62 relations: Atomic physics, Atomic units, Avogadro constant, Centimetre–gram–second system of units, Charge-coupled device, Committee on Data for Science and Technology, Coulomb, Coulomb's law, Electric charge, Electric current, Electrolysis, Electron, Electronvolt, Elementary particle, Emergence, Faraday constant, Faraday's laws of electrolysis, Femtometre, Fine-structure constant, Fractional quantum Hall effect, George Johnstone Stoney, Gravity, Gyromagnetic ratio, Integer, Johann Josef Loschmidt, Josephson effect, Kibble balance, Laughlin wavefunction, Lorentz–Heaviside units, Magnetic flux quantum, Measurement uncertainty, Michael Faraday, Molar mass, Mole (unit), Natural units, Noise (electronics), Oil drop experiment, Particle physics, Philosophical Magazine, Physical constant, Planck constant, Proposed redefinition of SI base units, Proton, Quantum, Quantum Hall effect, Quantum mechanics, Quark, Quasiparticle, Robert Andrews Millikan, Robert B. Laughlin, ..., Shot noise, Silicon, Speed of light, Statcoulomb, Stoney units, Superconductivity, Unit of measurement, Vacuum permeability, Vacuum permittivity, Viscosity, Walter H. Schottky, X-ray crystallography. Expand index (12 more) » « Shrink index
Atomic physics is the field of physics that studies atoms as an isolated system of electrons and an atomic nucleus.
Atomic units (au or a.u.) form a system of natural units which is especially convenient for atomic physics calculations.
In chemistry and physics, the Avogadro constant (named after scientist Amedeo Avogadro) is the number of constituent particles, usually atoms or molecules, that are contained in the amount of substance given by one mole.
The centimetre–gram–second system of units (abbreviated CGS or cgs) is a variant of the metric system based on the centimetre as the unit of length, the gram as the unit of mass, and the second as the unit of time.
A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value.
The Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) was established in 1966 as an interdisciplinary committee of the International Council for Science.
The coulomb (symbol: C) is the International System of Units (SI) unit of electric charge.
Coulomb's law, or Coulomb's inverse-square law, is a law of physics for quantifying the amount of force with which stationary electrically charged particles repel or attract each other.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).
In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle with no substructure, thus not composed of other particles.
In philosophy, systems theory, science, and art, emergence occurs when "the whole is greater than the sum of the parts," meaning the whole has properties its parts do not have.
The Faraday constant, denoted by the symbol and sometimes stylized as ℱ, is named after Michael Faraday.
Faraday's laws of electrolysis are quantitative relationships based on the electrochemical researches published by Michael Faraday in 1834.
The femtometre (American spelling femtometer, symbol fm derived from the Danish and Norwegian word femten, "fifteen"+Ancient Greek: μέτρον, metrοn, "unit of measurement") is an SI unit of length equal to 10−15 metres, which means a quadrillionth of one.
In physics, the fine-structure constant, also known as Sommerfeld's constant, commonly denoted (the Greek letter ''alpha''), is a fundamental physical constant characterizing the strength of the electromagnetic interaction between elementary charged particles.
The fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) is a physical phenomenon in which the Hall conductance of 2D electrons shows precisely quantised plateaus at fractional values of e^2/h.
George Johnstone Stoney FRS (15 February 1826 – 5 July 1911) was an Irish physicist.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
In physics, the gyromagnetic ratio (also sometimes known as the magnetogyric ratio in other disciplines) of a particle or system is the ratio of its magnetic moment to its angular momentum, and it is often denoted by the symbol γ, gamma.
An integer (from the Latin ''integer'' meaning "whole")Integer 's first literal meaning in Latin is "untouched", from in ("not") plus tangere ("to touch").
Johann Josef Loschmidt (15 March 1821 – 8 July 1895), who referred to himself mostly as Josef Loschmidt (omitting his first name), was a notable Austrian scientist who performed ground-breaking work in chemistry, physics (thermodynamics, optics, electrodynamics), and crystal forms.
The Josephson effect is the phenomenon of supercurrent—i.e. a current that flows indefinitely long without any voltage applied—across a device known as a Josephson junction (JJ), which consists of two superconductors coupled by a weak link.
