439 relations: Abram Ioffe, Absolute zero, Acceleration, ADONE, Aether theories, Age of the universe, AIP Conference Proceedings, Albert Einstein, Almost surely, Alpha particle, Amber, American Institute of Physics, American Journal of Physics, American Physical Society, Ampère's circuital law, Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, Angular momentum, Annalen der Physik, Annals of Science, Annihilation, Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Anode, Anomalous magnetic dipole moment, Antimatter, Antiparticle, Anyon, AORN Journal, Arthur Schuster, Astronomy & Geophysics, Atmosphere of Earth, Atom, Atomic nucleus, Atomic orbital, Attosecond, Auger effect, Back-reaction, Baryon asymmetry, Basal-cell carcinoma, BCS theory, Benjamin Franklin, Beta decay, Beta particle, Betatron, Big Bang, Binding energy, Black hole, Bohr magneton, Borexino, Bose–Einstein condensate, Boson, ..., Brady Haran, Bremsstrahlung, Cambridge University Press, Canadian Journal of Chemistry, Carl David Anderson, Cathode, Cathode ray, Cathode ray tube, Centripetal force, CERN, CERN Courier, Charge (physics), Charge conservation, Charge-coupled device, Charged current, Charles François de Cisternay du Fay, Charles Thomson Rees Wilson, Chemical bond, Chemical property, Chemistry, Cherenkov radiation, Chirality (physics), Classical electron radius, Classical physics, Clinton Davisson, Cloud chamber, Cobalt-60, Coherence (physics), Collider, Collimated light, Columbia University Press, Compact star, Complex number, Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Compton scattering, Compton wavelength, Computer monitor, Confidence interval, Conservation of energy, Cooper pair, Cornell University Press, Corona, Corpuscular theory of light, Cosmic ray, Coulomb, Coulomb's law, Covalent bond, CRC Press, Critical point (thermodynamics), Cyclotron radiation, Da Capo Press, De Magnete, Delocalized electron, Dielectric, Dipole magnet, Dirac equation, Dirac sea, Donald William Kerst, Double-slit experiment, Dover Publications, Drift velocity, Ebenezer Kinnersley, Eduard Shpolsky, Effective mass (solid-state physics), Elastic scattering, Electric charge, Electric current, Electric field, Electric motor, Electric potential, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electricity, Electride, Electrolysis, Electromagnetic induction, Electromagnetic radiation, Electron bubble, Electron diffraction, Electron magnetic moment, Electron microscope, Electron pair, Electron therapy, Electron transfer, Electron-beam lithography, Electron-beam processing, Electron-beam welding, Electron–positron annihilation, Electronic band structure, Electronics, Electronvolt, Electrostatics, Electroweak interaction, Electrum, Elementary charge, Elementary particle, Ernest Rutherford, Erwin Schrödinger, Eugen Goldstein, European Journal of Physics, European Physical Journal, Event horizon, Exoelectron emission, Faraday's laws of electrolysis, Fermi gas, Fermion, Fine structure, Fine-structure constant, Flow network, Fluorescence, Foldy–Wouthuysen transformation, Francis Hauksbee, Free-electron laser, Frequency, Fritz London, Fundamental interaction, G-factor (physics), Gamma ray, Gaseous ionization detectors, General Electric, Generation (particle physics), George Johnstone Stoney, George Paget Thomson, George Uhlenbeck, Gerald Gabrielse, Gilbert N. Lewis, Gravitational collapse, Gravitational potential, Gravitational wave, Gravity, Greenwood Publishing Group, Gustav Ludwig Hertz, Gyroradius, Hamiltonian (quantum mechanics), Harold A. Wilson (physicist), Harvard University Press, Harvey Fletcher, Hawking radiation, Helicity (particle physics), Helium, Helix, Hendrik Lorentz, Henri Becquerel, Henry M. Foley, Henry Moseley, Hermann von Helmholtz, Holon (physics), Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Hydrogen spectral series, IBM Journal of Research and Development, Identical particles, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Insulator (electricity), Integrated circuit, International Journal of Theoretical Physics, Invariant mass, Inverse-square law, Ion, Ionization energy, Irving Langmuir, Isis (journal), Isotopes of nickel, J. J. Thomson, James Franck, Johann Wilhelm Hittorf, John Sealy Townsend, Jones & Bartlett Learning, Joule, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Julian Schwinger, KEKB (accelerator), Kelvin, Lamb shift, Large Electron–Positron Collider, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Lepton, Lester Germer, Liénard–Wiechert potential, Light, Lightning, Linear particle accelerator, List of particles, Lithium, Lorentz factor, Lorentz force, Louis de Broglie, Low-energy electron diffraction, Lund University, Macmillan Publishers, Magnetic field, Magnetic moment, Magnetism, Mass in special relativity, Mass-to-charge ratio, Mass–energy equivalence, Matter wave, Maxwell's equations, McGraw-Hill Education, Measurement Science and Technology, Metallic bonding, Micrometre, Microwave, MIT Press, Molecular orbital, Molecule, Momentum, Muon, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Nature (journal), Neutral current, Neutrino, Neutron, New Latin, New Scientist, Nickel, Niels Bohr, Nobel Foundation, Nuclear physics, Nuclear reaction, Nucleosynthesis, Oil drop experiment, Optical microscope, Orbiton, Overhead projector, Oxford University Press, Pair production, Particle accelerator, Particle decay, Particle detector, Particle physics, Paul Dirac, Pauli exclusion principle, Penning trap, Periodic systems of small molecules, Periodic table, Philosophical Magazine, Phonon, Photocathode, Photoelectric effect, Photomultiplier, Photon, Physica Scripta, Physical Review, Physical Review Letters, Physics, Physics in Perspective, Physics Letters, Physics Reports, Physics-Uspekhi, Pion, Planck constant, Planck length, Plasma (physics), Plasma oscillation, Point particle, Polykarp Kusch, Polytetrafluoroethylene, Positron, Positronium, Potential energy, Precession, Prentice Hall, Preon, Princeton University Press, Principle of relativity, Probability density function, Projection (mathematics), Proton, Proton-to-electron mass ratio, Quadrupole ion trap, Quantum electrodynamics, Quantum mechanics, Quantum state, Quantum tunnelling, Quark, Quasiparticle, Radiance, Radiation damping, Radiation therapy, Radio telescope, Radioactive decay, Radionuclide, Radium, Raster scan, Reciprocal lattice, Reflection high-energy electron diffraction, Relative permittivity, Relativistic electron beam, Reports on Progress in Physics, Resonance, Reversal film, Reviews of Modern Physics, Richard Feynman, Richard Laming, Robert Andrews Millikan, Robert Retherford, Samuel Goudsmit, Scanning electron microscope, Scanning tunneling microscope, Schrödinger equation, Schwarzschild radius, Science (journal), Science Daily, Scientific American, Self-energy, Semiconductor, Shielding effect, Shin'ichirō Tomonaga, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Sokolov–Ternov effect, Solar mass, Solid-state electronics, Special relativity, Spectral line, Spectrometer, Spectroscopy, Speed of light, Spin (physics), Spin quantum number, Spin-½, Spinon, Spintronics, Springer