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Abdication is the act of formally relinquishing monarchical authority.
Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (عبدالله بن عبدالعزيز آل سعود,, Najdi Arabic pronunciation:; 1 August 1924 – 23 January 2015) was King of Saudi Arabia and Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques from 2005 to his death in 2015.
Acacia pycnantha, commonly known as the golden wattle, is a tree of the family Fabaceae native to southeastern Australia.
An Accession Day is usually the anniversary of the date on which a monarch or executive takes office.
The aerial bombing of cities in warfare is an optional element of strategic bombing which became widespread during World War I. The bombing of cities grew to a vast scale in World War II, and is still practiced today.
Alexander Frederick Douglas-Home, Baron Home of the Hirsel, (2 July 1903 – 9 October 1995) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from October 1963 to October 1964.
Alexandra of Denmark (Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julia; 1 December 1844 – 20 November 1925) was Queen consort of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Empress of India as the wife of King Edward VII.
Andrew William Stevenson Marr (born 31 July 1959) is a British political commentator and television presenter.
Andrew Ferguson Neil (born 21 May 1949) is a British journalist and broadcaster.
Andrew Roberts (born 13 January 1963) is a British historian and journalist.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
Anne, Princess Royal, (Anne Elizabeth Alice Louise; born 15 August 1950) is the second child and only daughter of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.
Anna-Lou "Annie" Leibovitz (born October 2, 1949) is an American portrait photographer.
Annus horribilis is a Latin phrase, meaning "horrible year".
Anointing is the ritual act of pouring aromatic oil over a person's head or entire body.
Anthony Frederick Blunt (26 September 1907 – 26 March 1983), known as Sir Anthony Blunt, KCVO, from 1956 to 1979, was a leading British art historian who in 1964, after being offered immunity from prosecution, confessed to having been a Soviet spy.
Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, (12 June 1897 – 14 January 1977) was a British Conservative politician who served three periods as Foreign Secretary and then a relatively brief term as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1955 to 1957.
Lady Antonia Margaret Caroline Fraser, (née Pakenham; born 27 August 1932) is a British author of history, novels, biographies and detective fiction.
Antony Charles Robert Armstrong-Jones, 1st Earl of Snowdon (7 March 193013 January 2017), commonly known as Lord Snowdon, was a British photographer and film-maker.
Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury.
The Archbishop of York is a senior bishop in the Church of England, second only to the Archbishop of Canterbury.
In heraldry, argent is the tincture of silver, and belongs to the class of light tinctures called "metals." It is very frequently depicted as white and usually considered interchangeable with it.
The Arms of Canada (Armoiries du Canada), also known as the Royal Coat of Arms of Canada or formally as the Arms of Her Majesty The Queen in Right of Canada (Armoiries de Sa Majesté la Reine du chef du Canada), is, since 1921, the official coat of arms of the Canadian monarch and thus also of Canada.
Asa Briggs, Baron Briggs (7 May 1921 – 15 March 2016) was an English historian.
The Australian House of Representatives is one of the two Houses (chambers) of the Parliament of Australia.
The Australian republic referendum held on 6 November 1999 was a two-question referendum to amend the Constitution of Australia.
The Australian Senate is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of Australia, the lower house being the House of Representatives.
Austronesia, in historical terms, refers to the homeland of the peoples who speak Austronesian languages, including Malay (Malaysian-Indonesian), Filipino, the Visayan languages, Ilocano, Javanese, Malagasy, the Polynesian languages, Fijian, Taiwan's Formosan languages, Tetum and around ten-thousand other languages.
The Auxiliary Territorial Service (ATS; often pronounced as an acronym) was the women's branch of the British Army during the Second World War.
Balmoral Castle is a large estate house in Royal Deeside, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, near the village of Crathie, west of Ballater and east of Braemar.
Ban Ki-moon (born 13 June 1944) is a South Korean politician and diplomat who was the eighth Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 2007 to December 2016.
The Banqueting House, Whitehall, is the grandest and best known survivor of the architectural genre of banqueting house and the only remaining component of the Palace of Whitehall.
Baptism (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below) is a Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Benjamin John Pimlott FBA (4 July 1945 – 10 April 2004), known as Ben Pimlott, was a British historian of the post-war period in Britain.
Bhumibol Adulyadej (ภูมิพลอดุลยเดช;;; see full title below; 5 December 1927 – 13 October 2016), conferred with the title King Bhumibol the Great in 1987, was the ninth monarch of Thailand from the Chakri dynasty as Rama IX.
A Bond girl is a character (or the actress portraying a character) who is an attractive love interest and/or female sidekick of James Bond in a novel, film, or video game.
Martin Brian Mulroney (born March 20, 1939) is a Canadian politician who served as the 18th Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993.
Alastair Brian Walden (born 8 July 1932 in West Bromwich, Staffordshire) is a British journalist and broadcaster who spent over a decade as a Labour Member of Parliament.
Britannia Royal Naval College (BRNC), commonly known as Dartmouth, is the naval academy of the United Kingdom and the initial officer training establishment of the British Royal Navy.
The British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA) is an independent charity that supports, develops and promotes the art forms of the moving image – film, television and game in the United Kingdom.
The British Armed Forces, also known as Her/His Majesty's Armed Forces, are the military services responsible for the defence of the United Kingdom, its overseas territories and the Crown dependencies.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British royal family comprises Queen Elizabeth II and her close relations.
Buckingham Palace is the London residence and administrative headquarters of the monarch of the United Kingdom.
Burmese (1962–1990), a black RCMP Police Service Horse (PSH) mare, was given to Queen Elizabeth II by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and ridden by the Queen for Trooping the Colour for eighteen consecutive years from 1969 to 1986.
The Cabinet of the United Kingdom is the collective decision-making body of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, composed of the Prime Minister and 21 cabinet ministers, the most senior of the government ministers.
Caernarfon Castle (Castell Caernarfon), often anglicized as Carnarvon Castle, is a medieval fortress in Caernarfon, Gwynedd, north-west Wales cared for by Cadw, the Welsh Government's historic environment service.
Caesarean section, also known as C-section or caesarean delivery, is the use of surgery to deliver one or more babies.
Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall, (born Camilla Rosemary Shand, later Parker Bowles; 17 July 1947) is a member of the British royal family.
Canada was a French colony within New France first claimed in the name of the King of France in 1535 during the second voyage of Jacques Cartier.
Canadian royal symbols are the visual and auditory identifiers of the Canadian monarchy, including the viceroys, in the country's federal and provincial jurisdictions.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
Sir Cecil Walter Hardy Beaton CBE (14 January 1904 – 18 January 1980) was an English fashion, portrait and war photographer, diarist, painter, interior designer and an Oscar–winning stage and costume designer for films and the theatre.
Cecilia Nina Bowes-Lyon, Countess of Strathmore and Kinghorne (née Cavendish-Bentinck; 11 September 1862 – 23 June 1938) was the mother of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother and maternal grandmother and godmother of Queen Elizabeth II.
Channel 4 is a British public-service television broadcaster that began transmission on 2 November 1982.
The Channel Islands (Norman: Îles d'la Manche; French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche) are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy.
Charles William Frederick Cavendish-Bentinck (8 November 1817 – 17 August 1865) was a clergyman of the Church of England, holding livings in Bedfordshire, and a great-grandfather of Queen Elizabeth II.
Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George; born 14 November 1948) is the heir apparent to the British throne as the eldest child of Queen Elizabeth II.
The Charter of the Commonwealth is a charter setting out the values of the Commonwealth of Nations as well as the commitment of its 52 member states to equal rights, democracy and so on.
Children's Hour, initially The Children's Hour, was the BBC's principal recreational service for children (as distinct from "Broadcasts to Schools") which began during the period when radio was the only medium of broadcasting.
