prolongation, is a disease of the electrical conduction system of the heart in which the PR interval is lengthened beyond 0.20 seconds.

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In metal typesetting, a font was a particular size, weight and style of a typeface.

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Fourth heart sound

The fourth heart sound or S4 is an extra heart sound that occurs during late diastole, immediately before the normal two "lub-dub" heart sounds (S1 and S2).

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General anaesthesia

General anaesthesia or general anesthesia (see spelling differences) is a medically induced coma with loss of protective reflexes, resulting from the administration of one or more general anaesthetic agents.

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Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.

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Heart arrhythmia

Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.

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Heart block

Heart block is a disease or inherited condition that causes a fault within the heart's natural pacemaker due to some kind of obstruction (or "block") in the electrical conduction system of the heart.

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Heart murmur

Heart murmurs are heart sounds produced when blood flows across one of the heart valves that are loud enough to be heard with a stethoscope.

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Heart rate monitor

A heart rate monitor is a personal monitoring device that allows one to measure one's heart rate in real time or record the heart rate for later study.

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Hexaxial reference system

The hexaxial reference system, better known as the Cabrera system, is a convention to present the extremity leads of the 12 lead electrocardiogram, that provides an illustrative logical sequence that helps interpretation of the ECG, especially to determine the heart's electrical axis in the frontal plane.

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High Frequency QRS

HFQRS (High Frequency QRS) refers to the analysis of the high frequency spectral components of the QRS complex in an electrocardiogram (ECG).

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Hypercalcaemia, also spelled hypercalcemia, is a high calcium (Ca2+) level in the blood serum.

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Hyperkalemia, also spelled hyperkalaemia, is an elevated level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.

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Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a condition in which a portion of the heart becomes thickened without an obvious cause.

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Hypocalcaemia, also spelled hypocalcemia, is low calcium levels in the blood serum.

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Hypokalemia, also spelled hypokalaemia, is a low level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.

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Hypothermia is reduced body temperature that happens when a body dissipates more heat than it absorbs.

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Instrumentation amplifier

An instrumentation (or instrumentational) amplifier is a type of differential amplifier that has been outfitted with input buffer amplifiers, which eliminate the need for input impedance matching and thus make the amplifier particularly suitable for use in measurement and test equipment.

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Intercostal space

The intercostal space (ICS) is the anatomic space between two ribs (Lat. costa).

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International scientific vocabulary

International scientific vocabulary (ISV) comprises scientific and specialized words whose language of origin may or may not be certain, but which are in current use in several modern languages (that is, translingually).

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Interventricular septum

The interventricular septum (IVS, or ventricular septum, or during development septum inferius), is the stout wall separating the lower chambers (the ventricles) of the heart from one another.

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Intracranial pressure

Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure inside the skull and thus in the brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

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Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring

Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) or intraoperative neuromonitoring is the use of electrophysiological methods such as electroencephalography (EEG), electromyography (EMG), and evoked potentials to monitor the functional integrity of certain neural structures (e.g., nerves, spinal cord and parts of the brain) during surgery.

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J wave

A J wave — also known as Osborn wave, camel-hump sign, late delta wave, hathook junction, hypothermic wave, K wave, H wave or current of injury — is an abnormal electrocardiogram finding.

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Junctional ectopic tachycardia

Junctional ectopic tachycardia (JET) is a rare syndrome of the heart that manifests in patients recovering from heart surgery.

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Left anterior fascicular block

Left anterior fascicular block (LAFB) is an abnormal condition of the left ventricle of the heart, related to, but distinguished from, left bundle branch block (LBBB).

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Left axis deviation

In electrocardiography, left axis deviation (LAD) is a condition wherein the mean electrical axis of ventricular contraction of the heart lies in a frontal plane direction between −30° and −90°.

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Left bundle branch block

Left bundle branch block (LBBB) is a cardiac conduction abnormality seen on the electrocardiogram (ECG).

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Left posterior fascicular block

A left posterior fascicular block (LPFB) is a condition where the left posterior fascicle, which travels to the inferior and posterior portion of the left ventricle, does not conduct the electrical impulses from the atrioventricular node.

