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Index Elk

The elk or wapiti (Cervus canadensis) is one of the largest species within the deer family, Cervidae, in the world, and one of the largest land mammals in North America and Eastern Asia. [1]

207 relations: Afognak, Alashan wapiti, Alaska, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Altai Mountains, Altai wapiti, American black bear, Amur leopard, Ancestral Puebloans, Animal, Animal migration, Antler, Aphrodisiac, Appalachia, Argentina, Arizona Game and Fish Department, Aspen, Autopsy, Bacteria, Beef, Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, Beringia, Blackfoot Confederacy, Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, Boy Scouts of America, British Columbia, British English, Bronze Age, Brown bear, Browsing (herbivory), Brucellosis, California, Camel, Canada, Cascade Range, Caspian red deer, Cattle, Central Asian red deer, Cervinae, Cervus, Chicken, China, Cholesterol, Chordate, Chronic wasting disease, Cougar, Cowlitz River, Coyote, Cree, Cree language, ..., Deer, Dhole, Dictyocaulus, Digital dermatitis, DNA, East Asia, Eastern elk, Ecotype, Eimeria, Elk farming, Endemism, Estrous cycle, Eurasia, Eurasian lynx, Even-toed ungulate, Fascioloides magna, Fat, Fiordland National Park, Flag of Michigan, Forb, Forest, Fossil, Genus, German language, Gestation, Goat, Gram-negative bacteria, Gray wolf, Grazing, Great Basin, Great Smoky Mountains, Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, Gulf Coast of the United States, Han Chinese, Horse, Idaho, Infection, Influenza, International Union for Conservation of Nature, Invasive species, Irish elk, Iron, IUCN Red List, Jackson, Wyoming, Johann Christian Polycarp Erxleben, Kansu red deer, Kashmir stag, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Korea, Koreans, Kutenai, Kyrgyzstan, Lake Baikal, Lakota people, Latin, List of U.S. state mammals, Liver fluke, Longview, Washington, Mammal, Manchuria, Manchurian wapiti, Manitoban elk, Merriam's elk, Michigan, Miocene, Missouri, Mitochondrial DNA, Mongolia, Mongols, Montana, Moose, Mountain, Mule deer, National Elk Refuge, Nematode, Neolithic, New Zealand, North America, North Carolina, North Germanic languages, Ojibwe, Old Faithful, Old Norse, Oligocene, Oregon, Parasitism, Parelaphostrongylus tenuis, Pawnee people, Pennsylvania, Petroglyph, Phenotype, Pheromone, Phosphorus, Pictogram, Pleistocene, Pneumonia, Pork, Prion, Protein, Protein folding, Protist, Race (biology), Red deer, Reindeer, Rocky Mountain elk, Roosevelt elk, Ruminant, Ruminantia, Rut (mammalian reproduction), Sayan Mountains, Seal of Michigan, Shawnee language, Siberia, Siberian tiger, Sichuan deer, Sika deer, Snow leopard, South Andean deer, South Carolina, South Korea, Species, Steppe, Strongylida, Subspecies, Taxonomy (biology), Tennessee, Testosterone, The Columbian, Thorold's deer, Tian Shan, Tian Shan wapiti, Tibetan red deer, Tipi, Traditional medicine, Treponema, Tule elk, Tundra, Tungusic peoples, Turkic peoples, U.S. state, Ungulate, United States dollar, United States National Forest, Utah, Variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, Velvet antler, Venison, Virginia, Washington (state), West Virginia, White-tailed deer, Wild boar, Wisconsin, Xinjiang, Yellowstone National Park, Zinc. Expand index (157 more) »


Afognak (Alutiiq: Agw’aneq; Афогнакъ) is an island north of Kodiak Island in the U.S. state of Alaska.

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Alashan wapiti

The Alashan wapiti is a subspecies of Cervus canadensis (named "elk" or "wapiti" in North America), found in Northern China and Mongolia.

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Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.

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Alaska Department of Fish and Game

The Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G) is a department within the government of Alaska.

