200 relations: Abrasion (medical), Absence seizure, Action potential, Adolf Beck (physiologist), Alpha wave, Alzheimer's disease, Amplitude integrated electroencephalography, Amygdala, Analog-to-digital converter, Anesthesia, Anti-aliasing filter, Artifact (error), ASIMO, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Auditory processing disorder, Autism, Band-stop filter, Beat (acoustics), Bell's phenomenon, Benzodiazepine, Beta wave, Brain, Brain death, Brain–computer interface, Brainwave entrainment, Carotid endarterectomy, Catatonia, Cerebrospinal fluid, Choosing Wisely, Cingulate cortex, Claustrophobia, Clinical neurophysiology, Cognitive psychology, Cognitive science, Coma, Consumer brain–computer interfaces, Cornea, Craniotomy, CT scan, Decibel, Delirium, Delta wave, Dendrite, Differential amplifier, Differential diagnosis, Direct current, Dup15q, Dura mater, Ear-EEG, Edgar Adrian, ..., EEG microstates, EEGLAB, Electric dipole moment, Electric potential, Electrical impedance, Electrocardiography, Electrocorticography, Electrode, Electrodermal activity, Electrography (disambiguation), Electromagnetic pulse, Electromyography, Electroneurogram, Electrooculography, Electropalatography, Electrophysiology, Emotiv, Emotiv Systems, Encephalopathy, Epilepsy, Epilepsy surgery, Epileptic seizure, European Data Format, Event-related optical signal, Event-related potential, Evoked potential, Eye tracking, FieldTrip, Final Fantasy, Focal seizure, Force Trainer, Frequency band, Functional magnetic resonance imaging, Functional near-infrared spectroscopy, Gamma wave, God helmet, Ground (electricity), Gyrus, Halothane, Hans Berger, Heart arrhythmia, Hemoencephalography, Hertz, High-pass filter, Hippocampus, Ictal, Imagined speech, Independent component analysis, India, Infant, Integrated circuit, Intensive care unit, Intracranial pressure, Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, Intravenous therapy, Inverse problem, Ion, Ion channel, Laplace operator, Liquid helium, Liverpool, Local field potential, Los Angeles Times, Low-pass filter, Magnetic resonance imaging, Magnetoencephalography, Maharashtra, Mammal, Mastoid part of the temporal bone, Mattel, Meditation, Membrane transport protein, Meninges, Migraine, Mind machine, Mindflex, Mirror neuron, Motor cortex, Movement disorders, Mu wave, Napoleon Cybulski, Near-infrared spectroscopy, Neoplasm, Neural backpropagation, Neural oscillation, Neurofeedback, Neurolinguistics, Neurology, Neuromarketing, Neuron, Neurophysiological Biomarker Toolbox, Neuroscience, NeuroSky, Neurowear, Non-rapid eye movement sleep, Northwestern University, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem, OCZ, Open-source model, OpenBCI, Opiate, Parkinson's disease, Pharmaco-electroencephalography, Polysomnography, Positron emission tomography, Postsynaptic potential, Propofol, Psychogenic non-epileptic seizure, Psychopharmacology, Psychophysiology, Pyramidal cell, Quadrupole, Quantitative electroencephalography, Resting potential, Retina, Richard Caton, Saccade, Scalp, Scholarpedia, Seizure types, Sensory cortex, Single-photon emission computed tomography, Sleep, Sleep disorder, Sleep spindle, Somatosensory system, Specialty (medicine), Spectral density, Spontaneous potential, Square Enix, Star Wars, Stroke, Subarachnoid hemorrhage, Sulcus (neuroanatomy), Swallowing, Syncope (medicine), The BMJ, The Force, Theta wave, Tremor, Trepanning, Utility frequency, Vladimir Pravdich-Neminsky, Voltmeter, Wada test, White matter, William Grey Walter, Wilson–Cowan model, 10–20 system (EEG). Expand index (150 more) » « Shrink index
An abrasion is a wound caused by superficial damage to the skin, no deeper than the epidermis.
Absence seizures are one of several kinds of generalized seizures.
In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.
Adolf Beck (1 January 1863, Kraków – 1942, Lwów) was a Polish Jew, physician of and professor of physiology at the University of Lwów.
