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Alfred Leslie Rowse (4 December 1903 – 3 October 1997) was a British author and historian from Cornwall.
Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud ben Mohammed Anoun (عبد الواحد بن مسعود بن محمد عنون) was principal secretary to the Moroccan ruler Mulay Ahmad al-Mansur, and ambassador to the court of Queen Elizabeth I of England in 1600, whose primary task was to promote the establishment of an Anglo-Moroccan alliance.
Abdication is the act of formally relinquishing monarchical authority.
The Act of Supremacy (1 Eliz 1 c 1), also referred to as the Act of Supremacy 1558, is an act of the Parliament of England, passed under the auspices of Elizabeth I. It replaced the original Act of Supremacy 1534 issued by Elizabeth's father, Henry VIII, which arrogated ecclesiastical authority to the monarchy, and which had been repealed by Mary I. Along with the Act of Uniformity 1558 it made up what is generally referred to as the Elizabethan Religious Settlement.
The Act of Uniformity 1558 (1 Eliz 1 c 2) was an Act of the Parliament of England.
Ahmad al-Mansur (أبو العباس أحمد المنصور, Ahmad Abu al-Abbas al-Mansur, also El-Mansour Eddahbi, أحمد المنصور الذهبي; and Ahmed el-Mansour; 1549 in Fes – 25 August 1603, outskirts of Fes) was Sultan of the Saadi dynasty from 1578 to his death in 1603, the sixth and most famous of all rulers of the Saadis.
Alexander Farnese (Alessandro Farnese, Alejandro Farnesio) (27 August 1545 – 3 December 1592) was an Italian noble who was Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Castro from 1586 to 1592, as well as Governor of the Spanish Netherlands from 1578 to 1592.
Alonso Pérez de Guzmán y de Zúñiga-Sotomayor, 7th Duke of Medina Sidonia, GE, KOGF (10 September 155026 July 1615), was a Spanish navy officer who was most noted for his role as commander-in-chief of the Spanish Armada.
Amy Dudley (née Robsart) (7 June 1532 – 8 September 1560) was the first wife of Lord Robert Dudley, favourite of Elizabeth I of England.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
The Anglo-Moroccan allianceBritain and Morocco during the embassy of John Drummond Hay, 1845-1886 Khalid Ben Srhir, Malcolm Williams, Gavin Waterson p.13-14 was established at the end of the 16th century and the early 17th century between the kingdoms of England and Morocco.
The Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604) was an intermittent conflict between the kingdoms of Spain and England that was never formally declared.
Anne Boleyn (1501 – 19 May 1536) was Queen of England from 1533 to 1536 as the second wife of King Henry VIII.
Astraea, Astrea or Astria (Ἀστραῖα; "star-maiden" or "starry night"), in ancient Greek religion, was a daughter of Astraeus and Eos.
The Babington Plot was a plan in 1586 to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I, a Protestant, and put Mary, Queen of Scots, her Roman Catholic cousin, on the English throne.
The Barbary Coast, or Berber Coast, was the term used by Europeans from the 16th until the early 19th century to refer to much of the collective land of the Berber people.
Belphoebe (or Belphebe, Belphœbe) is a character in Edmund Spenser's poem The Faerie Queene (1590), a representation of Queen Elizabeth I (conceived of, however, as a pure, high-spirited maiden, rather than a queen).
The Bishop of Carlisle is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Carlisle in the Province of York.
The body politic is a medieval metaphor that likens a nation to a corporation which had serious historical repercussions throughout recent history and therefore giving the Crown: "As a legal entity today the Crown as executive is regarded as a corporation sole or aggregate", a corporate entity.
The Book of Common Prayer (BCP) is the short title of a number of related prayer books used in the Anglican Communion, as well as by the Continuing Anglican, Anglican realignment and other Anglican Christian churches.
Boris Fyodorovich Godunov (Бори́с Фёдорович Годуно́в,; c. 1551) ruled the Tsardom of Russia as de facto regent from c. 1585 to 1598 and then as the first non-Rurikid tsar from 1598 to 1605.
Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.
Calais (Calés; Kales) is a city and major ferry port in northern France in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture.
The Calendar (New Style) Act 1750 (c.23) (also known as Chesterfield's Act after Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
Catherine Carey, after her marriage Catherine Knollys and later Lady Knollys (c. 1524 – 15 January 1569), was chief Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Elizabeth I, who was her first cousin.
Catherine Howard, Countess of Nottingham (née Catherine Carey; c. 1547 – 25 February 1603), was a cousin, lady-in-waiting, and close confidante of Elizabeth I of England.
Catherine of Aragon (16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536), was Queen of England from June 1509 until May 1533 as the first wife of King Henry VIII; she was previously Princess of Wales as the wife of Henry's elder brother Arthur.
