187 relations: Actinium, Alkaline earth metal, Americium, Argon, Arnold Sommerfeld, Atom, Atomic nucleus, Atomic number, Atomic orbital, Atomic physics, Aufbau principle, Azimuthal quantum number, Barium, Basis set (chemistry), Berkelium, Block (periodic table), Bohr model, Bohrium, Born–Oppenheimer approximation, Cadmium, Calcium, Carbon monoxide, Cerium, Character table, Charles Janet, Chemical Physics Letters, Chemical Reviews, Chromium, Chromium hexacarbonyl, Cobalt, Computational chemistry, Configuration state function, Coordination complex, Copper, Core electron, Crystal field theory, Curium, D electron count, Density functional theory, Diamagnetism, Dubnium, Edmund Clifton Stoner, Education in Chemistry, Electron, Electron configuration, Electron configurations of the elements (data page), Electronic band structure, Electronic correlation, Emission spectrum, Energy level, ..., Eric Scerri, Erwin Madelung, Europium, Excited state, Extended periodic table, Fine structure, Gadolinium, German language, Gold, Ground state, Group (periodic table), Hafnium, Hartree–Fock method, Hassium, HOMO/LUMO, Hund's rules, Hydrogen, Hydrogen-like atom, Identical particles, Inert gas, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Introduction to quantum mechanics, Ion, Iridium, Iron, Irreducible representation, Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner, Krypton, Lamb shift, Lanthanum, Laser, Lawrencium, Leonhard Euler, Ligand, Linear combination of atomic orbitals, Lithium, Lutetium, Magnetic field, Magnetic moment, Manganese, Mathematical analysis, Mercury (element), Molecular orbital, Molecular orbital theory, Molecular symmetry, Molecular term symbol, Molecule, Molybdenum, N-body problem, Neodymium, Neon, Neptunium, Neutron, Nickel, Niels Bohr, Niobium, Noble gas, Nuclear chemistry, Nuclear physics, Nuclear shell model, Oganesson, Old quantum theory, Osmium, Oxidation state, Palladium, Paradox, Paramagnetism, Pauli exclusion principle, Period (periodic table), Periodic table, Periodic table (electron configurations), Phosphorus, Photon, Platinum, Plutonium, Point group, Potassium, Praseodymium, Principal quantum number, Promethium, Protactinium, Proton, Quantum, Quantum chemistry, Quantum electrodynamics, Quantum mechanics, Quantum number, Quantum state, Radon, Relative atomic mass, Relativistic quantum chemistry, Rhenium, Rhodium, Royal Society of Chemistry, Ruthenium, Rutherfordium, Samarium, Scandium, Schrödinger equation, Seaborgium, Semiconductor, Silver, Slater determinant, Sodium, Sodium-vapor lamp, Solid, Spectral line, Speed of light, Spherical harmonics, Spin (physics), Springer Science+Business Media, Stationary state, Strontium, Sulfur, Tantalum, Technetium, Terbium, Term symbol, Thorium, Titanium, Transition metal, Tungsten, Ultraviolet, Unbinilium, Uranium, Valence (chemistry), Valence electron, Vanadium, Vibronic coupling, Vsevolod Klechkovsky, Wolfgang Pauli, X-ray, Xenon, Yttrium, Zeeman effect, Zinc, Zirconium. Expand index (137 more) » « Shrink index
Actinium is a chemical element with symbol Ac and atomic number 89.
The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table.
Americium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Am and atomic number 95.
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.
Arnold Johannes Wilhelm Sommerfeld, (5 December 1868 – 26 April 1951) was a German theoretical physicist who pioneered developments in atomic and quantum physics, and also educated and mentored a large number of students for the new era of theoretical physics.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.
Atomic physics is the field of physics that studies atoms as an isolated system of electrons and an atomic nucleus.
The aufbau principle states that in the ground state of an atom or ion, electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels.
The azimuthal quantum number is a quantum number for an atomic orbital that determines its orbital angular momentum and describes the shape of the orbital.
Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56.
A basis set in theoretical and computational chemistry is a set of functions (called basis functions) that is used to represent the electronic wave function in the Hartree–Fock method or density-functional theory in order to turn the partial differential equations of the model into algebraic equations suitable for efficient implementation on a computer.
Berkelium is a transuranic radioactive chemical element with symbol Bk and atomic number 97.