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Left ventricular hypertrophy

Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is thickening of the heart muscle of the left ventricle of the heart, that is, left-sided ventricular hypertrophy.

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Leiden (in English and archaic Dutch also Leyden) is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands.

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Lewis lead

A Lewis Lead (also called the S5 lead) is a modified EKG lead used to detect atrial flutter waves when atrial flutter is suspected clinically, based on signs and symptoms, but is not definitely demonstrated on the standard 12 lead EKG.

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Lippmann electrometer

A Lippmann electrometer is a device for detecting small rushes of electric current and was invented by Gabriel Lippmann in 1873.

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List of anatomical lines

Anatomical "lines", theoretical lines drawn through structures, are also used to describe anatomical location.

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A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.

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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Long QT syndrome

Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a condition which affects repolarization of the heart after a heartbeat.

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Lown–Ganong–Levine syndrome

Lown–Ganong–Levine syndrome (LGL) is a pre-excitation syndrome of the heart due to abnormal electrical communication between the atria and the ventricles.

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Magnetic resonance angiography

Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is a group of techniques based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to image blood vessels.

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Mains electricity

Mains electricity (as it is known in the UK; US terms include grid power, wall power, and domestic power) is the general-purpose alternating-current (AC) electric power supply.

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Medical emergency

A medical emergency is an acute injury or illness that poses an immediate risk to a person's life or long-term health.

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Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.

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Multifocal atrial tachycardia

Multifocal (or multiform) atrial tachycardia (MAT) is an abnormal heart rhythm, specifically a type of supraventricular tachycardia, that is particularly common in older people and is associated with exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

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Myocardial infarction

Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.

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The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.

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New Latin

New Latin (also called Neo-Latin or Modern Latin) was a revival in the use of Latin in original, scholarly, and scientific works between c. 1375 and c. 1900.

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Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.

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Non-invasive procedure

A medical procedure is defined as non-invasive when no break in the skin is created and there is no contact with the mucosa, or skin break, or internal body cavity beyond a natural or artificial body orifice.

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P wave (electrocardiography)

The P wave in the ECG represents atrial depolarization, which results in atrial contraction, or atrial systole.

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Palpitations are the perceived abnormality of the heartbeat characterized by awareness of cardiac muscle contractions in the chest: hard, fast and/or irregular beats.

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Pathognomonic (rarely spelled pathognomic and sometimes misspelled as pathomnemonic) is a term, often used in medicine, that means characteristic for a particular disease.

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Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.

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Pericardial effusion

Pericardial effusion ("fluid around the heart") is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pericardial cavity.

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Pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardium (the fibrous sac surrounding the heart).

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The perioperative period, (not to be confused with peroperative period - during the course of the operation), is the time period describing the duration of a patient's surgical procedure; this commonly includes ward admission, anesthesia, surgery, and recovery.

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Population study

In the various fields of healthcare, a population study is a study of a group of individuals taken from the general population who share a common characteristic, such as age, sex, or health condition.

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Potassium chloride

Potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine.

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PR interval

In electrocardiography, the PR interval is the period, measured in milliseconds, that extends from the beginning of the P wave (the onset of atrial depolarization) until the beginning of the QRS complex (the onset of ventricular depolarization); it is normally between 120 and 200ms in duration.

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Pre-excitation syndrome

Pre-excitation syndrome is an abnormal heart rhythm in which the ventricles of the heart become depolarized too early, which leads to their partial premature contraction.

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Premature atrial contraction

Premature atrial contractions (PACs), also known as atrial premature complexes (APC) or atrial premature beats (APB), are a common cardiac dysrhythmia characterized by premature heartbeats originating in the atria.

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Premature ventricular contraction

A premature ventricular contraction (PVC)—also known as a premature ventricular complex, ventricular premature contraction (or complex or complexes) (VPC), ventricular premature beat (VPB), or ventricular extrasystole (VES)—is a relatively common event where the heartbeat is initiated by Purkinje fibers in the ventricles rather than by the sinoatrial node, the normal heartbeat initiator.

