44 relations: Atom, Atomic nucleus, Atomic number, Auger effect, Beta decay, Characteristic X-ray, Charged current, Chemical bond, Decay energy, Decay product, Dysprosium, Electron, Electron neutrino, Electron shell, Electronvolt, Excited state, Gamma ray, Gian Carlo Wick, Ground state, Hideki Yukawa, Holmium, Internal conversion, Inverse beta decay, Ion, Isobar (nuclide), Isotope, Isotopes of gallium, Isotopes of krypton, Isotopes of rubidium, Isotopes of vanadium, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Luis Walter Alvarez, Mass number, Neutrino, Periodic table, Physical Review, Positron, Positron emission, Proton, R-process, Radioactive decay, Supernova, Table of nuclides, Weak interaction.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
The Auger effect is a physical phenomenon in which the filling of an inner-shell vacancy of an atom is accompanied by the emission of an electron from the same atom.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
Characteristic X-rays are emitted when outer-shell electrons fill a vacancy in the inner shell of an atom, releasing X-rays in a pattern that is "characteristic" to each element.
The charged current interaction is one of the ways in which subatomic particles can interact by means of the weak force.
A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.
The decay energy is the energy released by a radioactive decay.
In nuclear physics, a decay product (also known as a daughter product, daughter isotope, radio-daughter, or daughter nuclide) is the remaining nuclide left over from radioactive decay.
Dysprosium is a chemical element with symbol Dy and atomic number 66.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
The electron neutrino is a subatomic lepton elementary particle which has no net electric charge.
In chemistry and atomic physics, an electron shell, or a principal energy level, may be thought of as an orbit followed by electrons around an atom's nucleus.
In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).
In quantum mechanics, an excited state of a system (such as an atom, molecule or nucleus) is any quantum state of the system that has a higher energy than the ground state (that is, more energy than the absolute minimum).
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
Gian Carlo Wick (October 15, 1909 – April 20, 1992) was an Italian theoretical physicist who made important contributions to quantum field theory.
The ground state of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as the zero-point energy of the system.
, was a Japanese theoretical physicist and the first Japanese Nobel laureate.
Holmium is a chemical element with symbol Ho and atomic number 67.
Internal conversion is a radioactive decay process wherein an excited nucleus interacts electromagnetically with one of the orbital electrons of the atom.
Inverse beta decay, commonly abbreviated to IBD, is a nuclear reaction involving electron antineutrino scattering off a proton, creating a positron and a neutron.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Isobars are atoms (nuclides) of different chemical elements that have the same number of nucleons.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Natural gallium (31Ga) consists of a mixture of two stable isotopes: gallium-69 and gallium-71.
There are 33 known isotopes of krypton (36Kr) with atomic mass numbers from 69 through 101.
Rubidium (37Rb) has 32 isotopes, with naturally occurring rubidium being composed of just two isotopes; 85Rb (72.2%) and the radioactive 87Rb (27.8%).
Naturally occurring vanadium (23V) is composed of one stable isotope 51V and one radioactive isotope 50V with a half-life of 1.5×1017 years.
Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos or LANL for short) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory initially organized during World War II for the design of nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project.
Luis Walter Alvarez (June 13, 1911 – September 1, 1988) was an American experimental physicist, inventor, and professor who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1968.
The mass number (symbol A, from the German word Atomgewichte (atomic weight), also called atomic mass number or nucleon number, is the total number of protons and neutrons (together known as nucleons) in an atomic nucleus. It determines the atomic mass of atoms. Because protons and neutrons both are baryons, the mass number A is identical with the baryon number B as of the nucleus as of the whole atom or ion. The mass number is different for each different isotope of a chemical element. This is not the same as the atomic number (Z) which denotes the number of protons in a nucleus, and thus uniquely identifies an element. Hence, the difference between the mass number and the atomic number gives the number of neutrons (N) in a given nucleus:. The mass number is written either after the element name or as a superscript to the left of an element's symbol. For example, the most common isotope of carbon is carbon-12, or, which has 6 protons and 6 neutrons. The full isotope symbol would also have the atomic number (Z) as a subscript to the left of the element symbol directly below the mass number:. This is technically redundant, as each element is defined by its atomic number, so it is often omitted.
A neutrino (denoted by the Greek letter ν) is a fermion (an elementary particle with half-integer spin) that interacts only via the weak subatomic force and gravity.
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.
Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.
The positron or antielectron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron.
Positron emission or beta plus decay (β+ decay) is a subtype of radioactive decay called beta decay, in which a proton inside a radionuclide nucleus is converted into a neutron while releasing a positron and an electron neutrino (νe).
The rapid neutron-capture process, or so-called r-process, is a set of nuclear reactions that in nuclear astrophysics is responsible for the creation (nucleosynthesis) of approximately half the abundances of the atomic nuclei heavier than iron, usually synthesizing the entire abundance of the two most neutron-rich stable isotopes of each heavy element.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.
A table of nuclides or chart of nuclides is a two-dimensional graph in which one axis represents the number of neutrons and the other represents the number of protons in an atomic nucleus.
In particle physics, the weak interaction (the weak force or weak nuclear force) is the mechanism of interaction between sub-atomic particles that causes radioactive decay and thus plays an essential role in nuclear fission.
EC decay, Electron Capture, Electron Captures, Electron capture decay, Electron-capture, Epsilon decay, Inverse-beta decay, K Capture, K Captures, K Electron Capture, K Electron Captures, K capture, K-Capture, K-Electron Capture, K-Electron Captures, K-capture, K-electron capture, L capture, L-capture, L-electron capture.