A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups.
In atomic physics, the Rutherford–Bohr model or Bohr model or Bohr diagram, introduced by Niels Bohr and Ernest Rutherford in 1913, depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus—similar to the structure of the Solar System, but with attraction provided by electrostatic forces rather than gravity.
Bohrium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Bh and atomic number 107.
In quantum chemistry and molecular physics, the Born–Oppenheimer (BO) approximation is the assumption that the motion of atomic nuclei and electrons in a molecule can be separated.
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Cerium is a chemical element with symbol Ce and atomic number 58.
In group theory, a branch of abstract algebra, a character table is a two-dimensional table whose rows correspond to irreducible group representations, and whose columns correspond to conjugacy classes of group elements.
Charles Janet (15 June 1849 – 7 February 1932) was a French engineer, company director, inventor and biologist.
Chemical Physics Letters is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in chemical physics and physical chemistry.
Chemical Reviews is peer-reviewed scientific journal published twice per month by the American Chemical Society.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
Chromium carbonyl, also known as chromium hexacarbonyl, is the chemical compound with the formula Cr(CO)6.
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
Computational chemistry is a branch of chemistry that uses computer simulation to assist in solving chemical problems.
In quantum chemistry, a configuration state function (CSF), is a symmetry-adapted linear combination of Slater determinants.
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Core electrons are the electrons in an atom that are not valence electrons and therefore do not participate in bonding.
Crystal Field Theory (CFT) is a model that describes the breaking of degeneracies of electron orbital states, usually d or f orbitals, due to a static electric field produced by a surrounding charge distribution (anion neighbors).
Curium is a transuranic radioactive chemical element with symbol Cm and atomic number 96.
The d electron count is a chemistry formalism used to describe the electron configuration of the valence electrons of a transition metal center in a coordination complex.
Density functional theory (DFT) is a computational quantum mechanical modelling method used in physics, chemistry and materials science to investigate the electronic structure (principally the ground state) of many-body systems, in particular atoms, molecules, and the condensed phases.
Diamagnetic materials are repelled by a magnetic field; an applied magnetic field creates an induced magnetic field in them in the opposite direction, causing a repulsive force.
Dubnium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Db and atomic number 105.
Edmund Clifton Stoner FRS (2 October 1899 – 27 December 1968) was a British theoretical physicist.
Education in Chemistry is a magazine covering all areas of chemistry education, concentrating on the teaching of chemistry in secondary schools and universities.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.
This page shows the electron configurations of the neutral gaseous atoms in their ground states.
In solid-state physics, the electronic band structure (or simply band structure) of a solid describes the range of energies that an electron within the solid may have (called energy bands, allowed bands, or simply bands) and ranges of energy that it may not have (called band gaps or forbidden bands).
Electronic correlation is the interaction between electrons in the electronic structure of a quantum system.
The emission spectrum of a chemical element or chemical compound is the spectrum of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation emitted due to an atom or molecule making a transition from a high energy state to a lower energy state.
A quantum mechanical system or particle that is bound—that is, confined spatially—can only take on certain discrete values of energy.
Eric R. Scerri is a chemist, writer and philosopher of science, of Maltese origin.
Erwin Madelung (18 May 1881 – 1 August 1972) was a German physicist.
Europium is a chemical element with symbol Eu and atomic number 63.
In quantum mechanics, an excited state of a system (such as an atom, molecule or nucleus) is any quantum state of the system that has a higher energy than the ground state (that is, more energy than the absolute minimum).
An extended periodic table theorizes about elements beyond oganesson (beyond period 7, or row 7).
In atomic physics, the fine structure describes the splitting of the spectral lines of atoms due to electron spin and relativistic corrections to the non-relativistic Schrödinger equation.
Gadolinium is a chemical element with symbol Gd and atomic number 64.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
The ground state of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as the zero-point energy of the system.
In chemistry, a group (also known as a family) is a column of elements in the periodic table of the chemical elements.
Hafnium is a chemical element with symbol Hf and atomic number 72.
In computational physics and chemistry, the Hartree–Fock (HF) method is a method of approximation for the determination of the wave function and the energy of a quantum many-body system in a stationary state.
Hassium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Hs and atomic number 108.
In chemistry, HOMO and LUMO are types of molecular orbitals.