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Altai Mountains

The Altai Mountains (also spelled Altay Mountains; Altai: Алтай туулар, Altay tuular; Mongolian:, Altai-yin niruɣu (Chakhar) / Алтайн нуруу, Altain nuruu (Khalkha); Kazakh: Алтай таулары, Altai’ tay’lary, التاي تاۋلارى Алтайские горы, Altajskije gory; Chinese; 阿尔泰山脉, Ā'ěrtài Shānmài, Xiao'erjing: اَعَرتَىْ شًامَىْ; Dungan: Артэ Шанмэ) are a mountain range in Central and East Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia, and Kazakhstan come together, and are where the rivers Irtysh and Ob have their headwaters.

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Altai wapiti

The Altai wapiti (sometimes called the Altai elk by North Americans) is a subspecies of Cervus canadensis found in the forest hills of Southern Siberia, Northwestern Mongolia, and Northern Xinjiang province of China.

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American black bear

The American black bear (Ursus americanus) is a medium-sized bear native to North America.

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Amur leopard

The Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) is a leopard subspecies native to the Primorye region of southeastern Russia and the Jilin Province of northeast China.

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Ancestral Puebloans

The Ancestral Puebloans were an ancient Native American culture that spanned the present-day Four Corners region of the United States, comprising southeastern Utah, northeastern Arizona, northwestern New Mexico, and southwestern Colorado.

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Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.

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Animal migration

Animal migration is the relatively long-distance movement of individual animals, usually on a seasonal basis.

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Antlers are extensions of an animal's skull found in members of the deer family.

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An aphrodisiac or love drug is a substance that increases libido when consumed.

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Appalachia is a cultural region in the Eastern United States that stretches from the Southern Tier of New York to northern Alabama, Mississippi and Georgia.

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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.

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Arizona Game and Fish Department

The Arizona Game and Fish Department is a state agency of Arizona, headquartered in Phoenix.

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Aspen is a common name for certain tree species; some, but not all, are classified by botanists in the section ''Populus'', of the Populus genus.

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An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a highly specialized surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Beef is the culinary name for meat from cattle, particularly skeletal muscle.

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Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks

The Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks (BPOE; also often known as the Elks Lodge or simply The Elks) is an American fraternal order founded in 1868 originally as a social club in New York City.

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Beringia is defined today as the land and maritime area bounded on the west by the Lena River in Russia; on the east by the Mackenzie River in Canada; on the north by 72 degrees north latitude in the Chukchi Sea; and on the south by the tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula.

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Blackfoot Confederacy

The Blackfoot Confederacy, Niitsitapi or Siksikaitsitapi (ᖹᐟᒧᐧᒣᑯ, meaning "the people" or "Blackfoot-speaking real people"Compare to Ojibwe: Anishinaabeg and Quinnipiac: Eansketambawg) is a historic collective name for the four bands that make up the Blackfoot or Blackfeet people: three First Nation band governments in the provinces of Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia, and one federally recognized Native American tribe in Montana, United States.

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Bovine spongiform encephalopathy

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as mad cow disease, is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy and fatal neurodegenerative disease in cattle that may be passed to humans who have eaten infected flesh.

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Boy Scouts of America

The Boy Scouts of America (BSA) is one of the largest Scouting organizations in the United States of America and one of the largest youth organizations in the United States, with more than 2.4 million youth participants and nearly one million adult volunteers.

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British Columbia

British Columbia (BC; Colombie-Britannique) is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains.

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British English

British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Brown bear

The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is a bear that is found across much of northern Eurasia and North America.

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Browsing (herbivory)

Browsing is a type of herbivory in which a herbivore (or, more narrowly defined, a folivore) feeds on leaves, soft shoots, or fruits of high-growing, generally woody, plants such as shrubs.

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Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis caused by ingestion of unpasteurized milk or undercooked meat from infected animals, or close contact with their secretions.

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California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.

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A camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus that bears distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back.

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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Cascade Range

The Cascade Range or Cascades is a major mountain range of western North America, extending from southern British Columbia through Washington and Oregon to Northern California.

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Caspian red deer

The Caspian red deer (Cervus elaphus maral), is one of the easternmost subspecies of red deer that is native to areas between the Black Sea and Caspian Sea such as Crimea, Asia Minor, the Caucasus Mountains region bordering Europe and Asia, and along the Caspian Sea region in Iran.

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Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.

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Central Asian red deer

The Central Asian red deer is a primordial group of Elk subspecies, which is found at the southern and eastern rim of the Tibetan plateau.