Chinwe Ifeoma Chukwuogo-Roy MBE (2 May 1952 −17 December 2012) was a visual artist who was born in Awka (Oka) Anambra state Nigeria, but spent much of her young life in Ikom on the Cameroon border, before moving back to the family home at Umubele in Awka.
Christian IX (8 April 181829 January 1906) was King of Denmark from 1863 to 1906.
Christopher John Lewis (7 September 1964 – 23 September 1997) was a New Zealander who made a 1981 unsuccessful attempt to assassinate Elizabeth II, the Queen of New Zealand and other Commonwealth realms including the United Kingdom.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
The Church of Ireland (Eaglais na hÉireann; Ulster-Scots: Kirk o Airlann) is a Christian church in Ireland and an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion.
The Church of Scotland (The Scots Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba), known informally by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is the national church of Scotland.
A civil list is a list of individuals to whom money is paid by the government.
Clarence House is a royal residence in London, situated on The Mall, in the City of Westminster.
Claude Bowes-Lyon, 13th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne (Redbourn, England 21 July 1824 – Bordighera, Italy 16 February 1904), styled The Honourable Claude Bowes-Lyon from 1847 to 1865, was a British peer.
Claude George Bowes-Lyon, 14th and 1st Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, (14 March 1855 – 7 November 1944), styled as Lord Glamis from 1865 to 1904, was a British peer and landowner who was the father of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother and the maternal grandfather of Queen Elizabeth II.
The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM; or) is a biennial summit meeting of the heads of government from all Commonwealth nations.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state that is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations and shares the same person, currently Queen Elizabeth II, as its head of state and reigning constitutional monarch, but retains a Crown legally distinct from the other realms.
The Commonwealth Secretary-General is the head of the Commonwealth Secretariat, the central body which has served the Commonwealth of Nations since its establishment in 1965, and responsible for representing the Commonwealth publicly.
A conscientious objector is an "individual who has claimed the right to refuse to perform military service" on the grounds of freedom of thought, conscience, or religion.
The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.
The Constitution of Australia is the supreme law under which the government of the Commonwealth of Australia operates, including its relationship to the States of Australia.
The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada; the country's constitution is an amalgamation of codified acts and uncodified traditions and conventions.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
Queen Elizabeth II's coronation took place on 2 June 1953.
The coronation of Elizabeth II as Queen of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan, and Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) took place on 2 June 1953, at Westminster Abbey.
William Cosmo Gordon Lang, 1st Baron Lang of Lambeth, (31 October 1864 – 5 December 1945), known as Cosmo Gordon Lang, was a Scottish Anglican prelate who served as Archbishop of York (1908–1928) and Archbishop of Canterbury (1928–1942).
In the United Kingdom, Counsellors of State are senior members of the British Royal Family to whom the monarch, currently Elizabeth II, delegates certain state functions and powers when not in the United Kingdom or unavailable for other reasons (such as short-term incapacity or sickness).
The County of London was a county of England from 1889 to 1965, corresponding to the area known today as Inner London.
Coutts and Co. is a private bank and wealth manager, founded in 1692.
The Crown Colony of the Island of Malta and its Dependencies (commonly known as the Crown Colony of Malta) was a British colony in the present-day Republic of Malta.
Crown dependencies are three island territories off the coast of Britain which are self-governing possessions of the Crown.
The Crown Estate is a collection of lands and holdings in the United Kingdom belonging to the British monarch as a corporation sole, making it the "Sovereign's public estate", which is neither government property nor part of the monarch's private estate.
The Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom, originally the Crown Jewels of England, are 140 royal ceremonial objects kept in the Tower of London, which include the regalia and vestments worn by British kings and queens at their coronations.
Cyathea dealbata, also known as the silver tree-fern or silver fern, or as ponga or punga (from Māori kaponga or ponga), is a species of medium-sized tree fern, endemic to New Zealand.
Damien Steven Hirst (born 7 June 1965) is an English artist, entrepreneur, and art collector.
Daniel Wroughton Craig (born 2 March 1968) is an English actor. He trained at the National Youth Theatre and graduated from the Guildhall School of Music and Drama in 1991, before beginning his career on stage. His film debut was in the drama The Power of One (1992). Other early appearances were in the historical television war drama Sharpe's Eagle (1993), Disney family film A Kid in King Arthur's Court (1995), the drama serial Our Friends in the North (1996) and the biographical film Elizabeth (1998). Craig's appearances in the British television film Love Is the Devil: Study for a Portrait of Francis Bacon (1998), the indie war film The Trench (1999), and the drama Some Voices (2000) attracted the film industry's attention. This led to roles in bigger productions such as the action film Lara Croft: Tomb Raider (2001), the crime thriller Road to Perdition (2002), the crime thriller Layer Cake (2004), and the Steven Spielberg historical drama Munich (2005). Craig achieved international fame when chosen as the sixth actor to play the role of Ian Fleming's British secret agent character James Bond in the film series, taking over from Pierce Brosnan in 2005. His debut film as Bond, Casino Royale, was released internationally in November 2006 and was highly acclaimed, earning him a BAFTA award nomination. Casino Royale became the highest-grossing in the series at the time. Quantum of Solace followed two years later. Craig's third Bond film, Skyfall, premiered in 2012 and is currently the highest-grossing film in the series and the fifteenth highest-grossing film of all time; it was also the highest-grossing film in the United Kingdom until 2015. Craig's fourth Bond film, Spectre, premiered in 2015. He also made a guest appearance as Bond in the opening ceremony of the London 2012 Olympic Games, alongside Queen Elizabeth II. Since taking the role of Bond, Craig has continued to star in other films, including the fantasy film The Golden Compass (2007), World War II film Defiance (2008), science fiction western Cowboys & Aliens (2011), the English-language adaptation of Stieg Larsson's mystery thriller The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo (2011), and the heist film Logan Lucky (2017).
Dartmouth is a town and civil parish in the English county of Devon.
David Patrick Maxwell Fyfe, 1st Earl of Kilmuir, (29 May 1900 – 27 January 1967), known as Sir David Maxwell Fyfe from 1942 to 1954 and as Viscount Kilmuir from 1954 to 1962, was a British Conservative politician, lawyer and judge who combined an industrious and precocious legal career with political ambitions that took him to the offices of Solicitor General, Attorney General, Home Secretary and Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain.
David George Coke Patrick Ogilvy, 8th (or 13th) Earl of Airlie, (born 17 May 1926) is a Scottish peer.
On 31 August 1997, Diana, Princess of Wales died as a result of injuries sustained in a car crash in the Pont de l'Alma road tunnel in Paris, France.
Debrett's is a professional coaching company, publisher and authority on etiquette and behaviour, founded in 1769 with the publication of the first edition of The New Peerage.
The decolonisation of Africa took place in the mid-to-late 1950s, very suddenly, with little preparation.
Decolonization (American English) or decolonisation (British English) is the undoing of colonialism: where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over one or more other territories.
In the United Kingdom, devolution (fèin-riaghlaidh, datganoli; Irish: Dílárú) refers to the statutory granting of powers from the Parliament of the United Kingdom to the Scottish Parliament, the National Assembly for Wales, the Northern Ireland Assembly and the London Assembly and to their associated executive bodies the Scottish Government, the Welsh Government, the Northern Ireland Executive and in England, the Greater London Authority and combined authorities.
The Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II was a multinational celebration throughout 2012, that marked the 60th anniversary of the accession of Queen Elizabeth II on 6 February 1952.
Diana, Princess of Wales (born Diana Frances Spencer; 1 July 1961 – 31 August 1997) was a member of the British royal family.
