124 relations: Acid, Acid–base homeostasis, Alcohol abuse, Aldosterone, Anode, Anorexia nervosa, Arterial blood gas test, Base (chemistry), Bicarbonate, Blood test, Bravais lattice, Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, Bulimia nervosa, Calcium, Carbon dioxide, Carbonate, Carbonic acid, Cathode, Cell membrane, Chloride, Chlorine, Clinical urine tests, Composite material, Conductivity (electrolytic), Crystal structure, Dehydration, Dielectric, Diffusion, Dissociation (chemistry), DNA, Electric battery, Electric potential, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electrochemical gradient, Electrode, Electrolysis, Electrolyte imbalance, Electrolytic capacitor, Electron, Electroplating, Energy & Environmental Science, Exercise, Extracellular, Extracellular fluid, Fluid compartments, Food additive, Fuel cell, Functional group, Homeostasis, Hormone, ..., Hydrogen, Hydrogen chloride, Hydronium, Hygrometer, Hyponatremia, Insulator (electricity), Interstitial compound, Intracellular, Ion, Ion channel, Ion selective electrode, ITIES, Journal of Materials Chemistry, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Juice, Kidney, Lattice energy, List of synthetic polymers, Magnesium, Management of dehydration, Marathon, Medical emergency, Medical history, Medical technologist, Melting point, Mercury (element), Mesophase, Michael Faraday, Mixing ratio, Molten salt, Muscle, Muscle contraction, Nerve, Neuron, Oral rehydration therapy, Osmosis, Parathyroid hormone, Pedialyte, Peptide, Perspiration, Phase transition, Phosphate, Physiology, Plasticity (physics), Poly(methyl methacrylate), Polyacrylonitrile, Polyelectrolyte, Polyethylene glycol, Polymer, Polyphosphazene, Polystyrene sulfonate, Potassium, Protic solvent, Proton, Proton conductor, Renal function, Salt (chemistry), Siloxane, Sodium, Sodium chloride, Solvation, Solvent, Specific gravity, Sports drink, Strength of materials, Strong electrolyte, Substance intoxication, Suero Oral, Svante Arrhenius, Thermodynamics, Triathlon, Vasopressin, Voltage, Water intoxication. Expand index (74 more) » « Shrink index
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Acid–base homeostasis is the homeostatic regulation of the pH of the body's extracellular fluid (ECF).
Alcohol abuse is a previous psychiatric diagnosis in which there is recurring harmful use of alcohol despite its negative consequences.
Aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone, is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.
An anode is an electrode through which the conventional current enters into a polarized electrical device.
Anorexia nervosa, often referred to simply as anorexia, is an eating disorder characterized by low weight, fear of gaining weight, and a strong desire to be thin, resulting in food restriction.
An arterial-blood gas (ABG) test measures the amounts of arterial gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
In inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid.
A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.
In geometry and crystallography, a Bravais lattice, named after, is an infinite array of discrete points in three dimensional space generated by a set of discrete translation operations described by: where ni are any integers and ai are known as the primitive vectors which lie in different directions and span the lattice.
The Brønsted–Lowry theory is an acid–base reaction theory which was proposed independently by Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted and Thomas Martin Lowry in 1923.
Bulimia nervosa, also known as simply bulimia, is an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of.
Carbonic acid is a chemical compound with the chemical formula H2CO3 (equivalently OC(OH)2).
A cathode is the electrode from which a conventional current leaves a polarized electrical device.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Clinical urine tests are various tests of urine for diagnostic purposes.
A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite, which is the common name) is a material made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components.
Conductivity (or specific conductance) of an electrolyte solution is a measure of its ability to conduct electricity.
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.
In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.
A dielectric (or dielectric material) is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field.
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.
Dissociation in chemistry and biochemistry is a general process in which molecules (or ionic compounds such as salts, or complexes) separate or split into smaller particles such as atoms, ions or radicals, usually in a reversible manner.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.
An electric potential (also called the electric field potential, potential drop or the electrostatic potential) is the amount of work needed to move a unit positive charge from a reference point to a specific point inside the field without producing any acceleration.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
An electrochemical gradient is a gradient of electrochemical potential, usually for an ion that can move across a membrane.
An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air).
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
Electrolyte imbalance is an abnormality in the concentration of electrolytes in the body.
An electrolytic capacitor (e-cap) is a polarized capacitor whose anode or positive plate is made of a metal that forms an insulating oxide layer through anodization.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
Electroplating is a process that uses an electric current to reduce dissolved metal cations so that they form a thin coherent metal coating on an electrode.
Energy & Environmental Science is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing original (primary) research and review articles.
Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.
In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means "outside the cell".
Extracellular fluid (ECF) denotes all body fluid outside the cells.
The human body and even its individual body fluids may be conceptually divided into various fluid compartments, which, although not literally anatomic compartments, do represent a real division in terms of how portions of the body's water, solutes, and suspended elements are segregated.
Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste, appearance, or other qualities.
A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through an electrochemical reaction of hydrogen fuel with oxygen or another oxidizing agent.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
The compound hydrogen chloride has the chemical formula and as such is a hydrogen halide.
In chemistry, hydronium is the common name for the aqueous cation, the type of oxonium ion produced by protonation of water.
A hygrometer is an instrument used for measuring the amount of humidity and water vapor in the atmosphere, in soil, or in confined spaces.
Hyponatremia is a low sodium level in the blood.
An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely; very little electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field.
An interstitial compound, or interstitial alloy, is a compound that is formed when an atom with a small enough radius sits in an interstitial “hole” in a metal lattice.