Science+Business Media, Square (algebra), Standard Model, Stanford University, Star, Statcoulomb, Stellar evolution, Stellar nucleosynthesis, Sterilization (microbiology), Stern–Gerlach experiment, Strong interaction, Subatomic particle, Superconductivity, Supersaturation, Synchrotron, Synchrotron radiation, Tau (particle), Telescope, Television set, Tesla (unit), The Astrophysical Journal, The Journal of Nuclear Medicine, The Philosophical Library, The Science of Nature, Thermal conductivity, Thomson scattering, Townsend discharge, Transistor, Transmission Electron Aberration-Corrected Microscope, Transmission electron microscopy, Triboelectric effect, Uncertainty principle, Unconventional superconductor, Undulator, Unified atomic mass unit, University of California, University of Cambridge, University of Chicago Press, University of Nottingham, Vacuum, Vacuum permittivity, Vacuum polarization, Vacuum state, Vacuum tube, Valence (chemistry), Velocity factor, Virtual particle, Volt, Walter Heitler, Wave function, Wave interference, Wave–particle duality, Weak interaction, Weak isospin, Wiedemann–Franz law, Wiley-VCH, Wilhelm Eduard Weber, William Crookes, William Gilbert (astronomer), Willis Lamb, Wolfgang Pauli, Wolfram Research, Woodhead Publishing, World Scientific, X-ray, Zeeman effect, Zitterbewegung, 1. 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Abram Fedorovich Ioffe (p; – 14 October 1960) was a prominent Russian/Soviet physicist.
Absolute zero is the lower limit of the thermodynamic temperature scale, a state at which the enthalpy and entropy of a cooled ideal gas reach their minimum value, taken as 0.
In physics, acceleration is the rate of change of velocity of an object with respect to time.
ADONE (big ADA) was the first high-energy (1.5 GeV) particle collider.
Aether theories (also known as ether theories) in physics propose the existence of a medium, the aether (also spelled ether, from the Greek word (αἰθήρ), meaning "upper air" or "pure, fresh air"" ", American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language.), a space-filling substance or field, thought to be necessary as a transmission medium for the propagation of electromagnetic or gravitational forces.
In physical cosmology, the age of the universe is the time elapsed since the Big Bang.
AIP Conference Proceedings is a serial published by the American Institute of Physics since 1970.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
In probability theory, one says that an event happens almost surely (sometimes abbreviated as a.s.) if it happens with probability one.
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.
Amber is fossilized tree resin, which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times.
The American Institute of Physics (AIP) promotes science, the profession of physics, publishes physics journals, and produces publications for scientific and engineering societies.
The American Journal of Physics is a monthly, peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Association of Physics Teachers and the American Institute of Physics.
The American Physical Society (APS) is the world's second largest organization of physicists.
In classical electromagnetism, Ampère's circuital law (not to be confused with Ampère's force law that André-Marie Ampère discovered in 1823) relates the integrated magnetic field around a closed loop to the electric current passing through the loop.
Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), is a direct experimental technique to observe the distribution of the electrons (more precisely, the density of single-particle electronic excitations) in the reciprocal space of solids.
In physics, angular momentum (rarely, moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational equivalent of linear momentum.
Annalen der Physik (English: Annals of Physics) is one of the oldest scientific journals on physics and has been published since 1799.
Annals of Science is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering the history of science and technology.
In particle physics, annihilation is the process that occurs when a subatomic particle collides with its respective antiparticle to produce other particles, such as an electron colliding with a positron to produce two photons.
The Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics is an annual peer reviewed scientific journal published by Annual Reviews.
An anode is an electrode through which the conventional current enters into a polarized electrical device.
In quantum electrodynamics, the anomalous magnetic moment of a particle is a contribution of effects of quantum mechanics, expressed by Feynman diagrams with loops, to the magnetic moment of that particle.
In modern physics, antimatter is defined as a material composed of the antiparticle (or "partners") to the corresponding particles of ordinary matter.
In particle physics, every type of particle has an associated antiparticle with the same mass but with opposite physical charges (such as electric charge).
In physics, an anyon is a type of quasiparticle that occurs only in ''two''-dimensional systems, with properties much less restricted than fermions and bosons.
The AORN Journal is a peer-reviewed nursing journal in the field of perioperative nursing and is the official journal of the Association of periOperative Registered Nurses (AORN).
Sir Franz Arthur Friedrich Schuster FRS FRSE (12 September 1851 – 17 October 1934) was a German-born British physicist known for his work in spectroscopy, electrochemistry, optics, X-radiography and the application of harmonic analysis to physics.
Astronomy & Geophysics (A&G) is a scientific journal and trade magazine published on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS) by Oxford University Press.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.
An attosecond is 1×10−18 of a second (one quintillionth of a second).
The Auger effect is a physical phenomenon in which the filling of an inner-shell vacancy of an atom is accompanied by the emission of an electron from the same atom.
In theoretical physics, back-reaction (or backreaction) is often necessary to calculate the self-consistent behaviour of a particle or an object in an external field.
In physics, the baryon asymmetry problem, also known as the matter asymmetry problem or the matter-antimatter asymmetry problem, is the observed imbalance in baryonic matter (the type of matter experienced in everyday life) and antibaryonic matter in the observable universe.
Basal-cell carcinoma (BCC), also known as basal-cell cancer, is the most common type of skin cancer.
BCS theory or Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer theory (named after John Bardeen, Leon Cooper, and John Robert Schrieffer) is the first microscopic theory of superconductivity since Heike Kamerlingh Onnes's 1911 discovery.
Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
A beta particle, also called beta ray or beta radiation, (symbol β) is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted by the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus during the process of beta decay.