Alpha waves are neural oscillations in the frequency range of 7.5–12.5 Hz arising from synchronous and coherent (in phase or constructive) electrical activity of thalamic pacemaker cells in humans.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
Amplitude integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) or cerebral function monitoring (CFM) is a technique for monitoring brain function in intensive care settings over longer periods of time than the traditional electroencephalogram (EEG), typically hours to days.
The amygdala (plural: amygdalae; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin from Greek, ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'Almond', 'tonsil') is one of two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.
In electronics, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC, A/D, or A-to-D) is a system that converts an analog signal, such as a sound picked up by a microphone or light entering a digital camera, into a digital signal.
In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry), anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek "without sensation") is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness.
An anti-aliasing filter (AAF) is a filter used before a signal sampler to restrict the bandwidth of a signal to approximately or completely satisfy the sampling theorem over the band of interest.
In natural science and signal processing, an artifact is any error in the perception or representation of any information, introduced by the involved equipment or technique(s).
ASIMO (whose name comes from English initials or words Advanced Step in Innovative Mobility) is a humanoid robot created by Honda in 2000.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
Auditory processing disorder (APD), also known as central auditory processing disorder (CAPD), is an umbrella term for a variety of disorders that affect the way the brain processes auditory information.
Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by troubles with social interaction and communication and by restricted and repetitive behavior.
In signal processing, a band-stop filter or band-rejection filter is a filter that passes most frequencies unaltered, but attenuates those in a specific range to very low levels.
In acoustics, a beat is an interference pattern between two sounds of slightly different frequencies, perceived as a periodic variation in volume whose rate is the difference of the two frequencies.
Bell's phenomenon (also known as the palpebral oculogyric reflex) is a medical sign that allows observers to notice an upward and outward movement of the eye, when an attempt is made to close the eyes.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
Beta wave, or beta rhythm, is a neural oscillation (brainwave) in the brain with a frequency range of between 12.5 and 30 Hz (12.5 to 30 cycles per second).
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Brain death is the complete loss of brain function (including involuntary activity necessary to sustain life).
A brain–computer interface (BCI), sometimes called a neural-control interface (NCI), mind-machine interface (MMI), direct neural interface (DNI), or brain–machine interface (BMI), is a direct communication pathway between an enhanced or wired brain and an external device.
Brainwave entrainment, also referred to as brainwave synchronization and neural entrainment, refers to the capacity of the brain to naturally synchronize its brainwave frequencies with the rhythm of periodic external stimuli, most commonly auditory, visual, or tactile.
Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is a surgical procedure used to reduce the risk of stroke by correcting stenosis (narrowing) in the common carotid artery or internal carotid artery.
Catatonia is a state of psycho-motor immobility and behavioral abnormality manifested by stupor.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord.
Choosing Wisely is a United States-based health educational campaign, led by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM).
The cingulate cortex is a part of the brain situated in the medial aspect of the cerebral cortex.
Clinical neurophysiology is a medical specialty that studies the central and peripheral nervous systems through the recording of bioelectrical activity, whether spontaneous or stimulated.
Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking".
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.
Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awaken; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.
There are various consumer brain-computer interfaces available for sale.
The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.
A craniotomy is a surgical operation in which a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to access the brain.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
The decibel (symbol: dB) is a unit of measurement used to express the ratio of one value of a physical property to another on a logarithmic scale.
Delirium, also known as acute confusional state, is an organically caused decline from a previously baseline level of mental function.
A delta wave is a high amplitude brain wave with a frequency of oscillation between 0.5–4 hertz.
Dendrites (from Greek δένδρον déndron, "tree"), also dendrons, are branched protoplasmic extensions of a nerve cell that propagate the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project.
A differential amplifier is a type of electronic amplifier that amplifies the difference between two input voltages but suppresses any voltage common to the two inputs.
In medicine, a differential diagnosis is the distinguishing of a particular disease or condition from others that present similar clinical features.
Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge.
Dup15q syndrome is the common name for chromosome 15q11.2-q13.1 duplication syndrome.
Dura mater, or dura, is a thick membrane made of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the brain and spinal cord.
Ear-EEG is a method for measuring dynamics of brain activity through the minute voltage changes observable on the skin, typically by placing electrodes on the scalp.