In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word intracellular means "inside the cell".
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.
An ion-selective electrode (ISE), also known as a specific ion electrode (SIE), is a transducer (or sensor) that converts the activity of a specific ion dissolved in a solution into an electrical potential.
In electrochemistry, ITIES is an acronym for the "''i''nterface between two immiscible ''e''lectrolyte solutions".
The Journal of Materials Chemistry was a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the applications, properties and synthesis of new materials.
The Journal of Materials Chemistry A is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that covers the synthesis, properties, and applications of novel materials related to energy and sustainability.
Juice is a drink made from the extraction or pressing of the natural liquid contained in fruit and vegetables.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
The lattice energy of a crystalline solid is often defined as the energy of formation of a crystal from infinitely-separated ions and as such is invariably negative.
Synthetic polymers are human-made polymers.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
The management of dehydration typically involves the use of oral rehydration solution (ORS).
The marathon is a long-distance race, completed by running, walking, or a run/walk strategy.
A medical emergency is an acute injury or illness that poses an immediate risk to a person's life or long-term health.
The medical history or case history of a patient is information gained by a physician by asking specific questions, either of the patient or of other people who know the person and can give suitable information, with the aim of obtaining information useful in formulating a diagnosis and providing medical care to the patient.
A Medical Technologist (also known as Medical laboratory scientist, Clinical Laboratory Scientist, Medical Laboratory Technologist) is an allied health professional that analyzes and tests body fluids and tissues.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
In physics, a mesophase is a state of matter intermediate between liquid and solid.
Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.
In chemistry and physics, the dimensionless mixing ratio is the abundance of one component of a mixture relative to that of all other components.
Molten salt is salt which is solid at standard temperature and pressure (STP) but enters the liquid phase due to elevated temperature.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle fibers.
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) is a type of fluid replacement used to prevent and treat dehydration, especially that due to diarrhea.
Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a selectively permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides.
Parathyroid hormone (PTH), also called parathormone or parathyrin, is a hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands that is important in bone remodeling, which is an ongoing process in which bone tissue is alternately resorbed and rebuilt over time.
Pedialyte is an oral electrolyte solution manufactured by Abbott Laboratories and marketed for use in children.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.
The term phase transition (or phase change) is most commonly used to describe transitions between solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter, and, in rare cases, plasma.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
In physics and materials science, plasticity describes the deformation of a (solid) material undergoing non-reversible changes of shape in response to applied forces.
Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), also known as acrylic or acrylic glass as well as by the trade names Crylux, Plexiglas, Acrylite, Lucite, and Perspex among several others (see below), is a transparent thermoplastic often used in sheet form as a lightweight or shatter-resistant alternative to glass.
Polyacrylonitrile (PAN), also known as Creslan 61, is a synthetic, semicrystalline organic polymer resin, with the linear formula (C3H3N)n.
Polyelectrolytes are polymers whose repeating units bear an electrolyte group.
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a polyether compound with many applications from industrial manufacturing to medicine.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Polyphosphazenes include a wide range of hybrid inorganic-organic polymers with a number of different skeletal architectures that the backbone P-N-P-N-P-N-.
Polystyrene sulfonates are polymers derived from polystyrene by the addition of sulfonate functional groups.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
In chemistry, a protic solvent is a solvent that has a hydrogen atom bound to an oxygen (as in a hydroxyl group) or a nitrogen (as in an amine group).
A proton conductor is an electrolyte, typically a solid electrolyte, in which H+ are the primary charge carriers.
Renal function, in nephrology, is an indication of the kidney's condition and its role in renal physiology.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
A siloxane is a functional group in organosilicon chemistry with the Si–O–Si linkage.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
Solvation describes the interaction of solvent with dissolved molecules.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance; equivalently, it is the ratio of the mass of a substance to the mass of a reference substance for the same given volume.
Sports drinks are beverages whose stated purpose is to help athletes replace water, electrolytes, and energy before and after training or competition, though their efficiency for that purpose has been questioned, particularly after exercise.
Strength of materials, also called mechanics of materials, is a subject which deals with the behavior of solid objects subject to stresses and strains.
A strong electrolyte is a solution/solute that completely, or almost completely, ionizes or dissociates in a solution.
Substance intoxication is a type of substance use disorder which is potentially maladaptive and impairing, but reversible, and associated with recent use of a substance.
In the United States, Suero Oral® is a brand name of an electrolyte solution used to re-hydrate after work in heat-intensive environments, athletic activity, to treat pediatric vomiting and diarrhea, and as a hangover remedy.
Svante August Arrhenius (19 February 1859 – 2 October 1927) was a Nobel-Prize winning Swedish scientist, originally a physicist, but often referred to as a chemist, and one of the founders of the science of physical chemistry.
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.
A triathlon is a multiple-stage competition involving the completion of three continuous and sequential endurance disciplines.
Vasopressin, also named antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin, is a hormone synthesized as a peptide prohormone in neurons in the hypothalamus, and is converted to AVP.
Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.
Water intoxication, also known as water poisoning, hyperhydration, or water toxemia is a potentially fatal disturbance in brain functions that results when the normal balance of electrolytes in the body is pushed outside safe limits by overhydration (excessive water intake).
ATC code B05BB01, ATCvet code QB05BB01, Cell electrolyte, Dry electrolyte, Elecrolyte, Electrolites, Electrolytes, Electrolytic, Electrolytic conductance, Gel electrolyte, Ionic Solution, Ionic solution, Ionic solutions, Lytes, Polymer gel electrolyte, Serum electrolytes, Weak Electrolyte, Weak electrolyte.