144 relations: Alcohol, Alessandro Volta, Alexander von Humboldt, Alkaline water electrolysis, Aluminium, Anode, Anthony Carlisle, Antimony, Antoine Lavoisier, Baling wire, Barium, Battery charger, Brine, Burr (edge), Calcium, Carbon dioxide, Cast iron, Castner–Kellner process, Cathode, Charge-transfer complex, Chemical element, Chemical substance, Chemistry, Chloride, Chlorine, Coal, Copper, Cracking (chemistry), Cylinder block, Cylinder head, Decomposition potential, Direct current, Electric charge, Electric current, Electrical conductor, Electrical network, Electricity, Electrochemical cell, Electrochemical engineering, Electrochemical fluorination, Electrochemical machining, Electrochemistry, Electrode, Electrode potential, Electrolysed water, Electrolyte, Electrolytic cell, Electrometallurgy, Electron, Electroplating, ..., Electrowinning, Energy, Energy conversion efficiency, Enthalpy, Equivalent weight, Ethane, Ethylene, Ethylene glycol, Faraday constant, Faraday efficiency, Faraday's laws of electrolysis, Ferricyanide, Ferrocyanide, Fluorine, Fuel cell, Gallium, Galvanic corrosion, Galvanoluminescence, Gas cracker, Gas diffusion electrode, Gaston Planté, Gibbs free energy, Glycerol, Graphite, Greek language, Haber process, Half-reaction, Hall–Héroult process, Heat of combustion, Henri Moissan, Hermann Kolbe, High-pressure electrolysis, Humphry Davy, Hydrogen, Hydroxide, Hypochlorous acid, Ion, Ionic compound, Johann Wilhelm Hittorf, Johann Wilhelm Ritter, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, Kai Grjotheim, Lithium, Magnesium, Manufacturing, Martin van Marum, Metal, Methane, Michael Faraday, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Nernst equation, Nuclear submarine, Ore, Overpotential, Oxygen, Patterson power cell, Paul Héroult, Paul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, PH, Polymer, Polymer electrolyte membrane electrolysis, Potassium, Potassium chlorate, Rebar, Redox, Robert Bunsen, Rust, Salt, Salt (chemistry), Semiconductor, Sodium, Sodium carbonate, Sodium chlorate, Sodium hydroxide, Solvation, Solvent, Spacecraft, Standard electrode potential, Standard electrode potential (data page), Steam, Svante Arrhenius, Tap water, Thermochemical cycle, Thermodynamics, Timeline of hydrogen technologies, Tin, Trifluoroacetic acid, Voltage, Water, William Nicholson (chemist), William Thomas Brande, William Whewell, Zinc, Zinc bromide. Expand index (94 more) » « Shrink index
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (18 February 1745 – 5 March 1827) was an Italian physicist, chemist, and a pioneer of electricity and power,Giuliano Pancaldi, "Volta: Science and culture in the age of enlightenment", Princeton University Press, 2003.
Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt (14 September 17696 May 1859) was a Prussian polymath, geographer, naturalist, explorer, and influential proponent of Romantic philosophy and science.
Alkaline water electrolysis has a long history in the chemical industry.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
An anode is an electrode through which the conventional current enters into a polarized electrical device.
Sir Anthony Carlisle FRCS, FRS (15 February 1768 in Stillington, England – 2 November 1840 in London) was an English surgeon.
Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from stibium) and atomic number 51.
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution;; 26 August 17438 May 1794) CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) was a French nobleman and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.
Baling wire, otherwise known as bale wire, farm wire, or soft wire, is a type of wire used in agriculture and industry for everything from mending fences to manually binding rectangular bales of hay, straw, or cut grass.
Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56.
A battery charger, or recharger, is a device used to put energy into a secondary cell or rechargeable battery by forcing an electric current through it.
Brine is a high-concentration solution of salt (usually sodium chloride) in water.
A burr is a raised edge or small piece of material remaining attached to a workpiece after a modification process.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%.
Definition: The Castner–Kellner process is a method of electrolysis on an aqueous alkali chloride solution (usually sodium chloride solution) to produce the corresponding alkali hydroxide,Pauling, Linus; General Chemistry 1970 ed.
A cathode is the electrode from which a conventional current leaves a polarized electrical device.
A charge-transfer complex (CT complex) or electron-donor-acceptor complex is an association of two or more molecules, or of different parts of one large molecule, in which a fraction of electronic charge is transferred between the molecular entities.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
In petrochemistry, petroleum geology and organic chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic molecules such as kerogens or long-chain hydrocarbons are broken down into simpler molecules such as light hydrocarbons, by the breaking of carbon-carbon bonds in the precursors.
The cylinder block is an integrated structure comprising the cylinder(s) of a reciprocating engine and often some or all of their associated surrounding structures (coolant passages, intake and exhaust passages and ports, and crankcase).
