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# Elevation

The elevation of a geographic location is its height above or below a fixed reference point, most commonly a reference geoid, a mathematical model of the Earth's sea level as an equipotential gravitational surface (see Geodetic datum § Vertical datum). [1]

## Altitude

Altitude or height (sometimes known as depth) is defined based on the context in which it is used (aviation, geometry, geographical survey, sport, atmospheric pressure, and many more).

## Amsterdam Ordnance Datum

Amsterdam Ordnance Datum or Normaal Amsterdams Peil (NAP) is a vertical datum in use in large parts of Western Europe.

## Arithmetic mean

In mathematics and statistics, the arithmetic mean (stress on third syllable of "arithmetic"), or simply the mean or average when the context is clear, is the sum of a collection of numbers divided by the number of numbers in the collection.

## Chimborazo

Chimborazo is a currently inactive stratovolcano in the Cordillera Occidental range of the Andes.

## Contour line

A contour line (also isocline, isopleth, isarithm, or equipotential curve) of a function of two variables is a curve along which the function has a constant value, so that the curve joins points of equal value.

## Digital elevation model

A digital elevation model (DEM) is a 3D CG representation of a terrain's surface – commonly of a planet (e.g. Earth), moon, or asteroid – created from a terrain's elevation data.

## Earth

Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

## Equatorial bulge

An equatorial bulge is a difference between the equatorial and polar diameters of a planet, due to the force exerted by its rotation.

## Equipotential

Equipotential or isopotential in mathematics and physics refers to a region in space where every point in it is at the same potential.

## Geodesy

Geodesy, also known as geodetics, is the earth science of accurately measuring and understanding three of Earth's fundamental properties: its geometric shape, orientation in space, and gravitational field.

## Geodetic datum

A geodetic datum or geodetic system is a coordinate system, and a set of reference points, used to locate places on the Earth (or similar objects).

## Geographic information system

A geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data.

## Geography

Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.

## Geoid

The geoid is the shape that the surface of the oceans would take under the influence of Earth's gravity and rotation alone, in the absence of other influences such as winds and tides.

## Geopotential height

Geopotential height is a vertical coordinate referenced to Earth's mean sea level, an adjustment to geometric height (elevation above mean sea level) using the variation of gravity with latitude and elevation.

## Gravity

Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

## Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

## GTOPO30

GTOPO30 is a digital elevation model for the world, developed by USGS.

## Height

Height is the measure of vertical distance, either how "tall" something or someone is, or how "high" the position is.

## Hypsometry

Hypsometry (from Greek ὕψος, hupsos, "height" and μέτρον, metron, "measure") is the measurement of land elevation relative to sea level.

## Lapse rate

Lapse rate is the rate at which Earth's atmospheric temperature decreases with an increase in altitude, or increases with the decrease in altitude.

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## List of highest mountains on Earth

There are at least 109 mountains on Earth with elevations greater than above sea level.

## List of highest towns by country

This is a list of the highest settlements by country.

## List of the highest major summits of North America

The following sortable table comprises the 200 highest mountain peaks of greater North AmericaThis article defines greater North America as the portion of the continental landmass of the Americas extending westward and northward from the Isthmus of Panama plus the ocean islands surrounding that landmass.

## Location

The terms location and place in geography are used to identify a point or an area on the Earth's surface or elsewhere.

## Map

A map is a symbolic depiction emphasizing relationships between elements of some space, such as objects, regions, or themes.

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## Mars

Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.

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## Mount Everest

Mount Everest, known in Nepali as Sagarmāthā and in Tibetan as Chomolungma, is Earth's highest mountain above sea level, located in the Mahalangur Himal sub-range of the Himalayas.

## Normalhöhennull

Normalhöhennull ("standard elevation zero") or NHN is a standard reference level, the equivalent of sea level, used in Germany to measure height.

## North America

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.

## North American Vertical Datum of 1988

The North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88) is the vertical control datum of orthometric height established for vertical control surveying in the United States of America based upon the General Adjustment of the North American Datum of 1988.

## Orthometric height

The orthometric height of a point is the distance H along a plumb line from the point to a reference height.

## Physical geography

Physical geography (also known as geosystems or physiography) is one of the two major sub-fields of geography.

## Raster graphics

In computer graphics, a raster graphics or bitmap image is a dot matrix data structure that represents a generally rectangular grid of pixels (points of color), viewable via a monitor, paper, or other display medium.

## Sea level

Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.

## Sea Level Datum of 1929

The Sea Level Datum of 1929 was the vertical control datum established for vertical control surveying in the United States of America by the General Adjustment of 1929.

## Spacecraft

A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.

## Temperature

Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

## Three-dimensional space

Three-dimensional space (also: 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional space) is a geometric setting in which three values (called parameters) are required to determine the position of an element (i.e., point).

## Topographic isolation

The topographic isolation of a summit is the minimum great-circle distance to a point of equal elevation, representing a radius of dominance in which the peak is the highest point.

## Topographic map

In modern mapping, a topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief, usually using contour lines, but historically using a variety of methods.

## Topographic prominence

In topography, prominence characterizes the height of a mountain or hill's summit by the vertical distance between it and the lowest contour line encircling it but containing no higher summit within it.

## Topography

Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids.

## Troposphere

The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere, and is also where nearly all weather conditions take place.

## Venus

Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.

## Vertical pressure variation

Vertical pressure variation is the variation in pressure as a function of elevation.

## References

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