Catherine Parr (alternatively spelled Katherine, Katheryn or Katharine, signed 'Katheryn the Quene KP') was Queen of England and Ireland (1543–47) as the last of the six wives of King Henry VIII, and the final queen consort of the House of Tudor.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic League of France (Ligue catholique), sometimes referred to by contemporary (and modern) Catholics as the Holy League (La Sainte Ligue), was a major participant in the French Wars of Religion.
Cádiz (see other pronunciations below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain.
Charles Blount, 1st Earl of Devonshire, KG (pronounced Blunt; 15633 April 1606) was an English nobleman and soldier who served as Lord Deputy of Ireland under Queen Elizabeth I, then as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland under King James I. He succeeded to the family title of Baron Mountjoy in 1594, before commanding the Crown's forces during the final years of Tyrone's Rebellion.
Charles II Francis of Austria (Karl II.) (3 June 1540 – 10 July 1590) was an Archduke of Austria and ruler of Inner Austria (Styria, Carniola and Carinthia) from 1564.
Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.
Chelsea is an affluent area of South West London, bounded to the south by the River Thames.
Chivalry, or the chivalric code, is an informal, varying code of conduct developed between 1170 and 1220, never decided on or summarized in a single document, associated with the medieval institution of knighthood; knights' and gentlewomen's behaviours were governed by chivalrous social codes.
Anciently, a chrisom, or "chrisom-cloth," was the face-cloth, or piece of linen laid over a child's head when he or she was baptised or christened.
Christendom has several meanings.
Sir Christopher Hatton KG (1540 – 20 November 1591) was an English politician, Lord Chancellor of England and a favourite of Elizabeth I of England.
Christopher Marlowe, also known as Kit Marlowe (baptised 26 February 156430 May 1593), was an English playwright, poet and translator of the Elizabethan era.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
Circumnavigation is navigation completely around an entire island, continent, or astronomical body (e.g. a planet or moon).
Conyers Read (April 25, 1881 – December 24, 1959) was an American historian who specialized in the History of England in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Cornish (Kernowek) is a revived language that became extinct as a first language in the late 18th century.
The coronation of Queen Elizabeth I as queen regnant of England took place at Westminster Abbey, London, on 15 January 1559.
A coroner is a person whose standard role is to confirm and certify the death of an individual within a jurisdiction.
Count of Guise and Duke of Guise were titles in the French nobility.
A court is an extended royal household in a monarchy, including all those who regularly attend on a monarch, or another central figure.
The Dictionary of National Biography (DNB) is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published from 1885.
The Dutch Revolt (1568–1648)This article adopts 1568 as the starting date of the war, as this was the year of the first battles between armies.
Earl of Leicester is a title that has been created seven times.
Early modern Britain is the history of the island of Great Britain roughly corresponding to the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries.
Edmund Spenser (1552/1553 – 13 January 1599) was an English poet best known for The Faerie Queene, an epic poem and fantastical allegory celebrating the Tudor dynasty and Elizabeth I. He is recognized as one of the premier craftsmen of nascent Modern English verse, and is often considered one of the greatest poets in the English language.
Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset (c. 1500 – 22 January 1552) was Lord Protector of England during part of the Tudor period from 1547 until 1549 during the minority of his nephew, King Edward VI (1547–1553).
Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) was King of England and Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death.
Elizabeth Boleyn, Countess of Wiltshire (née Lady Elizabeth Howard; c. 1480 – 3 April 1538) was an English noblewoman, noted for being the mother of Anne Boleyn and as such the maternal grandmother of Elizabeth I of England.
Elizabeth of York (11 February 1466 – 11 February 1503) was the wife of Henry VII and the first Tudor queen.
Lady Elizabeth Stafford (later Duchess of Norfolk) (c.1497 – 30 November 1558) was the eldest daughter of Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham and Lady Eleanor Percy.
The Elizabethan era is the epoch in the Tudor period of the history of England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558–1603).
The Elizabethan Religious Settlement, which was made during the reign of Elizabeth I, was a response to the religious divisions in England during the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI and Mary I. This response, described as "The Revolution of 1559", was set out in two Acts.
The English Armada, also known as the Counter Armada or the Drake-Norris Expedition, was a fleet of warships sent to Spain by Queen Elizabeth I of England in 1589, during the undeclared Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604) and the Eighty Years' War.
The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
This article is focused on English-language literature rather than the literature of England, so that it includes writers from Scotland, Wales, and the whole of Ireland, as well as literature in English from countries of the former British Empire, including the United States.
The English Renaissance was a cultural and artistic movement in England dating from the late 15th century to the early 17th century.
English Renaissance theatre—also known as early modern English theatre and Elizabethan theatre—refers to the theatre of England between 1562 and 1642.