A betatron is a type of cyclic particle accelerator.
The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.
Binding energy (also called separation energy) is the minimum energy required to disassemble a system of particles into separate parts.
A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—not even particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it.
In atomic physics, the Bohr magneton (symbol μB) is a physical constant and the natural unit for expressing the magnetic moment of an electron caused by either its orbital or spin angular momentum.
Borexino is a particle physics experiment to study low energy (sub-MeV) solar neutrinos.
A Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is a state of matter of a dilute gas of bosons cooled to temperatures very close to absolute zero.
In quantum mechanics, a boson is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics.
Brady John Haran (born 18 June 1976) is an Australian-born British independent filmmaker and video journalist who is known for his educational videos and documentary films produced for BBC News and his YouTube channels, the most notable being Periodic Videos and Numberphile.
Bremsstrahlung, from bremsen "to brake" and Strahlung "radiation"; i.e., "braking radiation" or "deceleration radiation", is electromagnetic radiation produced by the deceleration of a charged particle when deflected by another charged particle, typically an electron by an atomic nucleus.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The Canadian Journal of Chemistry (fr. Revue canadienne de chimie) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by NRC Research Press.
Carl David Anderson (September 3, 1905 – January 11, 1991) was an American physicist.
A cathode is the electrode from which a conventional current leaves a polarized electrical device.
Cathode rays (also called an electron beam or e-beam) are streams of electrons observed in vacuum tubes.
The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube that contains one or more electron guns and a phosphorescent screen, and is used to display images.
A centripetal force (from Latin centrum, "center" and petere, "to seek") is a force that makes a body follow a curved path.
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.
CERN Courier (or sometimes CERN Courier: International Journal of High Energy Physics) is a monthly trade magazine covering current developments in high-energy physics and related fields worldwide.
In physics, a charge may refer to one of many different quantities, such as the electric charge in electromagnetism or the color charge in quantum chromodynamics.
In physics, charge conservation is the principle that the total electric charge in an isolated system never changes.
A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value.
The charged current interaction is one of the ways in which subatomic particles can interact by means of the weak force.
Charles François de Cisternay du Fay (14 September 1698 – 16 July 1739) was a French chemist and superintendent of the Jardin du Roi.
Charles Thomson Rees Wilson, CH, FRS (14 February 1869 – 15 November 1959) was a Scottish physicist and meteorologist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics for his invention of the cloud chamber.
A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.
A chemical property is any of a material's properties that becomes evident during, or after, a chemical reaction; that is, any quality that can be established only by changing a substance's chemical identity.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Cherenkov radiation (sometimes spelled "Cerenkov") is electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle (such as an electron) passes through a dielectric medium at a speed greater than the phase velocity of light in that medium.
A chiral phenomenon is one that is not identical to its mirror image (see the article on mathematical chirality).
The classical electron radius is a combination of fundamental physical quantities that define a length scale for problems involving electrons interacting with electromagnetic radiation.
Classical physics refers to theories of physics that predate modern, more complete, or more widely applicable theories.
Clinton Joseph Davisson (October 22, 1881 – February 1, 1958), was an American physicist who won the 1937 Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery of electron diffraction in the famous Davisson-Germer experiment.
A Cloud Chamber, also known as a Wilson Cloud Chamber, is a particle detector used for visualizing the passage of ionizing radiation.
Cobalt-60,, is a synthetic radioactive isotope of cobalt with a half-life of 5.2714 years.
In physics, two wave sources are perfectly coherent if they have a constant phase difference and the same frequency, and the same waveform.
A collider is a type of particle accelerator involving directed beams of particles.
Collimated light is light whose rays are parallel, and therefore will spread minimally as it propagates.
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
In astronomy, the term "compact star" (or "compact object") refers collectively to white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes.
A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form, where and are real numbers, and is a solution of the equation.
Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences (English: Proceedings of the Academy of sciences), or simply Comptes rendus, is a French scientific journal which has been published since 1666.
Compton scattering, discovered by Arthur Holly Compton, is the scattering of a photon by a charged particle, usually an electron.
The Compton wavelength is a quantum mechanical property of a particle.
A computer monitor is an output device which displays information in pictorial form.
In statistics, a confidence interval (CI) is a type of interval estimate, computed from the statistics of the observed data, that might contain the true value of an unknown population parameter.
In physics, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant, it is said to be ''conserved'' over time.
In condensed matter physics, a Cooper pair or BCS pair is a pair of electrons (or other fermions) bound together at low temperatures in a certain manner first described in 1956 by American physicist Leon Cooper.
The Cornell University Press is a division of Cornell University housed in Sage House, the former residence of Henry William Sage.
A corona (Latin, 'crown') is an aura of plasma that surrounds the Sun and other stars.
In optics, the corpuscular theory of light, arguably set forward by Descartes (1637) states that light is made up of small discrete particles called "corpuscles" (little particles) which travel in a straight line with a finite velocity and possess impetus.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
The coulomb (symbol: C) is the International System of Units (SI) unit of electric charge.
Coulomb's law, or Coulomb's inverse-square law, is a law of physics for quantifying the amount of force with which stationary electrically charged particles repel or attract each other.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
In thermodynamics, a critical point (or critical state) is the end point of a phase equilibrium curve.
Cyclotron radiation is electromagnetic radiation emitted by accelerating charged particles deflected by a magnetic field.
Da Capo Press is an American publishing company with headquarters in Boston, Massachusetts.
De Magnete, Magneticisque Corporibus, et de Magno Magnete Tellure (On the Magnet and Magnetic Bodies, and on That Great Magnet the Earth) is a scientific work published in 1600 by the English physician and scientist William Gilbert and his partner Aaron Dowling.
In chemistry, delocalized electrons are electrons in a molecule, ion or solid metal that are not associated with a single atom or a covalent bond.
A dielectric (or dielectric material) is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field.
A dipole magnet is a magnet in which opposite poles (i.e., North and South poles) are on opposite sides of the magnet.
In particle physics, the Dirac equation is a relativistic wave equation derived by British physicist Paul Dirac in 1928.
The Dirac sea is a theoretical model of the vacuum as an infinite sea of particles with negative energy.
Donald William Kerst (November 1, 1911 – August 19, 1993) was an American physicist who worked on advanced particle accelerator concepts (accelerator physics) and plasma physics.
