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# Electronic circuit

An electronic circuit is composed of individual electronic components, such as resistors, transistors, capacitors, inductors and diodes, connected by conductive wires or traces through which electric current can flow. [1]

## Analog-to-digital converter

In electronics, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC, A/D, or A-to-D) is a system that converts an analog signal, such as a sound picked up by a microphone or light entering a digital camera, into a digital signal.

## Analogue electronics

Analogue electronics (also spelled analog electronics) are electronic systems with a continuously variable signal, in contrast to digital electronics where signals usually take only two levels.

## Application-specific integrated circuit

An Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), is an integrated circuit (IC) customized for a particular use, rather than intended for general-purpose use.

## Boolean algebra

In mathematics and mathematical logic, Boolean algebra is the branch of algebra in which the values of the variables are the truth values true and false, usually denoted 1 and 0 respectively.

A breadboard is a construction base for prototyping of electronics.

## Capacitor

A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores potential energy in an electric field.

## Characteristic impedance

The characteristic impedance or surge impedance (usually written Z0) of a uniform transmission line is the ratio of the amplitudes of voltage and current of a single wave propagating along the line; that is, a wave travelling in one direction in the absence of reflections in the other direction.

## Comparator

In electronics, a comparator is a device that compares two voltages or currents and outputs a digital signal indicating which is larger.

## Dependent source

In the theory of electrical networks, a dependent source is a voltage source or a current source whose value depends on a voltage or current somewhere else in the network.

## Digital electronics

Digital electronics or digital (electronic) circuits are electronics that operate on digital signals.

## Digital-to-analog converter

In electronics, a digital-to-analog converter (DAC, D/A, D2A, or D-to-A) is a system that converts a digital signal into an analog signal.

## Diode

A diode is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts current primarily in one direction (asymmetric conductance); it has low (ideally zero) resistance in one direction, and high (ideally infinite) resistance in the other.

## Distributed element circuit

Distributed element circuits are electrical circuits composed of lengths of transmission lines or other distributed components.

## Distributed element model

In electrical engineering, the distributed element model or transmission line model of electrical circuits assumes that the attributes of the circuit (resistance, capacitance, and inductance) are distributed continuously throughout the material of the circuit.

## Dynamic random-access memory

Dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) is a type of random access semiconductor memory that stores each bit of data in a separate tiny capacitor within an integrated circuit.

## Electric current

An electric current is a flow of electric charge.

## Electrical impedance

Electrical impedance is the measure of the opposition that a circuit presents to a current when a voltage is applied.

## Electromagnetic induction

Electromagnetic or magnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force (i.e., voltage) across an electrical conductor in a changing magnetic field.

## Electronic circuit design

Electronic circuit design comprises the analysis and synthesis of electronic circuits.

## Electronic component

An electronic component is any basic discrete device or physical entity in an electronic system used to affect electrons or their associated fields.

## Field-effect transistor

The field-effect transistor (FET) is a transistor that uses an electric field to control the electrical behaviour of the device.

## Field-programmable gate array

A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is an integrated circuit designed to be configured by a customer or a designer after manufacturing hence "field-programmable".

## Flip-flop (electronics)

In electronics, a flip-flop or latch is a circuit that has two stable states and can be used to store state information.

## Gallium arsenide

Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is a compound of the elements gallium and arsenic.

## Gyrator

A gyrator is a passive, linear, lossless, two-port electrical network element proposed in 1948 by Bernard D. H. Tellegen as a hypothetical fifth linear element after the resistor, capacitor, inductor and ideal transformer.

## Inductor

An inductor, also called a coil, choke or reactor, is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores energy in a magnetic field when electric current flows through it.

## Integrated circuit

An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.

## Kirchhoff's circuit laws

Kirchhoff's circuit laws are two equalities that deal with the current and potential difference (commonly known as voltage) in the lumped element model of electrical circuits.

## Logic gate

In electronics, a logic gate is an idealized or physical device implementing a Boolean function; that is, it performs a logical operation on one or more binary inputs and produces a single binary output.

## Memristor

A memristor (a portmanteau of memory resistor) is a hypothetical non-linear passive two-terminal electrical component relating electric charge and magnetic flux linkage.

## Microprocessor

A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits.

## Negative impedance converter

The negative impedance converter (NIC) is a one-port op-amp circuit acting as a negative load which injects energy into circuits in contrast to an ordinary load that consumes energy from them.

## Negative resistance

In electronics, negative resistance (NR) is a property of some electrical circuits and devices in which an increase in voltage across the device's terminals results in a decrease in electric current through it.

## Passivity (engineering)

Passivity is a property of engineering systems, used in a variety of engineering disciplines, but most commonly found in analog electronics and control systems.

## Perfboard

Perfboard is a material for prototyping electronic circuits (also called DOT PCB).

## Phase-locked loop

A phase-locked loop or phase lock loop abbreviated as PLL is a control system that generates an output signal whose phase is related to the phase of an input signal.

## Printed circuit board

A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components or electrical components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate.

## Race condition

A race condition or race hazard is the behavior of an electronics, software, or other system where the output is dependent on the sequence or timing of other uncontrollable events.

## Resistor

A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.

## Schematic

A schematic, or schematic diagram, is a representation of the elements of a system using abstract, graphic symbols rather than realistic pictures.

## Series and parallel circuits

Components of an electrical circuit or electronic circuit can be connected in many different ways.

## Silicon

Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.

## Solder

Solder (or in North America) is a fusible metal alloy used to create a permanent bond between metal workpieces.

## Static random-access memory

Static random-access memory (static RAM or SRAM) is a type of semiconductor memory that uses bistable latching circuitry (flip-flop) to store each bit.

## Stripboard

Stripboard is the generic name for a widely used type of electronics prototyping board characterized by a 0.1 inch (2.54 mm) regular (rectangular) grid of holes, with wide parallel strips of copper cladding running in one direction all the way across one side of the board.

## Substrate (electronics)

A substrate (also called a wafer) is a solid (usually planar) substance onto which a layer of another substance is applied, and to which that second substance adheres.

## Timer

A timer is a specialized type of clock used for measuring specific time intervals.

## Transistor

A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.

## Voltage

Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.

## Wire

A wire is a single, usually cylindrical, flexible strand or rod of metal.

## References

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