Eric XIV (Erik XIV; 13 December 1533 – 26 February 1577) was King of Sweden from 1560 until he was deposed in 1568.
Essex in Ireland refers to the military campaign pursued in Ireland in 1599 by Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, during the Nine Years War.
Excommunication is an institutional act of religious censure used to deprive, suspend, or limit membership in a religious community or to restrict certain rights within it, in particular receiving of the sacraments.
The Siege of Antwerp took place during the Eighty Years' War from July 1584 until August 1585.
A favourite or favorite (American English) was the intimate companion of a ruler or other important person.
Female infertility refers to infertility in female humans.
Fyodor (Theodore) I Ivanovich (Фёдор I Иванович) or Feodor I Ioannovich (Феодор I Иоаннович); 31 May 1557 – 16 or 17 January (NS) 1598), also known as Feodor the Bellringer, was the last Rurikid Tsar of Russia (1584–1598). Feodor's mother died when he was three, and he grew up in the shadow of his father, Ivan the Terrible. A pious man of retiring disposition, Feodor took little interest in politics, and the country was effectively administered in his name by Boris Godunov, the brother of his beloved wife Irina. His childless death left the Rurikid dynasty extinct, and spurred Russia's descent into the catastrophic Time of Troubles. In Russian documents, Feodor is sometimes called blessed (Блаженный). He is also listed in the "Great Synaxaristes" of the Orthodox Church, with his feast day on January 7 (OS).
A fire ship or fireship, used in the days of wooden rowed or sailing ships, was a ship filled with combustibles, deliberately set on fire and steered (or, when possible, allowed to drift) into an enemy fleet, in order to destroy ships, or to create panic and make the enemy break formation.
Flemish (Vlaams), also called Flemish Dutch (Vlaams-Nederlands), Belgian Dutch (Belgisch-Nederlands), or Southern Dutch (Zuid-Nederlands), is any of the varieties of the Dutch language dialects spoken in Flanders, the northern part of Belgium, as well as French Flanders and the Dutch Zeelandic Flanders by approximately 6.5 million people.
Fotheringhay Castle (also Fotheringay Castle) was in the village of Fotheringhay to the north of the market town of Oundle, Northamptonshire.
Frances Grey, Duchess of Suffolk (née Brandon; 16 July 1517 – 20 November 1559), was an English noblewoman, the second child and eldest daughter of King Henry VIII's younger sister, Princess Mary, and Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk.
Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, (22 January 15619 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author.
Sir Francis Drake (– 28 January 1596) was an English sea captain, privateer, slave trader, naval officer and explorer of the Elizabethan era.
Francis II (François II) (19 January 1544 – 5 December 1560) was a King of France of the House of Valois-Angoulême from 1559 to 1560.
Sir Francis Walsingham (1532 – 6 April 1590) was principal secretary to Queen Elizabeth I of England from 20 December 1573 until his death and is popularly remembered as her "spymaster".
Francis, Duke of Anjou and Alençon (Hercule François; 18 March 1555 – 10 June 1584) was the youngest son of Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici.
A funeral is a ceremony connected with the burial, cremation, or interment of a corpse, or the burial (or equivalent) with the attendant observances.
Gómez Suárez de Figueroa y Córdoba, 1st Duke of Feria (1520?–1571) was a Spanish nobleman and diplomat, and close advisor of Philip II's.
George Boleyn, 2nd Viscount Rochford (c.1503 /c. April 1504 – 17 May 1536) was an English courtier and nobleman, and the brother of queen consort Anne Boleyn.
Gerald FitzGerald, 15th Earl of Desmond (c. 1533 – 11 November 1583) was an Irish nobleman and leader of the Desmond Rebellions of 1579.
Godfrey Goodman, also called Hugh; (28 February 1582 or 1583 – 19 January 1656) was the Anglican Bishop of Gloucester, and a member of the Protestant Church.
The Golden Speech was delivered by Queen Elizabeth I of England in the Palace Council Chamber to 141 Members of the Commons (including the Speaker), on 30 November 1601.
A governess is a woman employed to teach and train children in a private household.
Gravelines is a commune in the Nord department in Northern France.
Greenwich is an area of south east London, England, located east-southeast of Charing Cross.
Habsburg Spain refers to the history of Spain over the 16th and 17th centuries (1516–1700), when it was ruled by kings from the House of Habsburg (also associated with its role in the history of Central Europe).
Hatfield House is a country house set in a large park, the Great Park, on the eastern side of the town of Hatfield, Hertfordshire, England.
A hearse is a vehicle used to carry the dead in a coffin/casket.
An heir apparent is a person who is first in a line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting by the birth of another person.