In an internal combustion engine, the cylinder head (often informally abbreviated to just head) sits above the cylinders on top of the cylinder block.
Decomposition potential or Decomposition voltage, in electrochemistry, refers to the minimum voltage (difference in electrode potential) between anode and cathode of an electrolytic cell that is needed for electrolysis to occur.
Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.
In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions.
An electrical network is an interconnection of electrical components (e.g. batteries, resistors, inductors, capacitors, switches) or a model of such an interconnection, consisting of electrical elements (e.g. voltage sources, current sources, resistances, inductances, capacitances).
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
An electrochemical cell (EC) is a device capable of either generating electrical energy from chemical reactions or using electrical energy to cause chemical reactions.
Electrochemical engineering is the branch of chemical engineering dealing with the technological applications of electrochemical phenomena, such as electrosynthesis of chemicals, electrowinning and refining of metals, flow batteries and fuel cells, surface modification by electrodeposition, electrochemical separations and corrosion.
Electrochemical fluorination (ECF), or electrofluorination, is a foundational organofluorine chemistry method for the preparation of fluorocarbon-based organofluorine compounds.
Electrochemical machining (ECM) is a method of removing metal by an electrochemical process.
Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa.
An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air).
Electrode potential, E, in chemistry or electrochemistry, according to a IUPAC definition, is the electromotive force of a cell built of two electrodes.
Electrolysed water (electrolyzed water, EOW, ECA, electrolyzed oxidizing water, electro-activated water or electro-chemically activated water solution) is produced by the electrolysis of ordinary tap water containing dissolved sodium chloride.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
An electrolytic cell is an electrochemical cell that drives a non-spontaneous redox reaction through the application of electrical energy.
Electrometallurgy is the field concerned with the processes of metal electrodeposition There are four categories of these processes.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
Electroplating is a process that uses an electric current to reduce dissolved metal cations so that they form a thin coherent metal coating on an electrode.
Electrowinning, also called electroextraction, is the electrodeposition of metals from their ores that have been put in solution via a process commonly referred to as leaching.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Energy conversion efficiency (η) is the ratio between the useful output of an energy conversion machine and the input, in energy terms.
Enthalpy is a property of a thermodynamic system.
Equivalent weight (also known as gram equivalent) is a term which has been used in several contexts in chemistry.
Ethane is an organic chemical compound with chemical formula.
Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula or H2C.
Ethylene glycol (IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2OH)2.
The Faraday constant, denoted by the symbol and sometimes stylized as ℱ, is named after Michael Faraday.
Faraday efficiency (also called faradaic efficiency, faradaic yield, coulombic efficiency or current efficiency) describes the efficiency with which charge (electrons) is transferred in a system facilitating an electrochemical reaction.
Faraday's laws of electrolysis are quantitative relationships based on the electrochemical researches published by Michael Faraday in 1834.
Ferricyanide is the anion 3−. It is also called hexacyanoferrate(III) and in rare, but systematic nomenclature, hexacyanidoferrate(III).
Ferrocyanide is the name of the anion 4−.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through an electrochemical reaction of hydrogen fuel with oxygen or another oxidizing agent.
Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31.
Galvanic corrosion (also called bimetallic corrosion) is an electrochemical process in which one metal corrodes preferentially when it is in electrical contact with another, in the presence of an electrolyte.
Galvanoluminescence Is the emission of light produced by the passage of an electric current through an appropriate electrolyte in which an electrode, made of certain metals such as aluminium or tantalum, has been immersed.
A gas cracker is any device that splits the molecules in a gas or liquid, usually by electrolysis, into atoms.
Gas diffusion electrodes (GDE) are electrodes with a conjunction of a solid, liquid and gaseous interface, and an electrical conducting catalyst supporting an electrochemical reaction between the liquid and the gaseous phase.
Gaston Planté (22 April 1834 – 21 May 1889) was the French physicist who invented the lead–acid battery in 1859.
In thermodynamics, the Gibbs free energy (IUPAC recommended name: Gibbs energy or Gibbs function; also known as free enthalpy to distinguish it from Helmholtz free energy) is a thermodynamic potential that can be used to calculate the maximum of reversible work that may be performed by a thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure (isothermal, isobaric).
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Haber process, also called the Haber–Bosch process, is an artificial nitrogen fixation process and is the main industrial procedure for the production of ammonia today.
A half reaction is either the oxidation or reduction reaction component of a redox reaction.
The Hall–Héroult process is the major industrial process for smelting aluminium.
The heating value (or energy value or calorific value) of a substance, usually a fuel or food (see food energy), is the amount of heat released during the combustion of a specified amount of it.
Ferdinand Frederick Henri Moissan (28 September 1852 – 20 February 1907) was a French chemist who won the 1906 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in isolating fluorine from its compounds.