Between 1948 and 1972, CeylonThe Sri Lanka Independence Act 1947 uses the name "Ceylon" for the new dominion; nowhere does that Act use the term "Dominion of Ceylon", which although sometimes used was not the official name.
The Dominion of Fiji was the official name of Fiji between October 1970 and 6 October 1987.
Ghana was a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations between 6 March 1957 and 1 July 1960, before it became the Republic of Ghana.
Pakistan (পাকিস্তান অধিরাজ্য; مملکتِ پاکستان), also called the Dominion of Pakistan, was an independent federal dominion in South Asia that was established in 1947 as a result of the Pakistan movement, followed by the simultaneous partition of British India to create a new country called Pakistan.
Trinidad and Tobago gained its independence from the United Kingdom on 31 August 1962 and became a republic on 1 August 1976.
Donald Trelford (born 9 November 1937) is a British journalist and academic, who was editor of The Observer newspaper from 1975 to 1993.
Dorothy Frances Edith Wilding (10 January 1893 - 9 February 1976) was a noted English society photographer from Gloucester.
Douglas McGarel Hogg, 1st Viscount Hailsham, PC, KC (28 February 1872 – 16 August 1950) was a British lawyer and Conservative politician.
Dresden (Upper and Lower Sorbian: Drježdźany, Drážďany, Drezno) is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany.
The Duchy of Lancaster is, since 1399, the private estate of the British sovereign as Duke of Lancaster.
Duke of Edinburgh, named after the city of Edinburgh, Scotland, is a substantive title that has been created three times for members of the British royal family since 1726.
The Duke of Lancaster is the owner of the estates of the Duchy of Lancaster.
In the Middle Ages, the Duke of Normandy was the ruler of the Duchy of Normandy in north-western France.
The Duke of Windsor was a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
Dunedin (Ōtepoti) is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, and the principal city of the Otago region.
Earl of Snowdon is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
Sir Edward Richard George Heath (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005), often known as Ted Heath, was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975.
Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910.
Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Empire, and Emperor of India, from 20 January 1936 until his abdication on 11 December the same year, after which he became the Duke of Windsor.
In 1936, a constitutional crisis in the British Empire arose when King-Emperor Edward VIII proposed to marry Wallis Simpson, an American socialite who was divorced from her first husband and was pursuing the divorce of her second.
Elena Ceaușescu (née Lenuța Petrescu; 7 January 1916 – 25 December 1989) was a Romanian communist politician who was the wife of Nicolae Ceaușescu, President of the Socialist Republic of Romania.
The Emirates Stadium (known as Ashburton Grove prior to sponsorship, and as Arsenal Stadium for UEFA competitions) is a football stadium in Holloway, London, England, and the home of Arsenal F.C..
Equestrianism (from Latin equester, equestr-, equus, horseman, horse), more often known as riding, horse riding (British English) or horseback riding (American English), refers to the skill of riding, driving, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses.
Eton College is an English independent boarding school for boys in Eton, Berkshire, near Windsor.
The Eucharist (also called Holy Communion or the Lord's Supper, among other names) is a Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches and an ordinance in others.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
The evacuation of civilians in Britain during the Second World War was designed to protect people, especially children, from the risks associated with aerial bombing of cities by moving them to areas thought to be less at risk.
The Falklands War (Guerra de las Malvinas), also known as the Falklands Conflict, Falklands Crisis, Malvinas War, South Atlantic Conflict, and the Guerra del Atlántico Sur (Spanish for "South Atlantic War"), was a ten-week war between Argentina and the United Kingdom over two British dependent territories in the South Atlantic: the Falkland Islands, and its territorial dependency, the South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.
The Federation of Nigeria was a predecessor to modern-day Nigeria.
Fidei defensor (feminine: Fidei defensatrix) is a Latin title which translates to Defender of the Faith in English and Défenseur de la Foi in French.
Queen Elizabeth II has and has had a variety of flags to represent her personally and as head of state of 16 independent nations around the world.
Frances Dora Bowes-Lyon, Countess of Strathmore and Kinghorne (née Smith; 29 July 1832 – 5 February 1922) was a British noblewoman.
Francis, Duke of Teck GCB GCVO (Francis Paul Charles Louis Alexander; 28 August 1837 – 21 January 1900), known as Count Francis von Hohenstein until 1863, was a member of the German nobility, and later of the British Royal Family by marriage.
The public funeral of Diana, Princess of Wales started on 6 September 1997 at 9:08am in London, when the tenor bell sounded to signal the departure of the cortège from Kensington Palace.
Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract -- the stomach and small intestine.
George Leonard Carey, Baron Carey of Clifton, (born 13 November 1935) is a retired Anglican bishop who was the Archbishop of Canterbury from 1991 to 2002, having previously been the Bishop of Bath and Wells.
George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.
George Patrick John Rushworth Jellicoe, 2nd Earl Jellicoe, (4 April 1918 – 22 February 2007) was a British politician, diplomat and businessman.
George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936.
George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death in 1952.
Girl Guides and Girl Scouts are a Scouting movement found worldwide, originally and still largely designed for girls and women only.
The Golden Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II was the international celebration held in 2002 marking the 50th anniversary of the accession of Queen Elizabeth II to the thrones of seven countries, upon the death of her father, King George VI, on 6 February 1952, and was intended by the Queen to be both a commemoration of her 50 years as monarch and an opportunity for her to officially and personally thank her people for their loyalty.
Gordon Glen Denton Scholes AO (born 7 June 1931) is a former Australian politician and Speaker of the Australian House of Representatives.
A gorsedd plural gorseddau, is a community or meeting of modern-day bards.
Edward Gough Whitlam (11 July 191621 October 2014) was the 21st Prime Minister of Australia, serving from 1972 to 1975.
A governess is a woman employed to teach and train children in a private household.
The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia is the representative of the Australian monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II.
Fiji became a British Crown Colony in 1874, and an independent Dominion in the Commonwealth in 1970.
The Governor-General of Jamaica represents the Jamaican monarch and head of state, currently Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II.
The name Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἑκκλησία, Ellinorthódoxi Ekklisía), or Greek Orthodoxy, is a term referring to the body of several Churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, whose liturgy is or was traditionally conducted in Koine Greek, the original language of the Septuagint and New Testament, and whose history, traditions, and theology are rooted in the early Church Fathers and the culture of the Byzantine Empire.
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London.
The Grenadier Guards (GREN GDS) is an infantry regiment of the British Army.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
Guy Mollet (31 December 1905 – 3 October 1975) was a French politician.
Guyana was a predecessor to the modern-day Republic of Guyana and an independent state that existed between 1966 and 1970.
Gwardamanġa (sometimes written Guardamangia or Gwarda Mangia), is a hamlet in Tal-Pietà, Malta.
Gyles Daubeney Brandreth (born 8 March 1948) is an English writer, broadcaster, actor, and former Conservative Member of Parliament.
Half-mast or half-staff refers to a flag flying below the summit on a pole.
Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963.
Sir Harold George Nicolson (21 November 1886 – 1 May 1968) was a British diplomat, author, diarist and politician.
James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was a British Labour politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1964 to 1970 and from 1974 to 1976.
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
The Head of the Commonwealth is the "symbol of the free association of independent member nations" of the Commonwealth of Nations (commonly known as the Commonwealth), an intergovernmental organisation that currently comprises fifty-three sovereign states.
An heir apparent is a person who is first in a line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting by the birth of another person.
An heir presumptive or heiress presumptive is the person entitled to inherit a throne, peerage, or other hereditary honour, but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an heir apparent, male or female, or of a new heir presumptive with a better claim to the position in question.