An heir presumptive or heiress presumptive is the person entitled to inherit a throne, peerage, or other hereditary honour, but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an heir apparent, male or female, or of a new heir presumptive with a better claim to the position in question.
Sir Henry Bedingfeld (1509–1583), of Oxburgh Hall, King's Lynn, Norfolk, was the eldest son of Edmund Bedingfeld (1479/80-1553) and his wife, Grace (d. in or after 1553), the daughter of Henry, first Baron Marney.
Henry Carey, 1st Baron Hunsdon KG (4 March 1526 – 23 July 1596), was an English nobleman and courtier.
Henry Courtenay, 1st Marquess of Exeter, 2nd Earl of Devon (c. 1498 – 9 December 1538), KG, PC, feudal baron of Okehampton, feudal baron of Plympton, of Tiverton Castle, Okehampton Castle and Colcombe Castle all in Devon, was a grandson of King Edward IV, nephew of the queen consort, Elizabeth of York and a first cousin of King Henry VIII.
Henry III (19 September 1551 – 2 August 1589; born Alexandre Édouard de France, Henryk Walezy, Henrikas Valua) was King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1573 to 1575 and King of France from 1574 until his death.
Henry IV (Henri IV, read as Henri-Quatre; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithet Good King Henry, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610.
Henry Stuart (or Stewart), Duke of Albany (7 December 1545 – 10 February 1567), styled as Lord Darnley until 1565, was king consort of Scotland from 1565 until his murder at Kirk o' Field in 1567.
Henry VII (Harri Tudur; 28 January 1457 – 21 April 1509) was the King of England and Lord of Ireland from his seizure of the crown on 22 August 1485 to his death on 21 April 1509.
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death.
Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization.
Treason is criminal disloyalty.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The House of Commons of England was the lower house of the Parliament of England (which incorporated Wales) from its development in the 14th century to the union of England and Scotland in 1707, when it was replaced by the House of Commons of Great Britain.
The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The House of Tudor was an English royal house of Welsh origin, descended in the male line from the Tudors of Penmynydd.
The House of Valois was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty.
Hugh O'Neill (Irish: Aodh Mór Ó Néill; literally Hugh The Great O'Neill; c. 1550 – 20 July 1616), was an Irish Gaelic lord, Earl of Tyrone (known as the Great Earl) and was later created The Ó Néill.
Huguenots (Les huguenots) are an ethnoreligious group of French Protestants who follow the Reformed tradition.
Iconography, as a branch of art history, studies the identification, description, and the interpretation of the content of images: the subjects depicted, the particular compositions and details used to do so, and other elements that are distinct from artistic style.
An inquest is a judicial inquiry in common law jurisdictions, particularly one held to determine the cause of a person's death.
The Inventory of Jewels and Plate of Queen Elizabeth I of England in 1574 was published from manuscripts by Arthur Jefferies Collins in 1955.
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
Ivan IV Vasilyevich (pron; 25 August 1530 –), commonly known as Ivan the Terrible or Ivan the Fearsome (Ivan Grozny; a better translation into modern English would be Ivan the Formidable), was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547, then Tsar of All Rus' until his death in 1584.
Sir John Ernest Neale, FBA (7 December 1890 in Liverpool – 2 September 1975) was an English historian who specialised in Elizabethan and Parliamentary history.
The Jacobean era refers to the period in English and Scottish history that coincides with the reign of James VI of Scotland (1567–1625), who also inherited the crown of England in 1603 as James I. The Jacobean era succeeds the Elizabethan era and precedes the Caroline era, and is often used for the distinctive styles of Jacobean architecture, visual arts, decorative arts, and literature which characterized that period.
James Hepburn (– 14 April 1578), 1st Duke of Orkney and 4th Earl of Bothwell (better known simply as Lord Bothwell), was a prominent Scottish nobleman.
James V (10 April 1512 – 14 December 1542) was King of Scotland from 9 September 1513 until his death, which followed the Scottish defeat at the Battle of Solway Moss.
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.
Jane Seymour (c. 150824 October 1537) was Queen of England from 1536 to 1537 as the third wife of King Henry VIII.
Sir Jerome Bowes (died 1616) was an English ambassador to Russia and Member of Parliament in England.
John Dee (13 July 1527 – 1608 or 1609) was an English mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, occult philosopher, and advisor to Queen Elizabeth I. He devoted much of his life to the study of alchemy, divination, and Hermetic philosophy.
John Hussey, 1st Baron Hussey of Sleaford (sometimes spelled Hosey, Husey, Hussie, Huse; 1465/1466 – 1536/1537) was Chief Butler of England from 1521 until his death.
John Lyly (Lilly or Lylie;; c. 1553 or 1554 – November 1606) was an English writer, poet, dramatist, and courtier, best known during his lifetime for his books Euphues: The Anatomy of Wit (1578) and Euphues and His England (1580), and perhaps best remembered now for his plays.