In modern physics, the double-slit experiment is a demonstration that light and matter can display characteristics of both classically defined waves and particles; moreover, it displays the fundamentally probabilistic nature of quantum mechanical phenomena.
Dover Publications, also known as Dover Books, is an American book publisher founded in 1941 by Hayward Cirker and his wife, Blanche.
The drift velocity is the average velocity that a particle, such as an electron, attains in a material due to an electric field.
Ebenezer Kinnersley (November 30, 1711 in Gloucester, England – July 4, 1778 in Lower Dublin Township, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) was a scientist, inventor and lecturer, specializing in the investigation of electricity.
Eduard Vladimirovich Shpolsky, also Shpolsk'ii, Shpolskii (Эдуард Владимирович Шпольский, born September 23, 1892 in Voronezh – died August 21, 1975 in Moscow) was a Russian and Soviet physicist and educator, co-founder and lifelong editor of Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk journal (Soviet Physics Uspekhi and Physics-Uspekhi in English translation).
In solid state physics, a particle's effective mass (often denoted) is the mass that it seems to have when responding to forces, or the mass that it seems to have when interacting with other identical particles in a thermal distribution.
Elastic scattering is a form of particle scattering in scattering theory, nuclear physics and particle physics.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.
An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.
An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
An electric potential (also called the electric field potential, potential drop or the electrostatic potential) is the amount of work needed to move a unit positive charge from a reference point to a specific point inside the field without producing any acceleration.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
An electride is a ionic compound in which an electron is the anion.
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
Electromagnetic or magnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force (i.e., voltage) across an electrical conductor in a changing magnetic field.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
An electron bubble is the empty space created around a free electron in a cryogenic gas or liquid, such as neon or helium.
Electron diffraction refers to the wave nature of electrons.
In atomic physics, the electron magnetic moment, or more specifically the electron magnetic dipole moment, is the magnetic moment of an electron caused by its intrinsic properties of spin and electric charge.
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.
In chemistry, an electron pair or a Lewis pair consists of two electrons that occupy the same molecular orbital but have opposite spins.
Electron therapy or electron beam therapy (EBT) is a kind of external beam radiotherapy where electrons are directed to a tumor site.
Electron transfer (ET) occurs when an electron relocates from an atom or molecule to another such chemical entity.
Electron-beam lithography (often abbreviated as e-beam lithography) is the practice of scanning a focused beam of electrons to draw custom shapes on a surface covered with an electron-sensitive film called a resist (exposing).
Electron-beam processing or electron irradiation is a process that involves using beta radiation, usually of high energy, to treat an object for a variety of purposes.
Electron-beam welding (EBW) is a fusion welding process in which a beam of high-velocity electrons is applied to two materials to be joined.
Electron–positron annihilation occurs when an electron and a positron (the electron's antiparticle) collide.
In solid-state physics, the electronic band structure (or simply band structure) of a solid describes the range of energies that an electron within the solid may have (called energy bands, allowed bands, or simply bands) and ranges of energy that it may not have (called band gaps or forbidden bands).
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).
Electrostatics is a branch of physics that studies electric charges at rest.
In particle physics, the electroweak interaction is the unified description of two of the four known fundamental interactions of nature: electromagnetism and the weak interaction.
Electrum is a naturally occurring alloy of gold and silver, with trace amounts of copper and other metals.
The elementary charge, usually denoted as or sometimes, is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the magnitude of the electric charge carried by a single electron, which has charge.
In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle with no substructure, thus not composed of other particles.
Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, HFRSE LLD (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937) was a New Zealand-born British physicist who came to be known as the father of nuclear physics.
Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (12 August 1887 – 4 January 1961), sometimes written as or, was a Nobel Prize-winning Austrian physicist who developed a number of fundamental results in the field of quantum theory, which formed the basis of wave mechanics: he formulated the wave equation (stationary and time-dependent Schrödinger equation) and revealed the identity of his development of the formalism and matrix mechanics.
Eugen Goldstein (5 September 1850 – 25 December 1930) was a German physicist.
The European Journal of Physics is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal dedicated to maintaining and improving the standard of physics education in higher education.
The European Physical Journal (or EPJ) is a joint publication of EDP Sciences, Springer Science+Business Media, and the Società Italiana di Fisica.
In general relativity, an event horizon is a region in spacetime beyond which events cannot affect an outside observer.
In atomic physics, exoelectron emission (EE) is a weak electron emission, appearing only from pretreated (irradiated, deformed etc.) objects.
Faraday's laws of electrolysis are quantitative relationships based on the electrochemical researches published by Michael Faraday in 1834.
A Fermi gas is a phase of matter which is an ensemble of a large number of non-interacting fermions.
In particle physics, a fermion is a particle that follows Fermi–Dirac statistics.
In atomic physics, the fine structure describes the splitting of the spectral lines of atoms due to electron spin and relativistic corrections to the non-relativistic Schrödinger equation.
In physics, the fine-structure constant, also known as Sommerfeld's constant, commonly denoted (the Greek letter ''alpha''), is a fundamental physical constant characterizing the strength of the electromagnetic interaction between elementary charged particles.
In graph theory, a flow network (also known as a transportation network) is a directed graph where each edge has a capacity and each edge receives a flow.
Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
The Foldy–Wouthuysen transform is widely used in high energy physics.
Francis Hauksbee the Elder FRS (1660–1713), also known as Francis Hawksbee, was an 18th-century English scientist best known for his work on electricity and electrostatic repulsion.
A free-electron laser (FEL) is a kind of laser whose lasing medium consists of very-high-speed electrons moving freely through a magnetic structure, hence the term free electron.
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.
Fritz Wolfgang London (March 7, 1900 – March 30, 1954) was a Jewish-German physicist and professor at Duke University.
In physics, the fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces, are the interactions that do not appear to be reducible to more basic interactions.
A g-factor (also called g value or dimensionless magnetic moment) is a dimensionless quantity that characterizes the magnetic moment and gyromagnetic ratio of an atom, a particle or nucleus.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
Gaseous ionization detectors are radiation detection instruments used in particle physics to detect the presence of ionizing particles, and in radiation protection applications to measure ionizing radiation.
General Electric Company (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts.
In particle physics, a generation or family is a division of the elementary particles.
George Johnstone Stoney FRS (15 February 1826 – 5 July 1911) was an Irish physicist.
Sir George Paget Thomson, FRS (3 May 1892 – 10 September 1975) was an English physicist and Nobel laureate in physics recognised for his discovery of the wave properties of the electron by electron diffraction.