Sir (Clarence) Henry Kennett Marten KCVO (28 October 1872 – 11 December 1948) was the Provost of Eton and the private tutor of Queen Elizabeth II.
Herbert Stanley Morrison, Baron Morrison of Lambeth, (3 January 1888 – 6 March 1965) was a British Labour politician who held a variety of senior positions in the Cabinet.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Home Department, normally referred to as the Home Secretary, is a senior official as one of the Great Offices of State within Her Majesty's Government and head of the Home Office.
The House of Windsor is the reigning royal house of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
The Royal Households of the United Kingdom consists of royal officials and the supporting staff of the British Royal Family, as well as the Royal Household which supports the Sovereign.
HuffPost (formerly The Huffington Post and sometimes abbreviated HuffPo) is a liberal American news and opinion website and blog that has both localized and international editions.
Ian Douglas Smith (8 April 1919 – 20 November 2007) was a politician, farmer and fighter pilot who served as Prime Minister of Rhodesia (or Southern Rhodesia; today Zimbabwe) from 1964 to 1979.
An income tax is a tax imposed on individuals or entities (taxpayers) that varies with respective income or profits (taxable income).
Interfaith dialogue refers to cooperative, constructive, and positive interaction between people of different religious traditions (i.e., "faiths") and/or spiritual or humanistic beliefs, at both the individual and institutional levels.
The Investiture of the Prince of Wales is the ceremony marking formal acknowledgement of a newly-created Prince of Wales.
Ipsos MORI is a market research organisation in the United Kingdom.
The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin), also known simply as Mann (Mannin), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.
The James Bond series focuses on a fictional British Secret Service agent created in 1953 by writer Ian Fleming, who featured him in twelve novels and two short-story collections.
The James Bond film series is a British series of spy films based on the fictional character of MI6 agent James Bond, "007", who originally appeared in a series of books by Ian Fleming.
James, Viscount Severn (James Alexander Philip Theo Mountbatten-Windsor; born 17 December 2007), is the younger child and only son of Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, and Sophie, Countess of Wessex, and the youngest grandchild of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.
Jennifer Bond (born 19 August 1950) is an English journalist and television presenter.
Sir John Rupert "Jock" Colville, CB, CVO (28 January 1915 – 19 November 1987), was a British civil servant.
John Campbell (born 1947) is a British political writer and biographer.
John Edward Poynder Grigg (15 April 1924 – 31 December 2001) was a British writer, historian and politician.
Sir John Robert Kerr, (24 September 1914 – 24 March 1991) was the 18th Governor-General of Australia.
Sir John Major (born 29 March 1943) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1990 to 1997.
John Swannell, born 27 December 1946, is a British photographer.
A joint session of the United States Congress is a gathering of members of the two chambers of the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States: the Senate and the House of Representatives.
Jonathan Petropoulos (born January 10, 1961) is an American historian who writes about National Socialism and, in particular, the fate of art looted during World War II.
Juliet Kathleen Pannett MBE FRSA (née Somers; 15 July 1911 – 22 August 2005) was an English portrait painter.
Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads.
Kelvin Calder MacKenzie (born 22 October 1946) is an English media executive and a former newspaper editor.
Between 12 December 1963 and 12 December 1964, Kenya was an independent sovereign state that shared its head of state with the United Kingdom and other states headed by Queen Elizabeth II.
King Edward VII's Hospital (formal name: King Edward VII's Hospital Sister Agnes) is a charity-registered private hospital in the City of Westminster in London.
King's House (also known as Government House) is the official residence of the Governor-General of Jamaica, who represents the Jamaican Monarch, and head of state.
To kiss hands is a constitutional term used in the United Kingdom to refer to the formal installation of Crown-appointed British government ministers to their office.
Kwame Nkrumah PC (21 September 1909 – 27 April 1972) was a Ghanaian politician and revolutionary.
In heraldry, a label (occasionally lambel, the French form of the word) is a charge resembling the strap crossing the horse's chest from which pendants are hung.
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.
Lady Louise Windsor (Louise Alice Elizabeth Mary Mountbatten-Windsor; born 8 November 2003) is the elder child and only daughter of Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, and Sophie, Countess of Wessex.
Laparoscopy is an operation performed in the abdomen or pelvis through small incisions (usually 0.5–1.5 cm) with the aid of a camera.
The Leader of Her Majesty's Most Loyal Opposition (more commonly known as the Leader of the Opposition) is the politician who leads the official opposition in the United Kingdom.
The leek is a vegetable, a cultivar of Allium ampeloprasum, the broadleaf wild leek.
Letters patent (always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order issued by a monarch, president, or other head of state, generally granting an office, right, monopoly, title, or status to a person or corporation.
The Liberal Party was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom – with the opposing Conservative Party – in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
The Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia is the viceregal representative of the, in the province of British Columbia, Canada.
There have been 12 monarchs of the Kingdom of Great Britain and the United Kingdom (see Monarchy of the United Kingdom) since the merger of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland on 1 May 1707.
This is a list of British monarchs by longevity since the Union of the Crowns of England, Scotland and Ireland in 1603.
Queen Elizabeth II became Head of the Commonwealth upon the death of her father, King George VI, on 6 February 1952.
This is a list of currently enthroned monarchs sorted by length of service.
This is a list of current state leaders ordered by their continuous tenure in a position of national leadership.
During the Silver Jubilee year of Queen Elizabeth II in 1977 the Queen had the following engagements.
This is a list of the heads of state of Ghana, from the independence of Ghana in 1957 to the present day.
This is a list of the longest-reigning monarchs of all time, detailing the 100 monarchs and lifelong leaders who have reigned the longest in world history, sorted by length of reign.
The Lord High Admiral (of England, Great Britain and then the United Kingdom, beginning in the 14th century) is the titular head of the Royal Navy.
The following is a list, ordered by length of reign, of the monarchs of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (1927–present), the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1927), the Kingdom of Great Britain (1707–1801), the Kingdom of England (871–1707), the Kingdom of Scotland (878–1707), the Kingdom of Ireland (1542–1800), and the Principality of Wales (1216–1542).
The Olympic Games are an international multi-sport event featuring both summer and winter sports, held every two years with Summer and Winter Olympic Games alternating.
Since succeeding her father on 6 February 1952, Queen Elizabeth II has been head of state of 32 different independent states; currently, there are 16 states, called Commonwealth realms.
The Provost is the chairman of the Governing Body of Eton College.
Since ascending the throne in 1952, Queen Elizabeth II has undertaken a number of state and official visits as well as trips throughout the Commonwealth, making her the most widely travelled head of state in history.
This is a list of places, buildings, roads and other things named after Queen Elizabeth II.
Elizabeth II (born 21 April 1926) has held numerous titles and honours, both during and before her time as monarch of each of her Commonwealth realms.
This article contains various lists of state leaders organized by age, defined as heads of state and/or heads of government.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The Lord Chamberlain or Lord Chamberlain of the Household is the most senior officer of the Royal Household of the United Kingdom, supervising the departments which support and provide advice to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom while also acting as the main channel of communication between the Sovereign and the House of Lords.
The Lord Chancellor, formally the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, is the highest ranking among those Great Officers of State which are appointed regularly in the United Kingdom, nominally outranking even the Prime Minister.
The title Lord or Lady of Mann (Çhiarn Vannin) is used on the Isle of Man to refer to the island's Lord Proprietor and head of state.
The Lord President of the Council is the fourth of the Great Officers of State of the United Kingdom, ranking below the Lord High Treasurer but above the Lord Privy Seal.
Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, (born Prince Louis of Battenberg; 25 June 1900 – 27 August 1979) was a British Royal Navy officer and statesman, an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and second cousin once removed of Queen Elizabeth II.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
Caroline Louisa Cavendish-Bentinck (née Burnaby; 5 December 1832 – 6 July 1918) was the maternal grandmother of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother and the great-grandmother of Elizabeth II.