Sir John Norreys (ca. 1547 – 3 July 1597), also frequently spelt John Norris, was an English soldier of a Berkshire family, the son of Henry Norris, 1st Baron Norreys, a lifelong friend of Queen Elizabeth.
John Stow (also Stowe; 1524/25 – 5 April 1605) was an English historian and antiquarian.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
Katherine Ashley (circa 1502–1565) (or Astley), née Katherine Champernowne, was governess to Queen Elizabeth I of England and became her close friend in later life.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of Scotland (Rìoghachd na h-Alba; Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843.
In the western liturgical year, Lady Day is the traditional name in some English speaking countries of the Feast of the Annunciation (25 March), known in the 1549 Prayer Book of Edward VI and the 1667 Book of Common Prayer as "The Annunciation of the (Blessed) Virgin Mary" but more accurately (as currently in the 1997 Calendar of the Church of England) termed "The Annunciation of our Lord to the Blessed Virgin Mary".
Lady Jane Grey (Her exact date of birth is uncertain; many historians agree on the long-held estimate of 1537 while others set it in the later half of 1536 based on newer research. – 12 February 1554), known also as Lady Jane Dudley (after her marriage) and as "the Nine Days' Queen", was an English noblewoman and de facto Queen of England and Ireland from 10 July until 19 July 1553.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Le Havre, historically called Newhaven in English, is an urban French commune and city in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region of northwestern France.
Lettice Knollys (sometimes latinized as Laetitia, alias Lettice Devereux or Lettice Dudley), Countess of Essex and Countess of Leicester (8 November 1543Adams 2008a – 25 December 1634), was an English noblewoman and mother to the courtiers Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, and Lady Penelope Rich, although via her marriage to Elizabeth I's favourite, Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, she incurred the Queen's unrelenting displeasure.
The Levant Company was an English chartered company formed in 1592.
This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England begins with Alfred the Great, King of Wessex, one of the petty kingdoms to rule a portion of modern England.
Loch Leven (from Scottish Gaelic: Loch Lìobhann) is a fresh water loch located immediately to the east of Kinross in Perth and Kinross council area, central Scotland.
Loch Leven Castle is a ruined castle on an island in Loch Leven, in the Perth and Kinross local authority area of Scotland.
The Lord Keeper of the Great Seal of England, and later of Great Britain, was formerly an officer of the English Crown charged with physical custody of the Great Seal of England.
Lord Thomas Howard (1511 – 31 October 1537), courtier, was a younger son of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk by his second marriage to Agnes Tilney.
Margaret Bryan, Baroness Bryan (c. 1468 – c. 1551/52) was Lady Governess to Henry VIII's children: Princess Mary, Princess Elizabeth, Henry FitzRoy and Prince Edward.
Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox (8 October 1515 – 7 March 1578), was the daughter of the Scottish queen dowager Margaret Tudor and her second husband Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus.
Margaret Tudor (28 November 1489 – 18 October 1541) was Queen of Scots from 1503 until 1513 by marriage to James IV of Scotland and then, after her husband died fighting the English, she became regent for their son James V of Scotland from 1513 until 1515.
Margaret Wotton, Marchioness of Dorset (1487–1541) was the second wife of Thomas Grey, 2nd Marquess of Dorset, and the mother of his children, including Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk, with whom she engaged in many quarrels during his minority over money and his allowance.
A martyr (Greek: μάρτυς, mártys, "witness"; stem μάρτυρ-, mártyr-) is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a belief or cause as demanded by an external party.
Mary Boleyn, also known as Lady Mary (c. 1499/1500 – 19 July 1543), was the sister of English queen Anne Boleyn, whose family enjoyed considerable influence during the reign of King Henry VIII.
Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558) was the Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death.
Mary Tudor (18 March 1496 – 25 June 1533) was an English princess who was briefly Queen of France and later progenitor of a family that claimed the English throne.
Mary, Queen of Scots (8 December 1542 – 8 February 1587), also known as Mary Stuart or Mary I, reigned over Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567.
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.
A monarchical system of government existed in Ireland from ancient times until, for what became the Republic of Ireland, the mid-twentieth century.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Munster (an Mhumhain / Cúige Mumhan,.
Murad III (Ottoman Turkish: مراد ثالث Murād-i sālis, Turkish: III.Murat) (4 July 1546 – 15/16 January 1595) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1574 until his death in 1595.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
Sir Nicholas Bacon (28 December 1510 – 20 February 1579) was an English politician during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I of England, notable as Lord Keeper of the Great Seal.