In atomic physics, Hund's rules refers to a set of rules that German physicist Friedrich Hund formulated around 1927, which are used to determine the term symbol that corresponds to the ground state of a multi-electron atom.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
A hydrogen-like ion is any atomic nucleus which has one electron and thus is isoelectronic with hydrogen.
Identical particles, also called indistinguishable or indiscernible particles, are particles that cannot be distinguished from one another, even in principle.
An inert gas/noble gas is a gas which does not undergo chemical reactions under a set of given conditions.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
Quantum mechanics is the science of the very small.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Iridium is a chemical element with symbol Ir and atomic number 77.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
In mathematics, specifically in the representation theory of groups and algebras, an irreducible representation (\rho, V) or irrep of an algebraic structure A is a nonzero representation that has no proper subrepresentation (\rho|_W,W), W \subset V closed under the action of \. Every finite-dimensional unitary representation on a Hermitian vector space V is the direct sum of irreducible representations.
Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner (13 December 1780 – 24 March 1849) was a German chemist who is best known for work that foreshadowed the periodic law for the chemical elements and inventing the first lighter, which was known as the Döbereiner's lamp.
Krypton (from translit "the hidden one") is a chemical element with symbol Kr and atomic number 36.
In physics, the Lamb shift, named after Willis Lamb, is a difference in energy between two energy levels 2S1/2 and 2P1/2 (in term symbol notation) of the hydrogen atom which was not predicted by the Dirac equation, according to which these states should have the same energy.
Lanthanum is a chemical element with symbol La and atomic number 57.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
Lawrencium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Lr (formerly Lw) and atomic number 103.
Leonhard Euler (Swiss Standard German:; German Standard German:; 15 April 170718 September 1783) was a Swiss mathematician, physicist, astronomer, logician and engineer, who made important and influential discoveries in many branches of mathematics, such as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory, while also making pioneering contributions to several branches such as topology and analytic number theory.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
A linear combination of atomic orbitals or LCAO is a quantum superposition of atomic orbitals and a technique for calculating molecular orbitals in quantum chemistry.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
Lutetium is a chemical element with symbol Lu and atomic number 71.
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
The magnetic moment is a quantity that represents the magnetic strength and orientation of a magnet or other object that produces a magnetic field.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
Mathematical analysis is the branch of mathematics dealing with limits and related theories, such as differentiation, integration, measure, infinite series, and analytic functions.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
In chemistry, a molecular orbital (MO) is a mathematical function describing the wave-like behavior of an electron in a molecule.
In chemistry, molecular orbital (MO) theory is a method for determining molecular structure in which electrons are not assigned to individual bonds between atoms, but are treated as moving under the influence of the nuclei in the whole molecule.
Molecular symmetry in chemistry describes the symmetry present in molecules and the classification of molecules according to their symmetry.
In molecular physics, the molecular term symbol is a shorthand expression of the group representation and angular momenta that characterize the state of a molecule, i.e. its electronic quantum state which is an eigenstate of the electronic molecular Hamiltonian.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
In physics, the -body problem is the problem of predicting the individual motions of a group of celestial objects interacting with each other gravitationally.
Neodymium is a chemical element with symbol Nd and atomic number 60.
Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10.
Neptunium is a chemical element with symbol Np and atomic number 93.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Niels Henrik David Bohr (7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.
Niobium, formerly known as columbium, is a chemical element with symbol Nb (formerly Cb) and atomic number 41.
The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.
Nuclear chemistry is the subfield of chemistry dealing with radioactivity, nuclear processes, such as nuclear transmutation, and nuclear properties.
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, the nuclear shell model is a model of the atomic nucleus which uses the Pauli exclusion principle to describe the structure of the nucleus in terms of energy levels.
Oganesson is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Og and atomic number 118.
The old quantum theory is a collection of results from the years 1900–1925 which predate modern quantum mechanics.
Osmium (from Greek ὀσμή osme, "smell") is a chemical element with symbol Os and atomic number 76.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46.
A paradox is a statement that, despite apparently sound reasoning from true premises, leads to an apparently self-contradictory or logically unacceptable conclusion.
Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism whereby certain materials are weakly attracted by an externally applied magnetic field, and form internal, induced magnetic fields in the direction of the applied magnetic field.
The Pauli exclusion principle is the quantum mechanical principle which states that two or more identical fermions (particles with half-integer spin) cannot occupy the same quantum state within a quantum system simultaneously.