George Eugene Uhlenbeck (December 6, 1900 – October 31, 1988) was a Dutch-American theoretical physicist.
Gerald Gabrielse is an American physicist.
Gilbert Newton Lewis (October 25 (or 23), 1875 – March 23, 1946) was an American physical chemist known for the discovery of the covalent bond and his concept of electron pairs; his Lewis dot structures and other contributions to valence bond theory have shaped modern theories of chemical bonding.
Gravitational collapse is the contraction of an astronomical object due to the influence of its own gravity, which tends to draw matter inward toward the center of gravity.
In classical mechanics, the gravitational potential at a location is equal to the work (energy transferred) per unit mass that would be needed to move the object from a fixed reference location to the location of the object.
Gravitational waves are the disturbance in the fabric ("curvature") of spacetime generated by accelerated masses and propagate as waves outward from their source at the speed of light.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.
Gustav Ludwig Hertz (22 July 1887 – 30 October 1975) was a German experimental physicist and Nobel Prize winner, and a nephew of Heinrich Rudolf Hertz.
The gyroradius (also known as radius of gyration, Larmor radius or cyclotron radius) is the radius of the circular motion of a charged particle in the presence of a uniform magnetic field.
In quantum mechanics, a Hamiltonian is an operator corresponding to the total energy of the system in most of the cases.
Harold Albert Wilson FRS (1 December 1874 – 1964) was an English physicist.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Harvey Fletcher (September 11, 1884 – July 23, 1981) was an American physicist.
Hawking radiation is blackbody radiation that is predicted to be released by black holes, due to quantum effects near the event horizon.
In particle physics, helicity is the projection of the spin onto the direction of momentum.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
A helix, plural helixes or helices, is a type of smooth space curve, i.e. a curve in three-dimensional space.
Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (18 July 1853 – 4 February 1928) was a Dutch physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics with Pieter Zeeman for the discovery and theoretical explanation of the Zeeman effect.
Antoine Henri Becquerel (15 December 1852 – 25 August 1908) was a French physicist, Nobel laureate, and the first person to discover evidence of radioactivity.
Henry Michael Foley (1917–1982) was an American experimental physicist.
Henry Gwyn Jeffreys Moseley (23 November 1887 – 10 August 1915) was an English physicist, whose contribution to the science of physics was the justification from physical laws of the previous empirical and chemical concept of the atomic number.
Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist who made significant contributions in several scientific fields.
Holons (also known as chargons, from English hole or charge, plus the -on suffix for particles) are one of three quasiparticles, along with spinons and orbitons, that electrons in solids are able to split into during the process of spin–charge separation, when extremely tightly confined at temperatures close to absolute zero.
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH) is an educational and trade publisher in the United States.
The emission spectrum of atomic hydrogen is divided into a number of spectral series, with wavelengths given by the Rydberg formula.
IBM Journal of Research and Development is a peer-reviewed bimonthly scientific journal covering research on information systems.
Identical particles, also called indistinguishable or indiscernible particles, are particles that cannot be distinguished from one another, even in principle.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey.
An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely; very little electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
The International Journal of Theoretical Physics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of physics published by Springer Science+Business Media since 1968.
The invariant mass, rest mass, intrinsic mass, proper mass, or in the case of bound systems simply mass, is the portion of the total mass of an object or system of objects that is independent of the overall motion of the system.
The inverse-square law, in physics, is any physical law stating that a specified physical quantity or intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source of that physical quantity.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
The ionization energy (Ei) is qualitatively defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron, the valence electron, of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation.
Irving Langmuir (January 31, 1881 – August 16, 1957) was an American chemist and physicist.
Isis is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press.
Naturally occurring nickel (28Ni) is composed of five stable isotopes;,,, and with being the most abundant (68.077% natural abundance).
Sir Joseph John Thomson (18 December 1856 – 30 August 1940) was an English physicist and Nobel Laureate in Physics, credited with the discovery and identification of the electron; and with the discovery of the first subatomic particle.
James Franck (26 August 1882 – 21 May 1964) was a German physicist who won the 1925 Nobel Prize for Physics with Gustav Hertz "for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom".
Johann Wilhelm Hittorf (27 March 1824 – 28 November 1914) was a German physicist who was born in Bonn and died in Münster, Germany.
Sir John Sealy Edward Townsend, FRS (7 June 1868 – 16 February 1957) was an Irish mathematical physicist who conducted various studies concerning the electrical conduction of gases (concerning the kinetics of electrons and ions) and directly measured the electrical charge.
Jones & Bartlett Learning, a division of Ascend Learning, is a provider of instructional, assessment and learning-performance management solutions for the secondary, post-secondary, and professional markets.
The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
The Journal of the American Chemical Society (also known as JACS) is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1879 by the American Chemical Society.
Julian Seymour Schwinger (February 12, 1918 – July 16, 1994) was a Nobel Prize winning American theoretical physicist.
KEKB is a particle accelerator used in the Belle experiment to study CP violation.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
In physics, the Lamb shift, named after Willis Lamb, is a difference in energy between two energy levels 2S1/2 and 2P1/2 (in term symbol notation) of the hydrogen atom which was not predicted by the Dirac equation, according to which these states should have the same energy.
The Large Electron–Positron Collider (LEP) was one of the largest particle accelerators ever constructed.
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is an American federal research facility in Livermore, California, United States, founded by the University of California, Berkeley in 1952.
In particle physics, a lepton is an elementary particle of half-integer spin (spin) that does not undergo strong interactions.
Lester Halbert Germer (October 10, 1896 – October 3, 1971) was an American physicist.
Liénard–Wiechert potentials describe the classical electromagnetic effect of a moving electric point charge in terms of a vector potential and a scalar potential in the Lorenz gauge.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.
A linear particle accelerator (often shortened to linac) is a type of particle accelerator that accelerates charged subatomic particles or ions to a high speed by subjecting them to a series of oscillating electric potentials along a linear beamline.
This article includes a list of the different types of atomic- and sub-atomic particles found or hypothesized to exist in the whole of the universe categorized by type.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
The Lorentz factor or Lorentz term is the factor by which time, length, and relativistic mass change for an object while that object is moving.
In physics (particularly in electromagnetism) the Lorentz force is the combination of electric and magnetic force on a point charge due to electromagnetic fields.