Sir Nicholas Throckmorton (or Throgmorton) (circa 1515/1516 – 12 February 1571) was an English diplomat and politician, who was an ambassador to France and played a key role in the relationship between Elizabeth I and Mary, Queen of Scots.
The Nine Years' War or Tyrone's Rebellion took place in Ireland from 1593 to 1603.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
Old St Paul's Cathedral was the medieval cathedral of the City of London that, until 1666, stood on the site of the present St Paul's Cathedral.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Owen Oglethorpe (died 1559) was an English academic and Roman Catholic Bishop of Carlisle, 1557–1559.
The Palace of Placentia was an English Royal Palace built by Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, in 1443, in Greenwich, on the banks of the River Thames, downstream from London.
The Palace of Whitehall (or Palace of White Hall) at Westminster, Middlesex, was the main residence of the English monarchs from 1530 until 1698, when most of its structures, except for Inigo Jones's Banqueting House of 1622, were destroyed by fire.
A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Roman Catholic Church.
The Peerage of England comprises all peerages created in the Kingdom of England before the Act of Union in 1707.
Peregrine Bertie, 13th Baron Willoughby de Eresby (12 October 1555 – 25 June 1601) was the son of Catherine Willoughby, 12th Baroness Willoughby de Eresby, and Richard Bertie.
Philip II (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–58).
Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.
Political theology investigates the ways in which theological concepts or ways of thinking relate to politics, society, and economics.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Pope Saint Pius V (17 January 1504 – 1 May 1572), born Antonio Ghislieri (from 1518 called Michele Ghislieri, O.P.), was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 8 January 1566 to his death in 1572.
Pope Sixtus V or Xystus V (13 December 1521 – 27 August 1590), born Felice Peretti di Montalto, was Pope of the Catholic Church from 24 April 1585 to his death in 1590.
The portraiture of Elizabeth I of England illustrates the evolution of English royal portraits in the Early Modern period from the representations of simple likenesses to the later complex imagery used to convey the power and aspirations of the state, as well as of the monarch at its head.
Price fixing is an agreement between participants on the same side in a market to buy or sell a product, service, or commodity only at a fixed price, or maintain the market conditions such that the price is maintained at a given level by controlling supply and demand.
A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically, but not always, in the context of a monarchic government.
The Privy Council of England, also known as His (or Her) Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, was a body of advisers to the sovereign of the Kingdom of England.
Protestantism and Islam entered into contact during the 16th century when Calvinist Protestants in present-day Hungary and Transylvania first coincided with the expansion of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans.
The Province of Canterbury, or less formally the Southern Province, is one of two ecclesiastical provinces which constitute the Church of England.
The Puritans were English Reformed Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to "purify" the Church of England from its "Catholic" practices, maintaining that the Church of England was only partially reformed.
Recusancy was the state of those who refused to attend Anglican services during the history of England and Wales and of Ireland; these individuals were known as recusants.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
Reginald Pole (12 March 1500 – 17 November 1558) was an English cardinal of the Catholic Church and the last Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury, holding the office from 1556 to 1558, during the Counter Reformation.
Regnans in Excelsis ("reigning on high") was a papal bull issued on 25 February 1570 by Pope Pius V declaring "Elizabeth, the pretended Queen of England and the servant of crime", to be a heretic and releasing all her subjects from any allegiance to her, even when they had "sworn oaths to her", and excommunicating any that obeyed her orders.
Richmond Palace was a royal residence on the River Thames in England that stood in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
The Ridolfi plot was a plot in 1571 to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I of England and replace her with Mary, Queen of Scots.
The Rising of the North of 1569, also called the Revolt of the Northern Earls or Northern Rebellion, was an unsuccessful attempt by Catholic nobles from Northern England to depose Queen Elizabeth I of England and replace her with Mary, Queen of Scots.
Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, (1 June 1563? – 24 May 1612) was an English statesman noted for his skillful direction of the government during the Union of the Crowns, as Tudor England gave way to Stuart rule (1603).
Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, KG, PC (10 November 1565 – 25 February 1601), was an English nobleman and a favourite of Elizabeth I. Politically ambitious, and a committed general, he was placed under house arrest following a poor campaign in Ireland during the Nine Years' War in 1599.
Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester (24 June 1532 – 4 September 1588) was an English nobleman and the favourite and close friend of Elizabeth I's, from her first year on the throne until his death.
Roger Ascham (c. 151530 December 1568)"Ascham, Roger" in The New Encyclopædia Britannica.
Rouen (Frankish: Rodomo; Rotomagus, Rothomagus) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France.
The Royal Arms of England are the arms first adopted in a fixed form at the start of the age of heraldry (circa 1200) as personal arms by the Plantagenet kings who ruled England from 1154.
The Royal Entry, also known by various names, including Triumphal Entry, Joyous Entry, consisted of the ceremonies and festivities accompanying a formal entry by a ruler or his representative into a city in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Period in Europe.