The lozenge in heraldry is a diamond-shaped charge (an object that can be placed on the field of the shield), usually somewhat narrower than it is tall.
Lucian Michael Freud (8 December 1922 – 20 July 2011) was a British painter and draftsman, specializing in figurative art, and is known as one of the foremost 20th-century portraitists.
Maclean's is a Canadian news magazine that was founded in 1905, reporting on Canadian issues such as politics, pop culture, and current events.
Malawi was a predecessor to the modern-day Republic of Malawi.
The maple leaf is the characteristic leaf of the maple tree, and is the most widely recognized national symbol of Canada.
Marcus Adams (1875-1959) was a British society photographer noted for his portraits of children.
Marcus Simon Sarjeant (born 1964) is a Briton who fired six blank shots at Queen Elizabeth II as she rode down The Mall to the Trooping the Colour ceremony in 1981.
Margaret Rhodes, (9 June 1925 – 25 November 2016) was a first cousin of Queen Elizabeth II.
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.
Marion Crawford, CVO (5 June 1909 – 11 February 1988) was a British educator and the governess of Princess Margaret and Princess Elizabeth (the future Queen Elizabeth II), who called her Crawfie.
Captain Mark Anthony Peter Phillips (born 22 September 1948) is an English Olympic gold-medal-winning horseman for Great Britain and the first husband of Anne, Princess Royal, with whom he has two children.
Lieutenant-Colonel Martin Michael Charles Charteris, Baron Charteris of Amisfield, (7 September 191323 December 1999) was a British Army officer and courtier of Queen Elizabeth II.
Lady Mary Frances Buller-Fullerton-Elphinstone, Lady Elphinstone DCVO (born Lady Mary Frances Bowes-Lyon; 30 August 1883 – 8 February 1961) was a maternal aunt and godparent of Elizabeth II.
Mary Patricia McAleese (née Leneghan; Máire Pádraigín Mhic Ghiolla Íosa; born 27 June 1951) is an Irish Fianna Fáil and Independent politician who served as the 8th President of Ireland from November 1997 to November 2011.
Mary of Teck (Victoria Mary Augusta Louise Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes; 26 May 1867 – 24 March 1953) was Queen consort of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Empress of India as the wife of King George V. Although technically a princess of Teck, in the Kingdom of Württemberg, she was born and raised in England.
Mary, Princess Royal and Countess of Harewood (Victoria Alexandra Alice Mary; 25 April 1897 – 28 March 1965) was a member of the British royal family; she was the third child and only daughter of King George V and Queen Mary.
Between independence in 1968 and becoming a republic in 1992, Mauritius was an independent sovereign state that shared its head of state with the United Kingdom and other states headed by Elizabeth II.
Mayfair is an affluent area in the West End of London towards the east edge of Hyde Park, in the City of Westminster, between Oxford Street, Regent Street, Piccadilly and Park Lane.
The Meech Lake Accord (Accord du lac Meech) was a series of proposed amendments to the Constitution of Canada negotiated in 1987 by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and all 10 Canadian provincial premiers.
Michael Fagan (born 8 August 1948) is a British man who broke into Buckingham Palace and entered Queen Elizabeth II's bedroom in 1982.
Michael Sinclair MacAuslan Shea, CVO (10 May 1938 in Carluke, Lanarkshire, Scotland – 17 October 2009) was press secretary to Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom from 1978 to 1987.
The United Kingdom, along with most of its Dominions and Crown colonies declared war on Nazi Germany in September 1939, after the German invasion of Poland.
A millennium (plural millennia or, rarely, millenniums) is a period equal to 1000 years, also called kiloyears.
Antigua and Barbuda is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth realm, with Queen Elizabeth II as its reigning monarch since 1 November 1981.
The monarchy of Australia is a form of government in which a hereditary king or queen serves as the nation's sovereign.
The Monarchy of Barbados is the core of the country's Westminster style parliamentary democracy, being the foundation of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of the government.
The monarch of Belize is the head of state of Belize.
The monarchy of Canada is at the core of both Canada's federal structure and Westminster-style of parliamentary and constitutional democracy.
The monarchy of Fiji arose in the mid-nineteenth century when native ruler Seru Epenisa Cakobau consolidated control of the Fijian Islands and declared himself King or paramount chief of Fiji (Tui Viti).
The monarch of Grenada is the head of state of Grenada.
The monarchy of Jamaica is a constitutional system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign of Jamaica.
The monarchy of New Zealand is the constitutional system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign and head of state of New Zealand.
The monarchy of Papua New Guinea is a system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign and head of state of Papua New Guinea.
Saint Kitts and Nevis is a constitutional monarchy in which a monarch is head of state.
The monarchy of Saint Lucia is a system of government in which a hereditary, constitutional monarch is the sovereign of Saint Lucia.
The monarchy of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is the constitutional system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, forming the core of the country's Westminster-style parliamentary democracy.
From 1910 to 1961 the Union of South Africa was a self-governing country that shared a monarch with the United Kingdom, and other Dominions of the British Empire.
The monarchy of the Bahamas is a system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas.
The monarchy of the Solomon Islands is a system of government in which a constitutional monarch is the head of state of Solomon Islands.
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories.
The monarchy of Tuvalu is a system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign and head of state of Tuvalu.
Montreal (officially Montréal) is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada.
The Montreal Gazette, formerly titled The Gazette, is the only English-language daily newspaper published in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, after three other daily English newspapers shut down at various times during the second half of the 20th century.
The Mountbatten family is a European dynasty originating as a branch of the German princely Battenberg family.
Mountbatten-Windsor is the personal surname used by some of the male-line descendants of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.
The National Eisteddfod of Wales (Welsh: Eisteddfod Genedlaethol Cymru) is the most important of several eisteddfodau that are held annually, mostly in Wales.
The National Gallery of Australia (originally the Australian National Gallery) is the national art museum of Australia as well as one of the largest art museums in Australia, holding more than 166,000 works of art.
The National Portrait Gallery (NPG) is an art gallery in London housing a collection of portraits of historically important and famous British people.
The National Post is a conservative Canadian English-language newspaper.
The National Review was founded in 1883 by the English writers Alfred Austin and William Courthope.
The National Socialist German Workers' Party (abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945 and supported the ideology of Nazism.
Nelumbo nucifera, also known as Indian lotus, sacred lotus, bean of India, Egyptian bean or simply lotus, is one of two extant species of aquatic plant in the family Nelumbonaceae.
The New Zealand Security Intelligence Service (NZSIS or SIS) (Te Pā Whakamarumaru) is New Zealand's primary national intelligence agency, responsible for national security (including counterterrorism and counterintelligence) and foreign intelligence.
Nicolae Ceaușescu (26 January 1918 – 25 December 1989) was a Romanian Communist politician.
A Noble House is an aristocratic family or kinship group, usually British or European, either currently or historically of national or international significance, and usually associated with one or more hereditary titles, the most senior of which will be held by the "Head of the House" or patriarch.
Sir Norman Bishop Hartnell, KCVO (12 June 1901 – 8 June 1979) was a leading British fashion designer, best known for his work for the ladies of the Royal Family.
An official residence is the residence at which a nation's head of state, head of government, governor or other senior figure officially resides.
Operation London Bridge is a codename that refers to the plan for what will happen in the days after the death of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II.
The Order of Merit (Ordre du Mérite) is an order of merit recognising distinguished service in the armed forces, science, art, literature, or for the promotion of culture.