Louis Victor Pierre Raymond de Broglie, duke de Broglie (or; 15 August 1892 – 19 March 1987) was a French physicist who made groundbreaking contributions to quantum theory.
Low-Energy electron diffraction (LEED) is a technique for the determination of the surface structure of single-crystalline materials by bombardment with a collimated beam of low energy electrons (20–200 eV) and observation of diffracted electrons as spots on a fluorescent screen.
Lund University (Lunds universitet) is a public university, consistently ranking among the world's top 100 universities.
Macmillan Publishers Ltd (occasionally known as the Macmillan Group) is an international publishing company owned by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group.
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
The magnetic moment is a quantity that represents the magnetic strength and orientation of a magnet or other object that produces a magnetic field.
Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields.
Mass in special relativity incorporates the general understandings from the laws of motion of special relativity along with its concept of mass–energy equivalence.
The mass-to-charge ratio (m/Q) is a physical quantity that is most widely used in the electrodynamics of charged particles, e.g. in electron optics and ion optics.
In physics, mass–energy equivalence states that anything having mass has an equivalent amount of energy and vice versa, with these fundamental quantities directly relating to one another by Albert Einstein's famous formula: E.
Matter waves are a central part of the theory of quantum mechanics, being an example of wave–particle duality.
Maxwell's equations are a set of partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electromagnetism, classical optics, and electric circuits.
McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
Measurement Science and Technology (MST) is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by IOP Publishing and covering the areas of measurement, instrumentation, and sensor technology in the sciences.
Metallic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that arises from the electrostatic attractive force between conduction electrons (in the form of an electron cloud of delocalized electrons) and positively charged metal ions.
The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".
Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between and.
The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).
In chemistry, a molecular orbital (MO) is a mathematical function describing the wave-like behavior of an electron in a molecule.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.
The muon (from the Greek letter mu (μ) used to represent it) is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with an electric charge of −1 e and a spin of 1/2, but with a much greater mass.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Weak neutral current interactions are one of the ways in which subatomic particles can interact by means of the weak force.
A neutrino (denoted by the Greek letter ν) is a fermion (an elementary particle with half-integer spin) that interacts only via the weak subatomic force and gravity.
New Latin (also called Neo-Latin or Modern Latin) was a revival in the use of Latin in original, scholarly, and scientific works between c. 1375 and c. 1900.
New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Niels Henrik David Bohr (7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.
The Nobel Foundation (Nobelstiftelsen) is a private institution founded on 29 June 1900 to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes.
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton, neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more nuclides that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process.
Nucleosynthesis is the process that creates new atomic nuclei from pre-existing nucleons, primarily protons and neutrons.
The oil drop experiment was performed by Robert A. Millikan and Harvey Fletcher in 1909 to measure the elementary electric charge (the charge of the electron).
The optical microscope, often referred to as the light microscope, is a type of microscope that uses visible light and a system of lenses to magnify images of small subjects.
Orbitons are one of three quasiparticles, along with holons and spinons, that electrons in solids are able to split into during the process of spin–charge separation, when extremely tightly confined at temperatures close to absolute zero.
An overhead projector is a variant of slide projector that is used to display images to an audience.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pair production is the creation of an elementary particle and its antiparticle from a neutral boson.
A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.
Particle decay is the spontaneous process of one unstable subatomic particle transforming into multiple other particles.
In experimental and applied particle physics, nuclear physics, and nuclear engineering, a particle detector, also known as a radiation detector, is a device used to detect, track, and/or identify ionizing particles, such as those produced by nuclear decay, cosmic radiation, or reactions in a particle accelerator.
Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.
Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (8 August 1902 – 20 October 1984) was an English theoretical physicist who is regarded as one of the most significant physicists of the 20th century.
The Pauli exclusion principle is the quantum mechanical principle which states that two or more identical fermions (particles with half-integer spin) cannot occupy the same quantum state within a quantum system simultaneously.
A Penning trap is a device for the storage of charged particles using a homogeneous axial magnetic field and an inhomogeneous quadrupole electric field.
Periodic systems of molecules are charts of molecules similar to the periodic table of the elements.
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.
The Philosophical Magazine is one of the oldest scientific journals published in English.
In physics, a phonon is a collective excitation in a periodic, elastic arrangement of atoms or molecules in condensed matter, like solids and some liquids.
A photocathode is a negatively charged electrode in a light detection device such as a photomultiplier or phototube that is coated with a photosensitive compound.
The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons or other free carriers when light shines on a material.
Photomultiplier tubes (photomultipliers or PMTs for short), members of the class of vacuum tubes, and more specifically vacuum phototubes, are extremely sensitive detectors of light in the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Physica Scripta is an international scientific journal for experimental and theoretical physics.
Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.
Physical Review Letters (PRL), established in 1958, is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal that is published 52 times per year by the American Physical Society.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Physics in Perspective is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Birkhäuser.
Physics Letters was a scientific journal published from 1962 to 1966, when it split in two series now published by Elsevier.
Physics Reports is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, a review section of Physics Letters that has been published by Elsevier since 1971.
Physics-Uspekhi (Advances in Physical Sciences) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal.
In particle physics, a pion (or a pi meson, denoted with the Greek letter pi) is any of three subatomic particles:,, and.
The Planck constant (denoted, also called Planck's constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of action, central in quantum mechanics.
In physics, the Planck length, denoted, is a unit of length, equal to metres.
Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.
Plasma oscillations, also known as Langmuir waves (after Irving Langmuir), are rapid oscillations of the electron density in conducting media such as plasmas or metals in the ultraviolet region.
A point particle (ideal particle or point-like particle, often spelled pointlike particle) is an idealization of particles heavily used in physics.
Polykarp Kusch (January 26, 1911 – March 20, 1993) was a German-American physicist.
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that has numerous applications.
The positron or antielectron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron.
Positronium (Ps) is a system consisting of an electron and its anti-particle, a positron, bound together into an exotic atom, specifically an onium.
In physics, potential energy is the energy possessed by an object because of its position relative to other objects, stresses within itself, its electric charge, or other factors.
Precession is a change in the orientation of the rotational axis of a rotating body.
Prentice Hall is a major educational publisher owned by Pearson plc.
In particle physics, preons are point particles, conceived of as subcomponents of quarks and leptons.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
In physics, the principle of relativity is the requirement that the equations describing the laws of physics have the same form in all admissible frames of reference.