Edgar Douglas Adrian, 1st Baron Adrian (30 November 1889 – 4 August 1977) was an English electrophysiologist and recipient of the 1932 Nobel Prize for Physiology, won jointly with Sir Charles Sherrington for work on the function of neurons.
EEG microstates are transient, patterned, quasi-stable states or patterns of an electroencephalogram.
EEGLAB is a MATLAB toolbox distributed under the free GNU GPL license for processing data from electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), and other electrophysiological signals.
The electric dipole moment is a measure of the separation of positive and negative electrical charges within a system, that is, a measure of the system's overall polarity.
An electric potential (also called the electric field potential, potential drop or the electrostatic potential) is the amount of work needed to move a unit positive charge from a reference point to a specific point inside the field without producing any acceleration.
Electrical impedance is the measure of the opposition that a circuit presents to a current when a voltage is applied.
Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin.
Electrocorticography (ECoG), or intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG), is a type of electrophysiological monitoring that uses electrodes placed directly on the exposed surface of the brain to record electrical activity from the cerebral cortex.
An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air).
Electrodermal activity (EDA) is the property of the human body that causes continuous variation in the electrical characteristics of the skin.
Electrography often refers to electrophotography, that is, Kirlian photography.
An electromagnetic pulse (EMP), also sometimes called a transient electromagnetic disturbance, is a short burst of electromagnetic energy.
Electromyography (EMG) is an electrodiagnostic medicine technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles.
An electroneurogram is a method used to visualize directly recorded electrical activity of neurons in the central nervous system (brain, spinal cord) or the peripheral nervous system (nerves, ganglions).
Electrooculography (EOG) is a technique for measuring the corneo-retinal standing potential that exists between the front and the back of the human eye.
Electropalatography (EPG) is a technique used to monitor contacts between the tongue and hard palate, particularly during articulation and speech.
Electrophysiology (from Greek ἥλεκτρον, ēlektron, "amber"; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of the electrical properties of biological cells and tissues.
Emotiv Inc. is a privately held bio-informatics and technology company developing and manufacturing wearable electroencephalography (EEG) products including neuroheadsets, SDKs, software, mobile apps, and data products.
Emotiv Systems is an Australian electronics innovation company developing technologies to evolve human computer interaction incorporating non-conscious cues into the human-computer dialog to emulate human to human interaction.
Encephalopathy (from ἐγκέφαλος "brain" + πάθος "suffering") means any disorder or disease of the brain, especially chronic degenerative conditions.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
Epilepsy surgery involves a neurosurgical procedure where an area of the brain involved in seizures is either resected, disconnected or stimulated.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
European Data Format (EDF) is a standard file format designed for exchange and storage of medical time series.
Event-related optical signal (EROS) is a brain-scanning technique that uses infrared light through optical fibers to measure changes in optical properties of active areas of the cerebral cortex.
An event-related potential (ERP) is the measured brain response that is the direct result of a specific sensory, cognitive, or motor event.
An evoked potential or evoked response is an electrical potential recorded from the nervous system of a human or other animal following presentation of a stimulus, as distinct from spontaneous potentials as detected by electroencephalography (EEG), electromyography (EMG), or other electrophysiologic recording method.
Eye tracking is the process of measuring either the point of gaze (where one is looking) or the motion of an eye relative to the head.
FieldTrip is a MATLAB software toolbox for magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) analysis.
Final Fantasy is a science fiction and fantasy media franchise created by Hironobu Sakaguchi, and developed and owned by Square Enix (formerly Square).
Focal seizures (also called partial seizures and localized seizures) are seizures which affect initially only one hemisphere of the brain.
The Force Trainer is a Star Wars-themed toy which creates the illusion of performing "Force"-powered telekinesis.
A frequency band is an interval in the frequency domain, delimited by a lower frequency and an upper frequency.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow.
Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIR or fNIRS), is the use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for the purpose of functional neuroimaging.
A gamma wave is a pattern of neural oscillation in humans with a frequency between 25 and 100 Hz, though 40 Hz is typical.
The God Helmet is an experimental apparatus originally called the Koren helmet after its inventor Stanley Koren.
In electrical engineering, ground or earth is the reference point in an electrical circuit from which voltages are measured, a common return path for electric current, or a direct physical connection to the earth.