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Pulmonary embolism

Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance that has moved from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism).

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Pulseless electrical activity

Pulseless electrical activity (PEA), also known as electromechanical dissociation, refers to cardiac arrest in which the electrocardiogram shows a heart rhythm that should produce a pulse, but does not.

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Purkinje fibers

The Purkinje fibers (Purkinje tissue or subendocardial branches) are located in the inner ventricular walls of the heart, just beneath the endocardium in a space called the subendocardium.

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QRS complex

The QRS complex is a name for the combination of three of the graphical deflections seen on a typical electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG).

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QT interval

In cardiology, the QT interval is a measure of the time between the start of the Q wave and the end of the T wave in the heart's electrical cycle.

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René Descartes

René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.

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In neuroscience, repolarization refers to the change in membrane potential that returns it to a negative value just after the depolarization phase of an action potential has changed the membrane potential to a positive value.

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Restrictive cardiomyopathy

Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) is a form of cardiomyopathy in which the walls of the heart are rigid (but not thickened).

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Right axis deviation

The electric axis of the heart is the net direction in which the wave of depolarisation travels.

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Right bundle branch block

A right bundle branch block (RBBB) is a heart block in the electrical conduction system.

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Right coronary artery

In the coronary circulation, the right coronary artery (RCA) is an artery originating above the right cusp of the aortic valve, at the right aortic sinus in the heart.

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Right heart strain

Right heart strain (also right ventricular strain or RV strain) is a medical finding of right ventricular dysfunction where the heart muscle of the right ventricle (RV) is deformed.

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Right ventricular hypertrophy

Right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) is a form of ventricular hypertrophy affecting the right ventricle.

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Second-degree atrioventricular block

Second-degree atrioventricular block (AV block) is a disease of the electrical conduction system of the heart.

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In biology, a septum (Latin for something that encloses; plural septa) is a wall, dividing a cavity or structure into smaller ones.

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Sgarbossa's criteria

Sgarbossa's criteria are a set of electrocardiographic findings generally used to identify myocardial infarction (also called acute myocardial infarction or a "heart attack") in the presence of a left bundle branch block (LBBB) or a ventricular paced rhythm.

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Short QT syndrome

Short QT syndrome is a genetic disease of the electrical system of the heart.

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Shortness of breath

Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough.

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Sick sinus syndrome

Sick sinus syndrome (SSS), also called sinus dysfunction, or sinoatrial node disease ("SND"), is a group of abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) presumably caused by a malfunction of the sinus node, the heart's primary pacemaker.

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Silver chloride

Silver chloride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula AgCl.

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Sinoatrial arrest

Sinoatrial arrest (also known as sinus arrest or sinus pause) is a medical condition wherein the sinoatrial node of the heart transiently ceases to generate the electrical impulses that normally stimulate the myocardial tissues to contract and thus the heart to beat.

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Sinoatrial block

The initial impulse in a heart is usually formed in the Sinoatrial (SA) node and carried through the atria, down the internodal atrial pathways, and to the Atrioventricular (AV) node.

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Sinoatrial node

The sinoatrial node (SA node), also known as sinus node, is a group of cells located in the wall of the right atrium of the heart.

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Sinus bradycardia

Sinus bradycardia is a sinus rhythm with a rate that is lower than normal.

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Sinus rhythm

A sinus rhythm is any cardiac rhythm where depolarization of the cardiac muscle begins at the sinus node.

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Sinus tachycardia

Sinus tachycardia (also colloquially known as sinus tach or sinus tachy) is a sinus rhythm with an elevated rate of impulses, defined as a rate greater than 100 beats/min (bpm) in an average adult.

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Sports physical examination

A sports physical exam or sports physical is a physical examination performed on those entering into a sport.

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St Bartholomew's Hospital

St Bartholomew's Hospital, also known simply as Barts and later more formally as The Royal Hospital of St Bartholomew, is a hospital located at Farringdon in the City of London and founded in 1123.

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ST depression

ST depression refers to a finding on an electrocardiogram, wherein the trace in the ST segment is abnormally low below the baseline.