The royal standards of England were narrow, tapering swallow-tailed heraldic flags, of considerable length, used mainly for mustering troops in battle, in pageants and at funerals, by the monarchs of England.
A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy that aims to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy while it is advancing through or withdrawing from a location.
Scots is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots).
The secret correspondence of James VI of Scotland was communication between the Scottish king and administrators of Elizabeth I of England between May 1601 and the Queen's death in March 1603.
Seminary, school of theology, theological seminary, Early-Morning Seminary, and divinity school are educational institutions for educating students (sometimes called seminarians) in scripture, theology, generally to prepare them for ordination as clergy, academia, or ministry.
Simon Renard, Sieur of Bermont and Lieutenant of Aumont or Amont, (1513- 8 August 1573) was a Burgundian diplomat who served as an advisor to Emperor Charles V and his son Philip II of Spain, who were also counts of Burgundy.
Singeing the King of Spain's Beard is the name derisively given John Barrow, Esq, F.S.A, 1844 to the attack in April and May 1587 in the Bay of Cádiz, by the English privateer Francis Drake against the Spanish naval forces assembling at Cádiz.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
The Southern Netherlands, also called the Catholic Netherlands, was the part of the Low Countries largely controlled by Spain (1556–1714), later Austria (1714–1794), and occupied then annexed by France (1794–1815).
The Spanish Armada (Grande y Felicísima Armada, literally "Great and Most Fortunate Navy") was a Spanish fleet of 130 ships that sailed from A Coruña in late May 1588, under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia, with the purpose of escorting an army from Flanders to invade England.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
The Speech to the Troops at Tilbury was delivered on 9 August Old Style (19 August New Style) 1588 by Queen Elizabeth I of England to the land forces earlier assembled at Tilbury in Essex in preparation for repelling the expected invasion by the Spanish Armada.
The States General of the Netherlands (Staten-Generaal) is the bicameral legislature of the Netherlands consisting of the Senate (Eerste Kamer) and the House of Representatives (Tweede Kamer).
Stephen Gardiner (27 July 1483 – 12 November 1555) was an English bishop and politician during the English Reformation period who served as Lord Chancellor during the reign of Queen Mary I and King Philip.
Stirling Castle, located in Stirling, is one of the largest and most important castles in Scotland, both historically and architecturally.
The precise style of British sovereigns has varied over the years.
The Sublime Porte, also known as the Ottoman Porte or High Porte (باب عالی Bāb-ı Ālī or Babıali, from باب, bāb "gate" and عالي, alī "high"), is a synecdochic metonym for the central government of the Ottoman Empire.
The succession to the childless Elizabeth I of England was an open question from her accession in 1558 to her death in 1603, when the crown passed to James VI of Scotland.
The Supreme Governor of the Church of England is a title held by the British monarch that signifies titular leadership over the Church of England.
The Supreme Head of the Church of England was a title created in 1531 for King Henry VIII of England, who was responsible for the foundation of the English Protestant church that broke away from the authority of the Roman Catholic Church after Pope Paul III excommunicated Henry in 1533 over his divorce from Catherine of Aragon.
Surrey is a county in South East England, and one of the home counties.
Dr Susan Doran is a British historian whose primary studies surround the reign of Elizabeth I, in particular the theme of marriage and succession.
Tate is an institution that houses the United Kingdom's national collection of British art, and international modern and contemporary art.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Faerie Queene is an English epic poem by Edmund Spenser.
The National Archives (TNA) is a non-ministerial government department.
The Shepheardes Calender was Edmund Spenser's first major poetic work, published in 1579.
The Third Succession Act of Henry VIII's reign was passed by the Parliament of England in July 1543, and returned both Mary and Elizabeth to the line of the succession behind their half-brother Edward.
This Sceptred Isle is a radio series written by historian Christopher Lee about the story of the lands and peoples of Britain by the British Broadcasting Corporation.
Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire, 1st Earl of Ormond, 1st Viscount Rochford KG KB (c. 1477 – 12 March 1539) was an English diplomat and politician in the Tudor era.
Thomas Cranmer (2 July 1489 – 21 March 1556) was a leader of the English Reformation and Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI and, for a short time, Mary I. He helped build the case for the annulment of Henry's marriage to Catherine of Aragon, which was one of the causes of the separation of the English Church from union with the Holy See.
Sir Thomas Heneage PC (1532 – 17 October 1595) was an English politician and courtier at the court of Elizabeth I.
Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, (10 March 1536 – 2 June 1572) was an English nobleman and politician.
Thomas Seymour, 1st Baron Seymour of Sudeley, KG (c. 1508 – 20 March 1549) was the brother of the English queen Jane Seymour who was the third wife of King Henry VIII and mother of King Edward VI.