The Order of the Garter (formally the Most Noble Order of the Garter) is an order of chivalry founded by Edward III in 1348 and regarded as the most prestigious British order of chivalry (though in precedence inferior to the military Victoria Cross and George Cross) in England and the United Kingdom.
The Order of precedence in the United Kingdom is the sequential hierarchy for Peers of the Realm, officers of state, senior members of the clergy, holders of the various Orders of Chivalry and other persons in the three legal jurisdictions within the United Kingdom.
The Pacific Rim comprises the lands around the rim of the Pacific Ocean.
Pantomime (informally panto) is a type of musical comedy stage production designed for family entertainment.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
Patriation was the political process that led to full Canadian sovereignty, culminating with the Constitution Act, 1982.
Thomas Patrick John Anson, 5th Earl of Lichfield (25 April 1939 – 11 November 2005) was an English photographer from the Anson family.
Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another.
Joseph James Guillaume Paul Martin, (June 23, 1903 – September 14, 1992), often referred to as Paul Martin, Sr, was a noted Canadian politician and diplomat.
The Pembroke Welsh Corgi (Welsh for "dwarf dog") is a cattle herding dog breed which originated in Pembrokeshire, Wales.
Ratu Sir Penaia Kanatabatu Ganilau (28 July 1918 – 15 December 1993) was the first President of Fiji, serving from 8 December 1987 until his death in 1993.
Sir Peter Thomas Blake, CBE, RDI, RA (born 25 June 1932) is an English pop artist, best known for co-creating the sleeve design for the Beatles' album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band.
Peter Mark Andrew Phillips (born 15 November 1977) is the elder child and only son of Anne, Princess Royal, and her first husband, Captain Mark Phillips.
Group Captain Peter Wooldridge Townsend, (22 November 1914 – 19 June 1995) was a Royal Air Force officer, flying ace, courtier and author.
Joseph Philippe Pierre Yves Elliott Trudeau (October 18, 1919 – September 28, 2000), often referred to by the initials PET, was a Canadian statesman who served as the 15th Prime Minister of Canada (1968–1979 and 1980–1984).
Pietro Annigoni (7 June 1910 – 28 October 1988) was an Italian portrait and fresco painter, best known for his portrait of Queen Elizabeth II.
Pope Benedict XVI (Benedictus XVI; Benedetto XVI; Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger;; 16 April 1927) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 2005 until his resignation in 2013.
Pope Francis (Franciscus; Francesco; Francisco; born Jorge Mario Bergoglio; 17 December 1936) is the 266th and current Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State.
Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
Pope John XXIII (Ioannes; Giovanni; born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli,; 25 November 18813 June 1963) was head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 28 October 1958 to his death in 1963 and was canonized on 27 April 2014.
Pope Pius XII (Pio XII), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (2 March 18769 October 1958), was the Pope of the Catholic Church from 2 March 1939 to his death.
Populus is a market research company in the United Kingdom formed in 2003.
The Prime Minister of Canada (Premier ministre du Canada) is the primary minister of the Crown, chairman of the Cabinet, and thus Canada's head of government, charged with advising the Canadian monarch or Governor General of Canada on the exercise of the executive powers vested in them by the constitution.
Prince Andrew, Duke of York, (Andrew Albert Christian Edward, born 19 February 1960) is a member of the British royal family.
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, (Arthur William Patrick Albert; 1 May 185016 January 1942) was a member of the British Royal Family who served as the Governor General of Canada, the tenth since Canadian Confederation.
Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, (Edward Antony Richard Louis; born 10 March 1964) is the youngest of four children and the third son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.
Prince George of Cambridge (George Alexander Louis; born 22 July 2013) is a member of the British royal family.
Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex, (Henry Charles Albert David; born 15 September 1984) is a member of the British royal family.
Prince Louis of Cambridge (Louis Arthur Charles; born 23 April 2018) is a member of the British royal family.
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (born Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark, 10 June 1921) is the husband and consort of Queen Elizabeth II.
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, (William Arthur Philip Louis; born 21 June 1982) is a member of the British royal family.
Princess Beatrice of York (Beatrice Elizabeth Mary; born 8 August 1988) is a member of the British royal family.
Princess Charlotte of Cambridge (Charlotte Elizabeth Diana; born 2 May 2015) is a member of the British royal family.
Princess Eugenie of York (Eugenie Victoria Helena; born 23 March 1990) is a member of the British royal family.
Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon, (Margaret Rose; 21 August 1930 – 9 February 2002) was the younger daughter of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth and the only sibling of Queen Elizabeth II.
Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge (Mary Adelaide Wilhelmina Elizabeth; 27 November 1833 – 27 October 1897) was a member of the British Royal Family, a granddaughter of George III, grandmother of Edward VIII and George VI and great-grandmother of Elizabeth II.
Princess of Wales (Tywysoges Cymru) is a British courtesy title held by the wife of the Prince of Wales, who is, since the 14th century, the heir apparent of the English or British monarch.
Queen Elizabeth II was proclaimed sovereign throughout her realms after her father, King George VI, died in the night between 5 and 6 February 1952, while Elizabeth was in Kenya.
Protea is both the botanical name and the English common name of a genus of South African flowering plants, sometimes also called sugarbushes (Afrikaans: suikerbos) or Fynbos.
The Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA or Provisional IRA) was an Irish republican revolutionary organisation that sought to end British rule in Northern Ireland, facilitate the reunification of Ireland and bring about an independent socialist republic encompassing all of Ireland.
The Quebec sovereignty movement (Mouvement souverainiste du Québec) is a political movement as well as an ideology of values, concepts and ideas that advocates independence for the Canadian province of Quebec.
Elizabeth Angela Marguerite Bowes-Lyon (4 August 1900 – 30 March 2002) was the wife of King George VI and the mother of Queen Elizabeth II and Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon.
From 1957 to 1960, Ghana was an independent constitutional monarchy with Elizabeth II as its queen.
Elizabeth II was Queen of Guyana from 1966 to 1970, when Guyana was independent sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy.
Queen of Kenya was a title held by Elizabeth II as the head of state of Kenya from 1963 to 1964.
For two years from Malawi's independence in 1964, the country was a monarchy with Elizabeth II as its queen.
From 1964 to 1974, Elizabeth II was Queen of Malta.
Elizabeth II was Queen of Mauritius from 1968 to 1992.
From 1960 to 1963, Elizabeth II was Queen of Nigeria: Nigeria was an independent constitutional monarchy.
Elizabeth II was Queen of Sierra Leone from 1961 to 1971, when Sierra Leone was an independent constitutional monarchy.
From 1961 to 1962, Tanganyika was an independent sovereign state with Elizabeth II as its queen.
Elizabeth II was Queen of The Gambia from 1965 to 1970, when The Gambia was a constitutional monarchy within the Commonwealth of Nations.
Elizabeth II was Queen of Trinidad and Tobago from 1962 to 1976.
Queen of Uganda was a title used by Queen Elizabeth II while Uganda was an independent constitutional monarchy between 9 October 1962 and 9 October 1963.
A queen regnant (plural: queens regnant) is a female monarch, equivalent in rank to a king, who reigns in her own right, in contrast to a queen consort, who is the wife of a reigning king, or a queen regent, who is the guardian of a child monarch and reigns temporarily in the child's stead.
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.
The Queen's Official Birthday, or the King's Official Birthday, is the selected day in some Commonwealth realms on which the birthday of the monarch (currently Elizabeth II) is officially celebrated in those countries.
The Queen's Personal Australian Flag is the personal flag of Queen Elizabeth II in her role as Queen of Australia.
The Queen's Personal Barbadian Flag is the personal flag of Queen Elizabeth II in her role as Queen of Barbados.
The personal flag of Queen Elizabeth II in her role as Queen of New Zealand was approved for use in 1962.