In probability theory, a probability density function (PDF), or density of a continuous random variable, is a function, whose value at any given sample (or point) in the sample space (the set of possible values taken by the random variable) can be interpreted as providing a relative likelihood that the value of the random variable would equal that sample.
In mathematics, a projection is a mapping of a set (or other mathematical structure) into a subset (or sub-structure), which is equal to its square for mapping composition (or, in other words, which is idempotent).
In physics, the proton-to-electron mass ratio, μ or β, is simply the rest mass of the proton divided by that of the electron.
A quadrupole ion trap is a type of ion trap that uses dynamic electric fields to trap charged particles.
In particle physics, quantum electrodynamics (QED) is the relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
In quantum physics, quantum state refers to the state of an isolated quantum system.
Quantum tunnelling or tunneling (see spelling differences) is the quantum mechanical phenomenon where a particle tunnels through a barrier that it classically cannot surmount.
A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.
In physics, quasiparticles and collective excitations (which are closely related) are emergent phenomena that occur when a microscopically complicated system such as a solid behaves as if it contained different weakly interacting particles in free space.
In radiometry, radiance is the radiant flux emitted, reflected, transmitted or received by a given surface, per unit solid angle per unit projected area.
Radiation damping in accelerator physics is a way of reducing the beam emittance of a high-velocity charged particle beam by synchrotron radiation.
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
A radio telescope is a specialized antenna and radio receiver used to receive radio waves from astronomical radio sources in the sky in radio astronomy.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
Radium is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88.
A raster scan, or raster scanning, is the rectangular pattern of image capture and reconstruction in television.
In physics, the reciprocal lattice represents the Fourier transform of another lattice (usually a Bravais lattice).
Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) is a technique used to characterize the surface of crystalline materials.
The relative permittivity of a material is its (absolute) permittivity expressed as a ratio relative to the permittivity of vacuum.
Relativistic electron beams are streams of electrons moving at relativistic speeds.
Reports on Progress in Physics is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by IOP Publishing.
In physics, resonance is a phenomenon in which a vibrating system or external force drives another system to oscillate with greater amplitude at specific frequencies.
In photography, reversal film is a type of photographic film that produces a positive image on a transparent base.
Reviews of Modern Physics is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Physical Society.
Richard Phillips Feynman (May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988) was an American theoretical physicist, known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as in particle physics for which he proposed the parton model.
Richard Laming (c. 1798–3 May 1879) was a British surgeon, natural philosopher, inventor, chemist and industrialist.
Robert Andrews Millikan (March 22, 1868 – December 19, 1953) was an American experimental physicist honored with the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1923 for the measurement of the elementary electronic charge and for his work on the photoelectric effect.
Robert Curtis Retherford (1912 – 1981) was an American physicist.
Samuel Abraham Goudsmit (July 11, 1902 – December 4, 1978) was a Dutch-American physicist famous for jointly proposing the concept of electron spin with George Eugene Uhlenbeck in 1925.
A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope that produces images of a sample by scanning the surface with a focused beam of electrons.
A scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is an instrument for imaging surfaces at the atomic level.
In quantum mechanics, the Schrödinger equation is a mathematical equation that describes the changes over time of a physical system in which quantum effects, such as wave–particle duality, are significant.
The Schwarzschild radius (sometimes historically referred to as the gravitational radius) is a physical parameter that shows up in the Schwarzschild solution to Einstein's field equations, corresponding to the radius defining the event horizon of a Schwarzschild black hole.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Science Daily is an American website that aggregates press releases and publishes lightly edited press releases (a practice called churnalism) about science, similar to Phys.org and EurekAlert!.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
In most theoretical physics such as quantum field theory, the energy that a particle has as a result of changes that it itself causes in its environment defines self-energy \Sigma, and represents the contribution to the particle's energy, or effective mass, due to interactions between the particle and its system.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
The shielding effect describes the attraction between an electron and the nucleus in any atom with more than one electron.
, usually cited as Sin-Itiro Tomonaga in English, was a Japanese physicist, influential in the development of quantum electrodynamics, work for which he was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1965 along with Richard Feynman and Julian Schwinger.
SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, originally named Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, is a United States Department of Energy National Laboratory operated by Stanford University under the programmatic direction of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science and located in Menlo Park, California.
The Sokolov–Ternov effect is the effect of self-polarization of relativistic electrons or positrons moving at high energy in a magnetic field.
The solar mass is a standard unit of mass in astronomy, equal to approximately.
Solid-state electronics means semiconductor electronics; electronic equipment using semiconductor devices such as semiconductor diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits (ICs).
In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted and experimentally well-confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time.
A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.
A spectrometer is a scientific instrument used to separate and measure spectral components of a physical phenomenon.
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.
In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.
In atomic physics, the spin quantum number is a quantum number that parameterizes the intrinsic angular momentum (or spin angular momentum, or simply spin) of a given particle.
In quantum mechanics, spin is an intrinsic property of all elementary particles.
Spinons are one of three quasiparticles, along with holons and orbitons, that electrons in solids are able to split into during the process of spin–charge separation, when extremely tightly confined at temperatures close to absolute zero.
Spintronics (a portmanteau meaning spin transport electronics), also known as spin electronics, is the study of the intrinsic spin of the electron and its associated magnetic moment, in addition to its fundamental electronic charge, in solid-state devices.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
In mathematics, a square is the result of multiplying a number by itself.
The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.
Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
The statcoulomb (statC) or franklin (Fr) or electrostatic unit of charge (esu) is the physical unit for electrical charge used in the esu-cgs (centimetre–gram–second system of units) and Gaussian units.
Stellar evolution is the process by which a star changes over the course of time.
Stellar nucleosynthesis is the theory explaining the creation (nucleosynthesis) of chemical elements by nuclear fusion reactions between atoms within the stars.
Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that eliminates, removes, kills, or deactivates all forms of life and other biological agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, spore forms, prions, unicellular eukaryotic organisms such as Plasmodium, etc.) present in a specified region, such as a surface, a volume of fluid, medication, or in a compound such as biological culture media.
The Stern–Gerlach experiment demonstrated that the spatial orientation of angular momentum is quantized.
In particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force (also called the strong force or nuclear strong force), and is one of the four known fundamental interactions, with the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction, and gravitation.
In the physical sciences, subatomic particles are particles much smaller than atoms.
Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.
Supersaturation is a state of a solution that contains more of the dissolved material than could be dissolved by the solvent under normal circumstances.