In neuroanatomy, a gyrus (pl. gyri) is a ridge on the cerebral cortex.
Halothane, sold under the brandname Fluothane among others, is a general anesthetic.
Hans Berger (21 May 1873 – 1 June 1941) was a German psychiatrist.
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Hemoencephalography (HEG) is a relatively new neurofeedback technique within the field of neurotherapy.
The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.
A high-pass filter (HPF) is an electronic filter that passes signals with a frequency higher than a certain cutoff frequency and attenuates signals with frequencies lower than the cutoff frequency.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
Ictal refers to a physiologic state or event such as a seizure, stroke, or headache.
Imagined speech (silent speech or covert speech) is thinking in the form of sound – “hearing” one’s own voice silently to oneself, without the intentional movement of any extremities such as the lips, tongue, or hands.
In signal processing, independent component analysis (ICA) is a computational method for separating a multivariate signal into additive subcomponents.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
Intensive care unit An intensive care unit (ICU), also known as an intensive therapy unit or intensive treatment unit (ITU) or critical care unit (CCU), is a special department of a hospital or health care facility that provides intensive treatment medicine.
Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure inside the skull and thus in the brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) or intraoperative neuromonitoring is the use of electrophysiological methods such as electroencephalography (EEG), electromyography (EMG), and evoked potentials to monitor the functional integrity of certain neural structures (e.g., nerves, spinal cord and parts of the brain) during surgery.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
An inverse problem in science is the process of calculating from a set of observations the causal factors that produced them: for example, calculating an image in X-ray computed tomography, source reconstruction in acoustics, or calculating the density of the Earth from measurements of its gravity field.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.
In mathematics, the Laplace operator or Laplacian is a differential operator given by the divergence of the gradient of a function on Euclidean space.
At standard pressure, the chemical element helium exists in a liquid form only at the extremely low temperature of −270 °C (about 4 K or −452.2 °F).
Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 in 2017.
A local field potential (LFP) is an electrophysiological signal generated by the summed electric current flowing from multiple nearby neurons within a small volume of nervous tissue.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
A low-pass filter (LPF) is a filter that passes signals with a frequency lower than a certain cutoff frequency and attenuates signals with frequencies higher than the cutoff frequency.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a functional neuroimaging technique for mapping brain activity by recording magnetic fields produced by electrical currents occurring naturally in the brain, using very sensitive magnetometers.
Maharashtra (abbr. MH) is a state in the western region of India and is India's second-most populous state and third-largest state by area.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
The mastoid part of the temporal bone is the back part of the temporal bone.
Mattel, Inc. is an American multinational toy manufacturing company founded in 1945 with headquarters in El Segundo, California.
Meditation can be defined as a practice where an individual uses a technique, such as focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity, to achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state.
A membrane transport protein (or simply transporter) is a membrane protein involved in the movement of ions, small molecules, or macromolecules, such as another protein, across a biological membrane.
The meninges (singular: meninx, from membrane, adjectival: meningeal) are the three membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord.
A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.
A mind machine (aka brain machine or light and sound machine) uses pulsing rhythmic sound, flashing light, electrical or magnetic fields, or a combination of these, to alter the frequency of the user's brainwaves.
Mindflex is a toy by Mattel which apparently uses brain waves to steer a ball through an obstacle course.
A mirror neuron is a neuron that fires both when an animal acts and when the animal observes the same action performed by another.
The motor cortex is the region of the cerebral cortex involved in the planning, control, and execution of voluntary movements.
Movement disorders are clinical syndromes with either an excess of movement or a paucity of voluntary and involuntary movements, unrelated to weakness or spasticity.
Mu waves, also known as mu rhythms, comb or wicket rhythms, arciform rhythms, or sensorimotor rhythms, are synchronized patterns of electrical activity involving large numbers of neurons, probably of the pyramidal type, in the part of the brain that controls voluntary movement.
Napoleon Cybulski (14 September 1854 – 26 April 1919) was a Polish physiologist and a pioneer of endocrinology and electroencephalography.
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a spectroscopic method that uses the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum (from 780 nm to 2500 nm).
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
Neural backpropagation is the phenomenon in which the action potential of a neuron creates a voltage spike both at the end of the axon (normal propagation) and back through to the dendritic arbor or dendrites, from which much of the original input current originated.