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The Cervinae or the Old World deer (denoting their place of origin, not their current distribution), are a subfamily of deer.

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Cervus is a genus of deer that primarily are native to Eurasia, although one species occurs in northern Africa and another in North America.

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The chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a type of domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the red junglefowl.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.

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A chordate is an animal belonging to the phylum Chordata; chordates possess a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail, for at least some period of their life cycle.

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Chronic wasting disease

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of mule deer, white-tailed deer, elk (or "wapiti"), moose, and reindeer.

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The cougar (Puma concolor), also commonly known as the mountain lion, puma, panther, or catamount, is a large felid of the subfamily Felinae native to the Americas.

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Cowlitz River

The Cowlitz River is a river in the state of Washington in the United States, a tributary of the Columbia River.

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The coyote (Canis latrans); from Nahuatl) is a canine native to North America. It is smaller than its close relative, the gray wolf, and slightly smaller than the closely related eastern wolf and red wolf. It fills much of the same ecological niche as the golden jackal does in Eurasia, though it is larger and more predatory, and is sometimes called the American jackal by zoologists. The coyote is listed as least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature due to its wide distribution and abundance throughout North America, southwards through Mexico, and into Central America. The species is versatile, able to adapt to and expand into environments modified by humans. It is enlarging its range, with coyotes moving into urban areas in the Eastern U.S., and was sighted in eastern Panama (across the Panama Canal from their home range) for the first time in 2013., 19 coyote subspecies are recognized. The average male weighs and the average female. Their fur color is predominantly light gray and red or fulvous interspersed with black and white, though it varies somewhat with geography. It is highly flexible in social organization, living either in a family unit or in loosely knit packs of unrelated individuals. It has a varied diet consisting primarily of animal meat, including deer, rabbits, hares, rodents, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and invertebrates, though it may also eat fruits and vegetables on occasion. Its characteristic vocalization is a howl made by solitary individuals. Humans are the coyote's greatest threat, followed by cougars and gray wolves. In spite of this, coyotes sometimes mate with gray, eastern, or red wolves, producing "coywolf" hybrids. In the northeastern United States and eastern Canada, the eastern coyote (a larger subspecies, though still smaller than wolves) is the result of various historical and recent matings with various types of wolves. Genetic studies show that most North American wolves contain some level of coyote DNA. The coyote is a prominent character in Native American folklore, mainly in the Southwestern United States and Mexico, usually depicted as a trickster that alternately assumes the form of an actual coyote or a man. As with other trickster figures, the coyote uses deception and humor to rebel against social conventions. The animal was especially respected in Mesoamerican cosmology as a symbol of military might. After the European colonization of the Americas, it was reviled in Anglo-American culture as a cowardly and untrustworthy animal. Unlike wolves (gray, eastern, or red), which have undergone an improvement of their public image, attitudes towards the coyote remain largely negative.

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The Cree (script; Cri) are one of the largest groups of First Nations in North America, with over 200,000 members living in Canada.

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Cree language

Cree (also known as Cree–Montagnais–Naskapi) is a dialect continuum of Algonquian languages spoken by approximately 117,000 people across Canada, from the Northwest Territories to Alberta to Labrador.

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Deer (singular and plural) are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae.

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The dhole (Cuon alpinus) is a canid native to Central, South and Southeast Asia.

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Dictyocaulus is a genus of nematode parasites of the bronchial tree of horses, sheep, goats, deer, and cattle.

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Digital dermatitis

Digital dermatitis is a disease that causes lameness in cattle.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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East Asia

East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.

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Eastern elk

The eastern elk (Cervus canadensis canadensis) was a subspecies or distinct population of elk that inhabited the northern and eastern United States, and southern Canada.

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In evolutionary ecology, an ecotype,Greek: οίκος.

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Eimeria is a genus of apicomplexan parasites that includes various species capable of causing the disease coccidiosis in animals such as cattle, poultry, and smaller ruminants including sheep and goats.

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Elk farming

Elk farming is an agricultural industry for the production of elk as livestock or for the sport of hunting.

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Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.

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Estrous cycle

The estrous cycle or oestrus cycle (derived from Latin oestrus 'frenzy', originally from Greek οἶστρος oîstros 'gadfly') is the recurring physiological changes that are induced by reproductive hormones in most mammalian therian females.