Adolph Wilhelm Hermann Kolbe (27 September 1818 – 25 November 1884), was a seminal contributor in the birth of modern organic chemistry.
High-pressure electrolysis (HPE) is the electrolysis of water by decomposition of water (H2O) into oxygen (O2) and hydrogen gas (H2) due to the passing of an electric current through the water.
Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet (17 December 177829 May 1829) was a Cornish chemist and inventor, who is best remembered today for isolating, using electricity, a series of elements for the first time: potassium and sodium in 1807 and calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium and boron the following year, as well as discovering the elemental nature of chlorine and iodine.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.
Hypochlorous acid (HClO) is a weak acid that forms when chlorine dissolves in water, and itself partially dissociates, forming ClO-.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
In chemistry, an ionic compound is a chemical compound composed of ions held together by electrostatic forces termed ionic bonding.
Johann Wilhelm Hittorf (27 March 1824 – 28 November 1914) was a German physicist who was born in Bonn and died in Münster, Germany.
Johann Wilhelm Ritter (16 December 1776 – 23 January 1810) was a German chemist, physicist and philosopher.
Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (also Louis Joseph Gay-Lussac; 6 December 1778 – 9 May 1850) was a French chemist and physicist.
Kai Gudbrand Grjotheim (13 July 1919 – 17 April 2003) was a Norwegian chemist.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation.
Martin(us) van Marum (20 March 1750, Delft – 26 December 1837, Haarlem) was a Dutch physician, inventor, scientist and teacher, who studied medicine and philosophy in Groningen.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.
The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), located in Golden, Colorado, specializes in renewable energy and energy efficiency research and development.
In electrochemistry, the Nernst equation is an equation that relates the reduction potential of an electrochemical reaction (half-cell or full cell reaction) to the standard electrode potential, temperature, and activities (often approximated by concentrations) of the chemical species undergoing reduction and oxidation.
A nuclear submarine is a submarine powered by a nuclear reactor.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
In electrochemistry, overpotential is the potential difference (voltage) between a half-reaction's thermodynamically determined reduction potential and the potential at which the redox event is experimentally observed.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
The Patterson power cell is an electrolysis device invented by chemist James A. Patterson, which he said created 200 times more energy than it used, and neutralize radioactivity without emitting any harmful radiation.
Paul (Louis-Toussaint) Héroult (10 April 1863 – 9 May 1914) was a French scientist.
Paul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, also called François Lecoq de Boisbaudran (18 April 1838 – 28 May 1912), was a French chemist known for his discoveries of the chemical elements gallium, samarium and dysprosium.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis is the electrolysis of water in a cell equipped with a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) that is responsible for the conduction of protons, separation of product gases, and electrical insulation of the electrodes.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Potassium chlorate is a compound containing potassium, chlorine and oxygen atoms, with the molecular formula KClO3.
Rebar (short for reinforcing bar), collectively known as reinforcing steel and reinforcement steel, is a steel bar or mesh of steel wires used as a tension device in reinforced concrete and reinforced masonry structures to strengthen and hold the concrete in compression.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Robert Wilhelm Eberhard Bunsen (30 March 1811N1 – 16 August 1899) was a German chemist.
Rust is an iron oxide, a usually red oxide formed by the redox reaction of iron and oxygen in the presence of water or air moisture.
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals, and in the monohydrate form as crystal carbonate) is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid.
Sodium chlorate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaClO3.
Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.
Solvation describes the interaction of solvent with dissolved molecules.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.
In electrochemistry, the standard electrode potential is the measure of the individual potential of a reversible electrode at standard state, i.e., with solutes at an effective concentration of 1 mol dm−3 and gases at a pressure of 1 atm.
The data values of standard electrode potentials are given in the table below, in volts relative to the standard hydrogen electrode, and are for the following conditions.
Steam is water in the gas phase, which is formed when water boils.
Svante August Arrhenius (19 February 1859 – 2 October 1927) was a Nobel-Prize winning Swedish scientist, originally a physicist, but often referred to as a chemist, and one of the founders of the science of physical chemistry.
Tap water (running water, city water, town water, municipal water, etc.) is water supplied to a tap (valve).
Thermochemical cycles combine solely heat sources (thermo) with chemical reactions to split water into its hydrogen and oxygen components.
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.
This is a timeline of the history of hydrogen technology.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is an organofluorine compound with the chemical formula CF3CO2H.
Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
William Nicholson (13 December 175321 May 1815) was a renowned English chemist and writer on "natural philosophy" and chemistry, as well as a translator, journalist, publisher, scientist, inventor, patent agent and civil engineer.
William Thomas Brande FRS FRSE (11 January 1788 – 11 February 1866) was an English chemist.
William Whewell (24 May 1794 – 6 March 1866) was an English polymath, scientist, Anglican priest, philosopher, theologian, and historian of science.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Zinc bromide (ZnBr2) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula ZnBr2.