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ST elevation

ST elevations refers to a finding on an electrocardiogram wherein the trace in the ST segment is abnormally high above the baseline.

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St Mary's Hospital, London

St Mary's Hospital is an NHS hospital in Paddington, in the City of Westminster, London, founded in 1845.

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ST segment

In electrocardiography, the ST segment connects the QRS complex and the T wave and has a duration of 0.005 to 0.150 sec (5 to 150 ms).

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String galvanometer

The string galvanometer, also known as the Einthoven galvanometer, invented around 1901 by Dutch physician Willem Einthoven was the first practical electrocardiograph (ECG); it was one of the earliest instruments capable of detecting and recording the very small electric currents produced by the human heart and produced the first reliable electrocardiograms.

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Supraventricular tachycardia

Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is an abnormally fast heart rhythm arising from improper electrical activity in the upper part of the heart.

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Syncope (medicine)

Syncope, also known as fainting, is a loss of consciousness and muscle strength characterized by a fast onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery.

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T wave

In electrocardiography, the T wave represents the repolarization, or recovery, of the ventricles.

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Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.

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Taro Takemi

was a Japanese physician who served as 11th President of the Japan Medical Association for 25 years from 1957 to 1982, and also served as President of the World Medical Association from 1975 to 1976.

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Third heart sound

The third heart sound or S3 is a rare extra heart sound that occurs soon after the normal two "lub-dub" heart sounds (S1 and S2).

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Third-degree atrioventricular block

Third-degree atrioventricular block (AV block), also known as complete heart block, is a medical condition in which the nerve impulse generated in the sinoatrial node (SA node) in the atrium of the heart does not propagate to the ventricles.

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Thrombolysis is the breakdown (lysis) of blood clots formed in blood vessels, using medication.

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Torsades de pointes

Torsades de pointes or torsade depointes (TdP or simply torsade(s)) (translated as "twisting of the points"), is a specific type of abnormal heart rhythm that can lead to sudden cardiac death.

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Transverse plane

The transverse plane (also called the horizontal plane, axial plane, or transaxial plane) is an imaginary plane that divides the body into superior and inferior parts.

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Tricyclic antidepressant overdose

Tricyclic antidepressant overdose is poisoning caused by excessive medication of the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) type.

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Trifascicular block

Trifascicular block is a problem with the electrical conduction of the heart.

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U wave

The 'U' wave is a wave on an electrocardiogram (ECG).

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United States Preventive Services Task Force

The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) is "an independent panel of experts in primary care and prevention that systematically reviews the evidence of effectiveness and develops recommendations for clinical preventive services".

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University of Utah

The University of Utah (also referred to as the U, U of U, or Utah) is a public coeducational space-grant research university in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States.

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Vagal tone

Vagal tone refers to activity of the vagus nerve, a fundamental component of the parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system.

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Ventricle (heart)

A ventricle is one of two large chambers in the heart that collect and expel blood received from an atrium towards the peripheral beds within the body and lungs.

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Ventricular fibrillation

Ventricular fibrillation (V-fib or VF) is when the heart quivers instead of pumping due to disorganized electrical activity in the ventricles.

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Ventricular flutter

Ventricular flutter is an arrhythmia, more specifically a tachycardia affecting the ventricles with a rate over 250-350 beats/min, and one of the most indiscernible.

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Ventricular tachycardia

Ventricular tachycardia (V-tach or VT) is a type of regular and fast heart rate that arises from improper electrical activity in the ventricles of the heart.

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Vital signs

Vital signs (often shortened to just vitals) are a group of the 4 to 6 most important signs that indicate the status of the body’s vital (life-sustaining) functions.

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Wellens' syndrome

Wellens' syndrome is an electrocardiographic manifestation of critical proximal left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery stenosis in patients with unstable angina.

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Willem Einthoven

Willem Einthoven (21 May 1860 – 29 September 1927) was a Dutch doctor and physiologist.

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Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome

Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome (WPWS) is a disorder due to a specific type of problem with the electrical system of the heart which has resulted in symptoms.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrocardiography

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