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Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.

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Eurasian lynx

The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is a medium-sized wild cat native to Siberia, Central, Eastern, and Southern Asia, Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.

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Even-toed ungulate

The even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla) are ungulates (hoofed animals) whose weight is borne equally by the third and fourth toes.

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Fascioloides magna

Fascioloides magna, also known as giant liver fluke, large American liver fluke or deer fluke, is trematode parasite that occurs in wild and domestic ruminants in North America and Europe.

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Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.

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Fiordland National Park

Fiordland National Park occupies the southwest corner of the South Island of New Zealand.

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Flag of Michigan

The flag of the state of Michigan depicts the state's coat of arms on a dark blue field, as set forth by Michigan state law.

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A forb (sometimes spelled phorb) is an herbaceous flowering plant that is not a graminoid (grasses, sedges and rushes).

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A forest is a large area dominated by trees.

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A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.

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A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside viviparous animals.

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The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.

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Gram-negative bacteria

Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the gram-staining method of bacterial differentiation.

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Gray wolf

The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).

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Grazing is a method of feeding in which a herbivore feeds on plants such as grasses, or other multicellular organisms such as algae.

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Great Basin

The Great Basin is the largest area of contiguous endorheic watersheds in North America.

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Great Smoky Mountains

The Great Smoky Mountains are a mountain range rising along the Tennessee–North Carolina border in the southeastern United States.

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Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) is one of the last remaining large, nearly intact ecosystems in the northern temperate zone of the Earth.

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Gulf Coast of the United States

The Gulf Coast of the United States is the coastline along which the Southern United States meets the Gulf of Mexico.

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Han Chinese

The Han Chinese,.

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The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.

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Idaho is a state in the northwestern region of the United States.

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Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.

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Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.

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International Union for Conservation of Nature

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.

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Invasive species

An invasive species is a species that is not native to a specific location (an introduced species), and that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health.

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Irish elk

The Irish elk (Megaloceros giganteus) also called the giant deer or Irish giant deer, is an extinct species of deer in the genus Megaloceros and is one of the largest deer that ever lived.

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Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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IUCN Red List

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data List), founded in 1964, has evolved to become the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species.

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Jackson, Wyoming

Jackson is a town in the Jackson Hole valley of Teton County, Wyoming, United States.

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Johann Christian Polycarp Erxleben

Johann Christian Polycarp Erxleben was a German naturalist from Quedlinburg.

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Kansu red deer

The Kansu red deer (Cervus canadensis kansuensis) is a subspecies of wapiti found in the Gansu province of China.

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Kashmir stag

The Kashmir stag (Cervus hanglu hanglu), also called hangul, was previuosly thought to be a subspecies of elk native to India but later researchers identified it to be a separate species.

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Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.

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Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States.

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Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.

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Koreans (in South Korean; alternatively in North Korean,; see names of Korea) are an East Asian ethnic group originating from and native to Korea and southern and central Manchuria.

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The Kutenai, also known as the Ktunaxa, Ksanka, Kootenay (in Canada) and Kootenai (in the United States), are an indigenous people of Canada and the United States.

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The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.

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Lake Baikal

Lake Baikal (p; Байгал нуур, Baigal nuur; Байгал нуур, Baigal nuur, etymologically meaning, in Mongolian, "the Nature Lake") is a rift lake in Russia, located in southern Siberia, between Irkutsk Oblast to the northwest and the Buryat Republic to the southeast.

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Lakota people

The Lakota (pronounced, Lakota language: Lakȟóta) are a Native American tribe.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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List of U.S. state mammals

A state mammal is the official mammal of a U.S. state as designated by a state's legislature.

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Liver fluke

Liver fluke is a collective name of a polyphyletic group of parasitic trematodes under the phylum Platyhelminthes.

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Longview, Washington

Longview is a city in Cowlitz County, Washington, United States.

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Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.

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Manchurian wapiti

The Manchurian wapiti (Cervus canadensis xanthopygus) is a subspecies of Cervus canadensis (named "elk" or "wapiti" in North America), native to eastern Asia.

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Manitoban elk

The Manitoban elk (Cervus canadensis manitobensis) is a subspecies of elk found in the Midwestern United States (specifically North Dakota) and the southern regions of Canada's prairie provinces (specifically Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and north-central Alberta).