A synchrotron is a particular type of cyclic particle accelerator, descended from the cyclotron, in which the accelerating particle beam travels around a fixed closed-loop path.
Synchrotron radiation (also known as magnetobremsstrahlung radiation) is the electromagnetic radiation emitted when charged particles are accelerated radially, i.e., when they are subject to an acceleration perpendicular to their velocity.
The tau (τ), also called the tau lepton, tau particle, or tauon, is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with negative electric charge and a 2.
A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).
A television set or television receiver, more commonly called a television, TV, TV set, or telly, is a device that combines a tuner, display, and loudspeakers for the purpose of viewing television.
The tesla (symbol T) is a derived unit of magnetic flux density (informally, magnetic field strength) in the International System of Units.
The Astrophysical Journal, often abbreviated ApJ (pronounced "ap jay") in references and speech, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astrophysics and astronomy, established in 1895 by American astronomers George Ellery Hale and James Edward Keeler.
The Journal of Nuclear Medicine is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal published by Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging that covers research on all aspects of nuclear medicine, including molecular imaging.
The Philosophical Library (Philosophical and Religious Free Library) is a non-profit organization run entirely by volunteers and founded in 1963.
The Science of Nature, formerly Naturwissenschaften, is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Springer Science+Business Media covering all aspects of the natural sciences relating to questions of biological significance.
Thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.
Thomson scattering is the elastic scattering of electromagnetic radiation by a free charged particle, as described by classical electromagnetism.
The Townsend discharge or Townsend avalanche is a gas ionisation process where free electrons are accelerated by an electric field, collide with gas molecules, and consequently free additional electrons.
A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.
Transmission Electron Aberration-Corrected Microscope (TEAM) is a collaborative research project between four US laboratories and two companies.
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, also sometimes conventional transmission electron microscopy or CTEM) is a microscopy technique in which a beam of electrons is transmitted through a specimen to form an image.
The triboelectric effect (also known as triboelectric charging) is a type of contact electrification on which certain materials become electrically charged after they come into frictional contact with a different material.
In quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle (also known as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle) is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p, can be known.
Unconventional superconductors are materials that display superconductivity which does not conform to either the conventional BCS theory or Nikolay Bogolyubov's theory or its extensions.
An undulator is an insertion device from high-energy physics and usually part of a larger installation, a synchrotron storage ring, or it may be a component of a free electron laser.
The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).
The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the US state of California.
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
The University of Nottingham is a public research university in Nottingham, United Kingdom.
Vacuum is space devoid of matter.
The physical constant (pronounced as "epsilon nought"), commonly called the vacuum permittivity, permittivity of free space or electric constant, is an ideal, (baseline) physical constant, which is the value of the absolute dielectric permittivity of classical vacuum.
In quantum field theory, and specifically quantum electrodynamics, vacuum polarization describes a process in which a background electromagnetic field produces virtual electron–positron pairs that change the distribution of charges and currents that generated the original electromagnetic field.
In quantum field theory, the quantum vacuum state (also called the quantum vacuum or vacuum state) is the quantum state with the lowest possible energy.
In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container.
In chemistry, the valence or valency of an element is a measure of its combining power with other atoms when it forms chemical compounds or molecules.
The velocity factor (VF), also called wave propagation speed or velocity of propagation (VoP or of a transmission medium is the ratio of the speed at which a wavefront (of an electromagnetic signal, a radio signal, a light pulse in an optical fibre or a change of the electrical voltage on a copper wire) passes through the medium, to the speed of light in a vacuum.
In physics, a virtual particle is a transient fluctuation that exhibits some of the characteristics of an ordinary particle, but whose existence is limited by the uncertainty principle.
The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.
Walter Heinrich Heitler (2 January 1904 – 15 November 1981) was a German physicist who made contributions to quantum electrodynamics and quantum field theory.
A wave function in quantum physics is a mathematical description of the quantum state of an isolated quantum system.
In physics, interference is a phenomenon in which two waves superpose to form a resultant wave of greater, lower, or the same amplitude.
Wave–particle duality is the concept in quantum mechanics that every particle or quantic entity may be partly described in terms not only of particles, but also of waves.
In particle physics, the weak interaction (the weak force or weak nuclear force) is the mechanism of interaction between sub-atomic particles that causes radioactive decay and thus plays an essential role in nuclear fission.
In particle physics, weak isospin is a quantum number relating to the weak interaction, and parallels the idea of isospin under the strong interaction.
In physics, the Wiedemann–Franz law states that the ratio of the electronic contribution of the thermal conductivity (&kappa) to the electrical conductivity (&sigma) of a metal is proportional to the temperature (T).
Wiley-VCH is a German publisher owned by John Wiley & Sons.
Wilhelm Eduard Weber (24 October 1804 – 23 June 1891) was a German physicist and, together with Carl Friedrich Gauss, inventor of the first electromagnetic telegraph.
Sir William Crookes (17 June 1832 – 4 April 1919) was a British chemist and physicist who attended the Royal College of Chemistry in London, and worked on spectroscopy.
William Gilbert (24 May 1544 – 30 November 1603), also known as Gilberd, was an English physician, physicist and natural philosopher.
Willis Eugene Lamb Jr. (July 12, 1913 – May 15, 2008) was an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1955 "for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum." The Nobel Committee that year awarded half the prize to Lamb and the other half to Polykarp Kusch, who won "for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron." Lamb was able to determine precisely a surprising shift in electron energies in a hydrogen atom (see Lamb shift).
Wolfgang Ernst Pauli (25 April 1900 – 15 December 1958) was an Austrian-born Swiss and American theoretical physicist and one of the pioneers of quantum physics.
Wolfram Research is a private company that creates computational technology.
Woodhead Publishing Limited was established in 1989 as an independent international publishing company of science and technical books.
World Scientific Publishing is an academic publisher of scientific, technical, and medical books and journals headquartered in Singapore.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
The Zeeman effect, named after the Dutch physicist Pieter Zeeman, is the effect of splitting a spectral line into several components in the presence of a static magnetic field.
Zitterbewegung ("trembling motion" in German) is a hypothetical rapid motion of elementary particles, in particular electrons, that obey the Dirac equation.
1 (one, also called unit, unity, and (multiplicative) identity) is a number, numeral, and glyph.
Antipositron, Beta minus particle, Electron Mass, Electron lepton, Electron movement, Electron theory, Electrons, Mass of an electron, Mass of electron, Mass of the electron, Negative electron, Negaton.