Neural oscillations, or brainwaves, are rhythmic or repetitive patterns of neural activity in the central nervous system.
Neurofeedback (NFB), also called neurotherapy or neurobiofeedback, is a type of biofeedback that uses real-time displays of brain activity—most commonly electroencephalography (EEG), to teach self-regulation of brain function.
Neurolinguistics is the study of the neural mechanisms in the human brain that control the comprehension, production, and acquisition of language.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
Neuromarketing is a commercial marketing communication field that applies neuropsychology to marketing research, studying consumers' sensorimotor, cognitive, and affective response to marketing stimuli.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
The Neurophysiological Biomarker Toolbox (NBT) is an open source Matlab toolbox for the computation and integration of neurophysiological biomarkers (e.g., biomarkers based on EEG or MEG recordings).
Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.
NeuroSky, Inc. is a manufacturer of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) technologies for consumer product applications, which was founded in 2004 in Silicon Valley, California.
Neurowear is a gadget project organization in Japan founded on the concept of the "Augmented Human Body".
Non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) is, collectively, sleep stages 1–3, previously known as stages 1–4.
Northwestern University (NU) is a private research university based in Evanston, Illinois, United States, with other campuses located in Chicago and Doha, Qatar, and academic programs and facilities in Miami, Florida, Washington, D.C., and San Francisco, California.
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy or magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), is a spectroscopic technique to observe local magnetic fields around atomic nuclei.
In the field of digital signal processing, the sampling theorem is a fundamental bridge between continuous-time signals (often called "analog signals") and discrete-time signals (often called "digital signals").
OCZ is a brand of Toshiba that is used for some of its solid-state drives (SSDs).
The open-source model is a decentralized software-development model that encourages open collaboration.
OpenBCI is an open source brain-computer interface platform, created by Joel Murphy and Conor Russomanno, after a successful Kickstarter campaign in late 2013.
Opiate is a term classically used in pharmacology to mean a drug derived from opium.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Electroencephalography (EEG) is the science of recording the spontaneous rhythmic electrical activity of a living brain through electrodes on the scalp.
Polysomnography (PSG), a type of sleep study, is a multi-parametric test used in the study of sleep and as a diagnostic tool in sleep medicine.
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
Postsynaptic potentials are changes in the membrane potential of the postsynaptic terminal of a chemical synapse.
Propofol, marketed as Diprivan among others, is a short-acting medication that results in a decreased level of consciousness and lack of memory for events.
Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are events resembling an epileptic seizure, but without the characteristic electrical discharges associated with epilepsy.
Psychopharmacology (from Greek label; label; and label) is the scientific study of the effects drugs have on mood, sensation, thinking, and behavior.
Psychophysiology (from Greek ψῡχή, psȳkhē, "breath, life, soul"; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of psychology that is concerned with the physiological bases of psychological processes.
Pyramidal cells, or (pyramidal neurons), are a type of multipolar neuron found in areas of the brain including the cerebral cortex, the hippocampus, and the amygdala.
A quadrupole or quadrapole is one of a sequence of configurations of things like electric charge or current, or gravitational mass that can exist in ideal form, but it is usually just part of a multipole expansion of a more complex structure reflecting various orders of complexity.
Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) is a field concerned with the numerical analysis of electroencephalography data and associated behavioral correlates.
The relatively static membrane potential of quiescent cells is called the resting membrane potential (or resting voltage), as opposed to the specific dynamic electrochemical phenomena called action potential and graded membrane potential.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
Richard Caton (1842, Bradford – 1926), of Liverpool, England, was a British physician, physiologist and Lord Mayor of Liverpool who was crucial in discovering the electrical nature of the brain and laid the groundwork for Hans Berger to discover Alpha wave activity in the human brain.
A saccade (French for jerk) is a quick, simultaneous movement of both eyes between two or more phases of fixation in the same direction.
The scalp is the anatomical area bordered by the face at the front, and by the neck at the sides and back.
Scholarpedia is an English-language online wiki-based encyclopedia with features commonly associated with open-access online academic journals, which aims to have quality content.
Seizure types most commonly follow the classification proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) in 1981.