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Merriam's elk

The Merriam's elk (Cervus canadensis merriami) is an extinct subspecies of elk once found in the arid lands of the southwestern United States, predominantly Arizona.

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Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States.

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The Miocene is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about (Ma).

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Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States.

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Mitochondrial DNA

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.

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The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

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Montana is a state in the Northwestern United States.

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The moose (North America) or elk (Eurasia), Alces alces, is the largest extant species in the deer family.

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A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak.

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Mule deer

The mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) is a deer indigenous to western North America; it is named for its ears, which are large like those of the mule.

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National Elk Refuge

The National Elk Refuge is located in the U.S. state of Wyoming and was created in 1912 to protect habitat and provide sanctuary for one of the largest elk (also known as the wapiti) herds on Earth.

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The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).

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The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.

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New Zealand

New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

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North America

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.

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North Carolina

North Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.

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North Germanic languages

The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.

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The Ojibwe, Ojibwa, or Chippewa are an Anishinaabeg group of Indigenous Peoples in North America, which is referred to by many of its Indigenous peoples as Turtle Island.

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Old Faithful

Old Faithful is a cone geyser located in Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming, United States.

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Old Norse

Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.

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The Oligocene is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present (to). As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain.

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Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States.

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In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.

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Parelaphostrongylus tenuis

Parelaphostrongylus tenuis (also known as meningeal worm, brainworm, or moose illness) is a neurotropic nematode parasite common to white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, which causes damage to the central nervous system.

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Pawnee people

The Pawnee are a Plains Indian tribe who are headquartered in Pawnee, Oklahoma.

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Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.

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Petroglyphs are images created by removing part of a rock surface by incising, picking, carving, or abrading, as a form of rock art.

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A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).

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A pheromone (from Ancient Greek φέρω phero "to bear" and hormone, from Ancient Greek ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species.

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Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.

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A pictogram, also called a pictogramme, pictograph, or simply picto, and in computer usage an icon, is an ideogram that conveys its meaning through its pictorial resemblance to a physical object.

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The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.

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Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.

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Pork is the culinary name for meat from a domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).

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Prions are misfolded proteins that are associated with several fatal neurodegenerative diseases in animals and humans.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protein folding

Protein folding is the physical process by which a protein chain acquires its native 3-dimensional structure, a conformation that is usually biologically functional, in an expeditious and reproducible manner.

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A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.

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Race (biology)

In biological taxonomy, race is an informal rank in the taxonomic hierarchy, below the level of subspecies.

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Red deer

The red deer (Cervus elaphus) is one of the largest deer species.

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The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), also known as the caribou in North America, is a species of deer with circumpolar distribution, native to Arctic, sub-Arctic, tundra, boreal and mountainous regions of northern Europe, Siberia and North America.

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Rocky Mountain elk

The Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus canadensis nelsoni) is a subspecies of elk found in the Rocky Mountains and adjacent ranges of Western North America.

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Roosevelt elk

The Roosevelt elk (Cervus canadensis roosevelti), also known as Olympic elk, is the largest of the four surviving subspecies of elk in North America.

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Ruminants are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through microbial actions.

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Ruminantia is a taxon within the order Artiodactyla that includes many of the well-known large grazing or browsing mammals: among them cattle, goats, sheep, deer, and antelope.

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Rut (mammalian reproduction)

The rut, derived from the Latin rugire (meaning "to roar"), is the mating season of mammals which includes ruminant animals such as deer, sheep, camels, goats, pronghorns, bison, giraffes and antelopes but extends to others such as skunks and elephants.

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Sayan Mountains

The Sayan Mountains (Саяны Sajany; Соёны нуруу, Soyonï nurû; Kogmen Mountains during the period of the Göktürks) are a mountain range in southern Siberia, Russia (the Tyva Republic specifically) and northern Mongolia.

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Seal of Michigan

The Great Seal of the State of Michigan depicts the coat of arms of the U.S. state of Michigan on a light blue field.

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Shawnee language

The Shawnee language is a Central Algonquian language spoken in parts of central and northeastern Oklahoma by the Shawnee people.

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Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.