Tilbury is a town in the borough of Thurrock, Essex, England.
The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames in central London.
The Treaty of Edinburgh (also known as the Treaty of Leith) was a treaty drawn up on 5 July 1560 between the Commissioners of Queen Elizabeth I of England with the assent of the Scottish Lords of the Congregation, and the French representatives of King Francis II of France (husband of Mary Queen of Scots) to formally conclude the Siege of Leith and replace the Auld Alliance with France with a new Anglo-Scottish accord, while maintaining the peace between England and France agreed by the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis.
The Treaty of Joinville was signed in secret on 31 December 1584 by the Catholic League, led by France's first family of Catholic nobles, the House of Guise, and Habsburg Spain.
The Treaty of London, signed on 18 August O.S. (28 August N.S.) 1604, concluded the nineteen-year Anglo-Spanish War.
The Treaty of Nonsuch was signed on 19 August 1585 by Elizabeth I of England and the Dutch Rebels fighting against Spanish rule.
The Tsardom of Russia (Русское царство, Russkoye tsarstvo or Российское царство, Rossiyskoye tsarstvo), also known as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the name of the centralized Russian state from assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721.
The Tudor period is the period between 1485 and 1603 in England and Wales and includes the Elizabethan period during the reign of Elizabeth I until 1603.
Ulster (Ulaidh or Cúige Uladh, Ulster Scots: Ulstèr or Ulster) is a province in the north of the island of Ireland.
The University of Birmingham (informally Birmingham University) is a public research university located in Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.
Viking Press is an American publishing company now owned by Penguin Random House.
Virginity is the state of a person who has never engaged in sexual intercourse.
Sir Walter Raleigh (or; circa 155429 October 1618) was an English landed gentleman, writer, poet, soldier, politician, courtier, spy and explorer.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster.
William Camden (2 May 1551 – 9 November 1623) was an English antiquarian, historian, topographer, and herald, best known as author of Britannia, the first chorographical survey of the islands of Great Britain and Ireland, and the Annales, the first detailed historical account of the reign of Elizabeth I of England.
William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, (13 September 15204 August 1598) was an English statesman, the chief advisor of Queen Elizabeth I for most of her reign, twice Secretary of State (1550–1553 and 1558–1572) and Lord High Treasurer from 1572.
William Davison (21 December 1608) was secretary to Queen Elizabeth I. He played a key and diplomatic role in the 1587 execution of Mary, Queen of Scots, and was made the scapegoat for this event in British history.
William Harborne of Great Yarmouth, Norfolk (c.1542–1617) was a diplomat, businessman, and English Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, appointed by Queen Elizabeth I of England.
William Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Effingham (c. 1510 – 12 January 1573), was the son of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk and Agnes Tilney.
Sir William Killigrew (died 1622) of Hanworth, Middlesex, was a courtier to Queen Elizabeth I and to her successor King James I, whom he served as Groom of the Privy Chamber.
William Paget, 1st Baron Paget of Beaudesert (1506 – 9 June 1563), was an English statesman and accountant who held prominent positions in the service of Henry VIII, Edward VI and Mary I.
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
William I, Prince of Orange (24 April 1533 – 10 July 1584), also widely known as William the Silent or William the Taciturn (translated from Willem de Zwijger), or more commonly known as William of Orange (Willem van Oranje), was the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish Habsburgs that set off the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1581.
Woodstock is a market town and civil parish northwest of Oxford in Oxfordshire, England.
Wyatt's Rebellion was a popular uprising in England in 1554, named after Thomas Wyatt, one of its leaders.
Bess of England, Elisabeth 1st, Elisabeth I, Elisabeth I of England, Elisabeth of England, Eliz. 1, Elizabeth 1, Elizabeth I, Elizabeth I (England), Elizabeth I Tudor, Elizabeth I of Great Britain, Elizabeth I of Ireland, Elizabeth I of the United Kingdom, Elizabeth I, Queen of England, Elizabeth I, Queen of England, 1533-1603, Elizabeth Tudor, Elizabeth i of england, Elizabeth of England, Elizabeth the 1st, Elizabeth the First, Good Queen Bess, La Vita della Regina Elizabetta, Liz 1, QEI, Queen Eilzabeth I, Queen Elisabeth I, Queen Elisabeth of england, Queen Elizabeth 1, Queen Elizabeth I, Queen Elizabeth I of England, Queen Elizabeth l, Queen Elizabeth of England, Queen Elizabeth the First, Queen Elizabeth the first, Queen of England Elizabeth, Queen of England Elizabeth I, Queene Elisabeth of England, The Gloriana, Tudor, Elizabeth, Virgin Queen.