A Kibble balance (previously watt balance) is an electromechanical weight measuring instrument that measures the weight of a test object very precisely by the strength of an electric current and a voltage.
In condensed matter physics, the Laughlin wavefunction is an ansatz, proposed by Robert Laughlin for the ground state of a two-dimensional electron gas placed in a uniform background magnetic field in the presence of a uniform jellium background when the filling factor (Quantum Hall effect) of the lowest Landau level is \nu.
Lorentz–Heaviside units (or Heaviside–Lorentz units) constitute a system of units (particularly electromagnetic units) within CGS, named for Hendrik Antoon Lorentz and Oliver Heaviside.
The magnetic flux, represented by the symbol, threading some contour or loop is defined as the magnetic field multiplied by the loop area, i.e..
In metrology, measurement uncertainty is a non-negative parameter characterizing the dispersion of the values attributed to a measured quantity.
Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.
In chemistry, the molar mass M is a physical property defined as the mass of a given substance (chemical element or chemical compound) divided by the amount of substance.
The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.
In physics, natural units are physical units of measurement based only on universal physical constants.
In electronics, noise is an unwanted disturbance in an electrical signal.
The oil drop experiment was performed by Robert A. Millikan and Harvey Fletcher in 1909 to measure the elementary electric charge (the charge of the electron).
Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.
The Philosophical Magazine is one of the oldest scientific journals published in English.
A physical constant, sometimes fundamental physical constant or universal constant, is a physical quantity that is generally believed to be both universal in nature and have constant value in time.
The Planck constant (denoted, also called Planck's constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of action, central in quantum mechanics.
The International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) has proposed revised definitions of the SI base units, for consideration at the 26th General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM).
In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is the minimum amount of any physical entity (physical property) involved in an interaction.
The quantum Hall effect (or integer quantum Hall effect) is a quantum-mechanical version of the Hall effect, observed in two-dimensional electron systems subjected to low temperatures and strong magnetic fields, in which the Hall conductance undergoes quantum Hall transitions to take on the quantized values where is the channel current, is the Hall voltage, is the elementary charge and is Planck's constant.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.
In physics, quasiparticles and collective excitations (which are closely related) are emergent phenomena that occur when a microscopically complicated system such as a solid behaves as if it contained different weakly interacting particles in free space.
Robert Andrews Millikan (March 22, 1868 – December 19, 1953) was an American experimental physicist honored with the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1923 for the measurement of the elementary electronic charge and for his work on the photoelectric effect.
Robert Betts Laughlin (born November 1, 1950) is the Anne T. and Robert M. Bass Professor of Physics and Applied Physics at Stanford University.
Shot noise or Poisson noise is a type of electronic noise which can be modeled by a Poisson process.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.
The statcoulomb (statC) or franklin (Fr) or electrostatic unit of charge (esu) is the physical unit for electrical charge used in the esu-cgs (centimetre–gram–second system of units) and Gaussian units.
In physics the Stoney units form a system of units named after the Irish physicist George Johnstone Stoney, who first proposed them in 1881.
Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.
A unit of measurement is a definite magnitude of a quantity, defined and adopted by convention or by law, that is used as a standard for measurement of the same kind of quantity.
The physical constant μ0, (pronounced "mu naught" or "mu zero"), commonly called the vacuum permeability, permeability of free space, permeability of vacuum, or magnetic constant, is an ideal, (baseline) physical constant, which is the value of magnetic permeability in a classical vacuum.
The physical constant (pronounced as "epsilon nought"), commonly called the vacuum permittivity, permittivity of free space or electric constant, is an ideal, (baseline) physical constant, which is the value of the absolute dielectric permittivity of classical vacuum.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
Walter Hans Schottky (23 July 1886 – 4 March 1976) was a German physicist who played a major early role in developing the theory of electron and ion emission phenomena, invented the screen-grid vacuum tube in 1915 and the pentode in 1919 while working at Siemens, co-invented the ribbon microphone and ribbon loudspeaker along with Dr.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
Atomic unit of charge, Charge of electron, Charge of the electron, Charge on the electron, Charge quantization, Electron Charge, Electron charge, Elementary electric charge, Fundamental charge, Quantization of charge, Quantizaton of electric charge.