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Siberian tiger

The Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris tigris), also called Amur tiger, is a tiger population inhabiting mainly the Sikhote Alin mountain region in southwest Primorye Province in the Russian Far East.

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Sichuan deer

The Sichuan deer (Cervus canadensis macneilli) also known as MacNeill's deer is a subspecies of Wapiti native to Western China.

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Sika deer

The sika deer (Cervus nippon) also known as the spotted deer or the Japanese deer, is a species of deer native to much of East Asia, and introduced to various other parts of the world.

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Snow leopard

The snow leopard or ounce (Panthera uncia) is a large cat native to the mountain ranges of Central and South Asia.

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South Andean deer

The south Andean deer (Hippocamelus bisulcus), also known as the southern guemal, Chilean huemul or güemul, is an endangered species of deer native to the mountains of Argentina and Chile.

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South Carolina

South Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.

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South Korea

South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.

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In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.

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In physical geography, a steppe (p) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.

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The Strongylida suborder includes many of the important nematodes found in the gastrointestinal tracts of ruminants, horses, and swine, as well as the lungworms of ruminants and the hookworms of dogs and cats.

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In biological classification, the term subspecies refers to a unity of populations of a species living in a subdivision of the species’s global range and varies from other populations of the same species by morphological characteristics.

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Taxonomy (biology)

Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.

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Tennessee (translit) is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States.

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Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.

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The Columbian

The Columbian is a daily newspaper for Vancouver, Washington and Clark County in Washington State in the United States.

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Thorold's deer

Thorold's deer (Cervus albirostris)Pitraa, Fickela, Meijaard, Groves (2004).

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Tian Shan

The Tian Shan,, also known as the Tengri Tagh, meaning the Mountains of Heaven or the Heavenly Mountain, is a large system of mountain ranges located in Central Asia.

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Tian Shan wapiti

The Tian Shan wapiti or Tian Shan maral (Cervus canadensis songaricus), is a subspecies of Cervus canadensis.

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Tibetan red deer

The Tibetan red deer (Cervus canadensis wallichi) also known as shou is a subspecies of elk (wapiti) native to the southern Tibetan highlands and Bhutan.

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A tipi (also teepee) is a cone-shaped tent, traditionally made of animal skins upon wooden poles.

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Traditional medicine

Traditional medicine (also known as indigenous or folk medicine) comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine.

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Treponema is a genus of spiral-shaped bacteria.

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Tule elk

The tule elk (Cervus canadensis nannodes) is a subspecies of elk found only in California, ranging from the grasslands and marshlands of the Central Valley to the grassy hills on the coast.

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In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.

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Tungusic peoples

Tungusic peoples are the peoples who speak Tungusic languages.

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Turkic peoples

The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.

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U.S. state

A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.

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Ungulates (pronounced) are any members of a diverse group of primarily large mammals that includes odd-toed ungulates such as horses and rhinoceroses, and even-toed ungulates such as cattle, pigs, giraffes, camels, deer, and hippopotami.

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United States dollar

The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.

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United States National Forest

National Forest is a classification of protected and managed federal lands in the United States.

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Utah is a state in the western United States.

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Variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease

Variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (vCJD) is a type of brain disease within the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy family.

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Velvet antler

Velvet antler is the whole cartilaginous antler in a precalcified growth stage of the Cervidae family including the species of deer, elk, moose and caribou.

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Venison is the meat of a deer.

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Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.

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Washington (state)

Washington, officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.

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West Virginia

West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region of the Southern United States.

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White-tailed deer

The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), also known as the whitetail or Virginia deer, is a medium-sized deer native to the United States, Canada, Mexico, Central America, and South America as far south as Peru and Bolivia.

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Wild boar

The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swine,Heptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.

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Wisconsin is a U.S. state located in the north-central United States, in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions.

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Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.

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Yellowstone National Park

Yellowstone National Park is an American national park located in Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho.

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Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.

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American Elk, American elk, American wapiti, Bugling (elk), Cervus canadensis, Cervus elaphus canadensis, Dwarf elk, Elk (C. canadensis), Elk (Cervus canadensis), Elk (animal), Elk reproduction and lifecycle, Michigan Elk, North American Elk, North American elk, Reproductive behavior of elk, Sexual behavior of elk, Utah state mammal, Wapiti.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elk

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