The Royal Standard of Jamaica is the personal flag of Queen Elizabeth II in her role as Queen of Jamaica.
Rancho del Cielo, also named Sky's Ranch or Heaven's Ranch, is a ranch located atop the Santa Ynez Mountain range northwest of Santa Barbara, California, United States.
A Ranger or Ranger Guide is a member of a section of some Guiding organisations who is between the ages of 14 and 25.
Rationing was introduced temporarily by the British government several times during the 20th century, during and immediately after a war.
A regnal name, or reign name, is a name used by some monarchs and popes during their reigns, and used subsequently to refer to them.
Republicanism in Australia is a movement to change Australia's system of government from a constitutional monarchy to a republic.
Republicanism in the United Kingdom is the political movement that seeks to replace the United Kingdom's monarchy with a republic.
Rhodesia was an unrecognised state in southern Africa from 1965 to 1979, equivalent in territory to modern Zimbabwe.
The Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) was a statement adopted by the Cabinet of Rhodesia on 11 November 1965, announcing that Rhodesia, a British territory in southern Africa that had governed itself since 1923, now regarded itself as an independent sovereign state.
Robert Fellowes, Baron Fellowes, (born 11 December 1941) was Private Secretary to Queen Elizabeth II from 1990 to 1999, and is also known as a brother-in-law of Diana, Princess of Wales and first cousin of Ronald Ferguson, the father of Sarah, Duchess of York.
Robert Arthur James Gascoyne-Cecil, 5th Marquess of Salisbury, (27 August 1893 – 23 February 1972), known as Viscount Cranborne from 1903 to 1947, was a British Conservative politician.
Robert Lacey (born 3 January 1944) is a British historian and biographer.
Robert Gabriel Mugabe (born 21 February 1924) is a former Zimbabwean politician and revolutionary who served as Prime Minister of Zimbabwe from 1980 to 1987 and then as President from 1987 to 2017.
Rolf Harris (born 30 March 1930) is an Australian entertainer whose career has encompassed work as a musician, singer-songwriter, composer, comedian, actor, painter and television personality.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
The Queen's Christmas Message (also known as The King's Christmas Message in the reign of a male monarch, formally as Her Majesty's Most Gracious Speech) is a broadcast made by the sovereign of the Commonwealth realms to the Commonwealth of Nations each Christmas.
The royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, or the Royal Arms for short, is the official coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II.
The Royal Collection is the art collection of the British Royal Family and the largest private art collection in the world.
Queen Elizabeth's corgis were the Pembroke Welsh Corgi dogs owned by Queen Elizabeth II and her parents, Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother and King George VI.
Royal Family is a documentary about the family of Queen Elizabeth II, and was aired on 21 June 1969.
The Royal Heraldry Society of Canada (RHSC) is a Canadian organization that promotes interest in heraldry in Canada.
The Royal Lodge is a Grade II listed house in Windsor Great Park in Berkshire, England, half a mile north of Cumberland Lodge and south of Windsor Castle.
Royal Maundy is a religious service in the Church of England held on Maundy Thursday, the day before Good Friday.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The Royal Standards of the United Kingdom refers to either one of two similar flags used by Queen Elizabeth II in her capacity as Sovereign of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories.
The Royal Standards of Canada are a set of uniquely Canadian personal flags approved by the Queen of Canada for use by members of the Canadian Royal Family.
A ruby jubilee is a celebration held to mark a 40th anniversary.
Sagana State Lodge is a Kenyan state lodge, located in Kiganjo town in Nyeri County, on the foothills of Mount Kenya.
In heraldry, the Saint George's Cross, also called Cross of Saint George, is a red cross on a white background, which from the Late Middle Ages became associated with Saint George, the military saint, often depicted as a crusader.
Sandringham House is a country house in the parish of Sandringham, Norfolk, England.
On 6 February 2017, the Sapphire Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II, marking sixty-five years of her reign, occurred.
Sarah Mary Malet Bradford, Viscountess Bangor (née Hayes; born 3 September 1938) is an English author who is best known for her royal biographies.
Sarah, Duchess of York (born Sarah Margaret Ferguson; 15 October 1959), also referred to by the nickname "Fergie", is a British writer, charity patron, public speaker, film producer and television personality.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
A service number is an identification code used to identify a person within a large group.
A shamrock is a young sprig, used as a symbol of Ireland.
Sir Shridath Surendranath "Sonny" Ramphal (born 3 October 1928) was the second Commonwealth Secretary-General, from 1975 to 1990.
Sierra Leone was a sovereign state with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state between independence on 27 April 1961 and becoming the Republic of Sierra Leone on 19 April 1971.
The Silver Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II marked the 25th anniversary of Queen Elizabeth II's accession to the thrones of the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms.
Sitiveni Ligamamada Rabuka, OBE, MSD, OStJ, (born 13 September 1948) is best known as the instigator of two military coups that shook Fiji in 1987.
The Social Democratic Party (SDP) was a centrist political party in the United Kingdom.
Sophie, Countess of Wessex, (born Sophie Helen Rhys-Jones; 20 January 1965), is the wife of Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, the youngest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.
The Speaker of the House of Representatives is the presiding officer of the House of Representatives, the lower house of the Parliament of Australia.
The Speech to the Troops at Tilbury was delivered on 9 August Old Style (19 August New Style) 1588 by Queen Elizabeth I of England to the land forces earlier assembled at Tilbury in Essex in preparation for repelling the expected invasion by the Spanish Armada.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
St Patrick's Cathedral, Armagh is the seat of the Archbishop of Armagh in the Church of Ireland.
The State of Malta (Stat ta’ Malta), known in common parlance as Malta, was the predecessor to the modern-day Republic of Malta.
The State Opening of Parliament is an event which formally marks the beginning of a session of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and her husband Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, made a state visit to the Republic of Ireland from 17 May to 20 May 2011, at the invitation of the President of Ireland, Mary McAleese.
The number of states headed by Queen Elizabeth II has varied during her years on the throne, altogether seeing her as sovereign of a total of 32 independent countries during this period.
Succession to the British throne is determined by descent, gender (for people born before October 2011), legitimacy, and religion.
thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.
The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli War, also named the Tripartite Aggression (in the Arab world) and Operation Kadesh or Sinai War (in Israel),Also named: Suez Canal Crisis, Suez War, Suez–Sinai war, Suez Campaign, Sinai Campaign, Operation Musketeer (أزمة السويس /‎ العدوان الثلاثي, "Suez Crisis"/ "the Tripartite Aggression"; Crise du canal de Suez; מבצע קדש "Operation Kadesh", or מלחמת סיני, "Sinai War") was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France.
The Sunday Times Rich List 2017 is the 29th annual survey of the wealthiest people resident in the United Kingdom, published by The Sunday Times on 7 May 2017.
The Supreme Governor of the Church of England is a title held by the British monarch that signifies titular leadership over the Church of England.
The office of the Surveyor of the King's/Queen's Pictures, in the Royal Collection Department of the Royal Household of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom, is responsible for the care and maintenance of the royal collection of pictures owned by the Sovereign in an official capacity – as distinct from those owned privately and displayed at Sandringham House and Balmoral Castle and elsewhere.
Tai-Shan Schierenberg (born 1962) is a British portrait painter, based in London.
Tanganyika was a sovereign state, comprising the mainland part of present-day Tanzania, that existed from 1961 until 1964.
In the United Kingdom and the Crown dependencies, any household watching or recording live television transmissions as they are being broadcast (terrestrial, satellite, cable, or Internet) is required to hold a television licence.
Terence Tenison Cuneo CVO, OBE, RGI, FGRA (1 November 1907 – 3 January 1996) was a prolific English painter famous for his scenes of railways, horses and military actions.