A period in the periodic table is a horizontal row.
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.
* Configurations of elements 109 and above are not available.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
In geometry, a point group is a group of geometric symmetries (isometries) that keep at least one point fixed.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Praseodymium is a chemical element with symbol Pr and atomic number 59.
In quantum mechanics, the principal quantum number (symbolized n) is one of four quantum numbers which are assigned to all electrons in an atom to describe that electron's state.
Promethium is a chemical element with symbol Pm and atomic number 61.
Protactinium (formerly protoactinium) is a chemical element with symbol Pa and atomic number 91.
In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is the minimum amount of any physical entity (physical property) involved in an interaction.
Quantum chemistry is a branch of chemistry whose primary focus is the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems.
In particle physics, quantum electrodynamics (QED) is the relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
Quantum numbers describe values of conserved quantities in the dynamics of a quantum system.
In quantum physics, quantum state refers to the state of an isolated quantum system.
Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86.
Relative atomic mass (symbol: A) or atomic weight is a dimensionless physical quantity defined as the ratio of the average mass of atoms of a chemical element in a given sample to one unified atomic mass unit.
Relativistic quantum chemistry combines relativistic mechanics with quantum chemistry to explain elemental properties and structure, especially for the heavier elements of the periodic table.
Rhenium is a chemical element with symbol Re and atomic number 75.
Rhodium is a chemical element with symbol Rh and atomic number 45.
The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".
Ruthenium is a chemical element with symbol Ru and atomic number 44.
Rutherfordium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Rf and atomic number 104, named after physicist Ernest Rutherford.
Samarium is a chemical element with symbol Sm and atomic number 62.
Scandium is a chemical element with symbol Sc and atomic number 21.
In quantum mechanics, the Schrödinger equation is a mathematical equation that describes the changes over time of a physical system in which quantum effects, such as wave–particle duality, are significant.
Seaborgium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Sg and atomic number 106.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
In quantum mechanics, a Slater determinant is an expression that describes the wave function of a multi-fermionic system that satisfies anti-symmetry requirements, and consequently the Pauli principle, by changing sign upon exchange of two electrons (or other fermions).
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
A sodium-vapor lamp is a gas-discharge lamp that uses sodium in an excited state to produce light at a characteristic wavelength near 589 nm.
Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).
A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.
The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.
In mathematics and physical science, spherical harmonics are special functions defined on the surface of a sphere.
In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
A stationary state is a quantum state with all observables independent of time.
Strontium is the chemical element with symbol Sr and atomic number 38.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Tantalum is a chemical element with symbol Ta and atomic number 73.
Technetium is a chemical element with symbol Tc and atomic number 43.
Terbium is a chemical element with symbol Tb and atomic number 65.
In quantum mechanics, the term symbol is an abbreviated description of the (total) angular momentum quantum numbers in a multi-electron atom (however, even a single electron can be described by a term symbol).
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
Unbinilium, also known as eka-radium or simply element 120, is the hypothetical chemical element in the periodic table with symbol Ubn and atomic number 120.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
In chemistry, the valence or valency of an element is a measure of its combining power with other atoms when it forms chemical compounds or molecules.
In chemistry, a valence electron is an outer shell electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond if the outer shell is not closed; in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair.
Vanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23.
Vibronic coupling (also called nonadiabatic coupling or derivative coupling) in a molecule involves the interaction between electronic and nuclear vibrational motion.
Vsevolod Mavrikievich Klechkovsky (Все́волод Маври́киевич Клечко́вский; also transliterated as Klechkovskii and Klechkowski; November 28, 1900 – May 2, 1972) was a Soviet-era agricultural chemist known for his work with radioisotopes.
Wolfgang Ernst Pauli (25 April 1900 – 15 December 1958) was an Austrian-born Swiss and American theoretical physicist and one of the pioneers of quantum physics.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54.
Yttrium is a chemical element with symbol Y and atomic number 39.
The Zeeman effect, named after the Dutch physicist Pieter Zeeman, is the effect of splitting a spectral line into several components in the presence of a static magnetic field.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40.
Atomic shell model, D-shells, Electron configurations, Electron filling sequence, Electron shell configuration, Electron shell model, Electronic configuration, Electronic structure of atom, F shell, G shell, H shell, Orbital ordering, P Subshell, P orbitals, P shell, S shell, Shell atomic model.