The sensory cortex can refer informally to the primary somatosensory cortex, or it can be used as a term for the primary and secondary cortices of the different senses (two cortices each, on left and right hemisphere): the visual cortex on the occipital lobes, the auditory cortex on the temporal lobes, the primary olfactory cortex on the uncus of the piriform region of the temporal lobes, the gustatory cortex on the insular lobe (also referred to as the insular cortex), and the primary somatosensory cortex on the anterior parietal lobes.
Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, or less commonly, SPET) is a nuclear medicine tomographic imaging technique using gamma rays.
Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.
A sleep disorder, or somnipathy, is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person or animal.
Sleep spindles are bursts of neural oscillatory activity that are generated by interplay of the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) and other thalamic nuclei during stage 2 NREM sleep in a frequency of ~10 –12 Hz for at least 0.5 seconds.
The somatosensory system is a part of the sensory nervous system.
A specialty, or speciality, in medicine is a branch of medical practice.
The power spectrum S_(f) of a time series x(t) describes the distribution of power into frequency components composing that signal.
Spontaneous potential (SP), also called self potential, is a naturally occurring electric potential difference in the Earth, measured by an electrode relative to a fixed reference electrode.
Square Enix Holdings Co., Ltd. is a Japanese video game developer, publisher, and distribution company that is best known for its Final Fantasy, Dragon Quest, and Kingdom Hearts role-playing video game franchises, among numerous others.
Star Wars is an American epic space opera media franchise, centered on a film series created by George Lucas.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is bleeding into the subarachnoid space—the area between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater surrounding the brain.
In neuroanatomy, a sulcus (Latin: "furrow", pl. sulci) is a depression or groove in the cerebral cortex.
Swallowing, sometimes called deglutition in scientific contexts, is the process in the human or animal body that allows for a substance to pass from the mouth, to the pharynx, and into the esophagus, while shutting the epiglottis.
Syncope, also known as fainting, is a loss of consciousness and muscle strength characterized by a fast onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery.
The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.
The Force is a metaphysical and ubiquitous power in the Star Wars fictional universe.
Theta waves generate the theta rhythm, a neural oscillatory pattern that can be seen on an electroencephalogram (EEG), recorded either from inside the brain or from electrodes attached to the scalp.
A tremor is an involuntary, somewhat rhythmic, muscle contraction and relaxation involving oscillations or twitching movements of one or more body parts.
Trepanning, also known as trepanation, trephination, trephining or making a burr hole (the verb trepan derives from Old French from Medieval Latin trepanum from Greek trypanon, literally "borer, auger") is a surgical intervention in which a hole is drilled or scraped into the human skull, exposing the dura mater to treat health problems related to intracranial diseases or release pressured blood buildup from an injury.
The utility frequency, (power) line frequency (American English) or mains frequency (British English) is the nominal frequency of the oscillations of alternating current (AC) in an electric power grid transmitted from a power station to the end-user.
Vladimir Pravdich-Neminsky (Владимир Владимирович Правдич-Неминский,Володимир Володимирович Правдич-Немінський; 2 July 1879 – 17 May 1952) was Ukrainian and then Soviet physiologist who published the first EEG and the evoked potential of the mammalian brain.
A voltmeter is an instrument used for measuring electrical potential difference between two points in an electric circuit.
The Wada test, also known as the intracarotid sodium amobarbital procedure (ISAP) establishes cerebral language and memory representation of each hemisphere.
White matter refers to areas of the central nervous system (CNS) that are mainly made up of myelinated axons, also called tracts.
William Grey Walter (February 19, 1910 – May 6, 1977) was an American-born British neurophysiologist, cybernetician and robotician.
In computational neuroscience, the Wilson–Cowan model describes the dynamics of interactions between populations of very simple excitatory and inhibitory model neurons.
The 10–20 system or International 10–20 system is an internationally recognized method to describe and apply the location of scalp electrodes in the context of an EEG exam, Polysomnograph sleep study, or voluntary lab research/experiment.
Brain activity, EEG, Eeg, Electro-encephalogram, Electro-encephalography, Electroencefalography, Electroencelphalogram, Electroencephalagram, Electroencephalogram, Electroencephalograph, Electroencephalographic, Electroencephelography, Encephalogram, Graphoelement, Kappa rhythm.