Terence Patrick "Terry" O'Neill (born 30 July 1938) is a British photographer.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
Between 1965 and 1970, The Gambia was an independent sovereign state that shared its head of state with the United Kingdom and other states headed by Queen Elizabeth II.
The Grand Knockout Tournament (colloquially also known as It's a Royal Knockout) was a one-off charity event which was shown on British television on 19 June 1987, in addition to airing on American TV via the USA Network on 12 August 1987.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The Mall is a road in the City of Westminster, central London, between Buckingham Palace at its western end and Trafalgar Square via Admiralty Arch to the east.
The Observer is a British newspaper published on Sundays.
The Sun is a tabloid newspaper published in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland.
The Sunday Times is the largest-selling British national newspaper in the "quality press" market category.
The Sydney Morning Herald (SMH) is a daily compact newspaper published by Fairfax Media in Sydney, Australia.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
Thistle is the common name of a group of flowering plants characterised by leaves with sharp prickles on the margins, mostly in the family Asteraceae.
Tim Villiers Heald FRSL (28 January 1944 – 20 November 2016) was a British author, biographer, journalist and public speaker.
Vice Admiral Sir Timothy James Hamilton Laurence, (born 1 March 1955) is a retired Royal Navy officer and the second husband of Princess Anne, the only daughter of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip.
Anthony Neil Wedgwood Benn (3 April 1925 – 14 March 2014), originally known as Anthony Wedgwood Benn, but later as Tony Benn, was a British politician, writer, and diarist.
Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007.
The Toronto Star is a Canadian broadsheet daily newspaper.
A transatlantic telecommunications cable is a submarine communications cable connecting one side of the Atlantic Ocean to the other.
The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Rome) is one of two treaties forming the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU), the other being the Treaty on European Union (TEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Maastricht).
Treetops Hotel is a hotel in Aberdare National Park in Kenya near the township of Nyeri, 1,966 m (6,450 ft) above sea level on the Aberdare Range and in sight of Mount Kenya.
Trooping the Colour is a ceremony performed by regiments of the British and Commonwealth armies.
A trust is a three-party fiduciary relationship in which the first party, the trustor or settlor, transfers ("settles") a property (often but not necessarily a sum of money) upon the second party (the trustee) for the benefit of the third party, the beneficiary.
The Tudor rose (sometimes called the Union rose) is the traditional floral heraldic emblem of England and takes its name and origins from the House of Tudor, which united the House of York and House of Lancaster.
A constitutional referendum was held in Tuvalu on 30 April 2008.
Uganda became an independent sovereign state on 9 October 1962.
The miners' strike of 1984–85 was a major industrial action to shut down the British coal industry in an attempt to prevent colliery closures.
The Union of South Africa (Unie van Zuid-Afrika, Unie van Suid-Afrika) is the historic predecessor to the present-day Republic of South Africa.
The February 1974 United Kingdom general election was held on the 28th day of that month.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The United States invasion of Grenada was a 1983 invasion led by the United States of the Caribbean island nation of Grenada, which has a population of about 91,000 and is located north of Venezuela, that resulted in a U.S. victory within a matter of weeks.
Urdd Gobaith Cymru,Or, the Welsh League of Hope, but normally translated as the Welsh League of Youth, or merely referred to as the Urdd, is a youth movement based in Wales.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
Victory in Europe Day, generally known as V-E Day, VE Day or simply V Day, celebrated on May 8, 1945 to mark the formal acceptance by the Allies of World War II of Nazi Germany's unconditional surrender of its armed forces.
Villa Guardamangia (Italian – 'look' and 'eat'), formerly known as Casa Medina and sometimes referred to as Casa Guardamangia, is a townhouse in Gwardamanġa, Pietà, Malta, which served as the residence of Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh (later Queen Elizabeth II), and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, between 1949 and 1951, while Philip was stationed in Malta as a naval officer.
A constitutional referendum was held in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines on 25 November 2009.
Wallis Simpson (born Bessie Wallis Warfield; 19 June 1896 – 24 April 1986), later known as the Duchess of Windsor, was an American socialite whose intended marriage to the British king Edward VIII caused a constitutional crisis that led to Edward's abdication.
The wedding dress of Princess Elizabeth was worn by the future Queen Elizabeth II at her wedding to Philip Mountbatten, Duke of Edinburgh on 20 November 1947 in Westminster Abbey.
The wedding of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Lady Diana Spencer took place on Wednesday 29 July 1981 at St Paul's Cathedral in London, United Kingdom.
Welsh nationalism (Cenedlaetholdeb Cymreig) emphasises the distinctiveness of Welsh language, culture, and history, and calls for more self-determination for Wales, which might include more devolved powers for the Welsh Assembly or full independence from the United Kingdom.
Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster.
Whitehall is a road in the City of Westminster, Central London, which forms the first part of the A3212 road from Trafalgar Square to Chelsea.
William Hartley Hume Shawcross, (born 28 May 1946, Sussex, England) is the Chairman of the Charity Commission for England and Wales, (Glen Owen, Mail Online, Sunday 2 June 2013) and a British writer and commentator.
Windlesham Moor is a country house and, for a time in the 20th century a royal residence, at Windlesham in the English county of Surrey.
Windsor Castle is a royal residence at Windsor in the English county of Berkshire.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
Woodrow Lyle Wyatt, Baron Wyatt of Weeford (4 July 1918 – 7 December 1997) was a British politician, published author, journalist and broadcaster, close to the Queen Mother, Margaret Thatcher and Rupert Murdoch.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yousuf Karsh, CC (Armenian name: Hovsep Karsh; December 23, 1908 – July 13, 2002) was an Armenian-Canadian photographer known for his portraits of notable individuals.
Zara Anne Elizabeth Tindall (née Phillips; born 15 May 1981) is a British equestrian and Olympian.
The.22 Long Rifle (metric designation: 5.6×15mmR) cartridge is a long-established variety of.22 caliber rimfire ammunition, and in terms of units sold is still by far the most common ammunition in the world today.
The Conservative Private Members' Committee (colloquially known as the 1922 Committee) is the parliamentary group of the Conservative Party in the UK House of Commons.
The 1939 royal tour of Canada by King George VI and Queen Elizabeth was undertaken in the build-up to World War II as a way to emphasise the independence of the Dominion from Britain.
The 1975 Australian constitutional crisis, also known simply as the Dismissal, has been described as the greatest political and constitutional crisis in Australian history.
The 1976 Summer Olympics, officially called the Games of the XXI Olympiad (French: Les XXIes olympiques d'été), was an international multi-sport event in Montreal, Quebec, in 1976, and the first Olympic Games held in Canada.
In 1981, England suffered serious riots across many major cities.
The Fiji coups of 1987 resulted in the overthrow of the elected government of Fijian Prime Minister Timoci Bavadra, the deposition of Elizabeth II as Queen of Fiji, and in the declaration of a republic.
On 20 November 1992, a fire broke out in Windsor Castle, the largest inhabited castle in the world and one of the official residences of Queen Elizabeth II.
The 2012 Summer Olympics, formally the Games of the XXX Olympiad and commonly known as London 2012, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 27 July to 12 August 2012 in London, United Kingdom.
The opening ceremony of the 2012 Summer Olympic Games took place on the evening of Friday 27 July in the Olympic Stadium, London.
The 2012 Summer Paralympics, the 14th Summer Paralympic Games, and also more generally known as the London 2012 Paralympic Games, were a major international multi-sport event for athletes with disabilities governed by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC), that took place in London, United Kingdom from 29 August to 9 September 2012.
The 23rd Canadian Parliament was in session from October 14, 1957, until February 1, 1958.
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