52 relations: Agar, Agonist, Anatomical terms of location, Antagonist, Barack Obama, Basement membrane, Blastocyst, Brachyury, Cardiac muscle cell, CDH1 (gene), Cell adhesion, Cell culture, Cell junction, Cell potency, Cell signaling, Cellular differentiation, Cerebral organoid, Dickey–Wicker Amendment, Embryogenesis, Embryonic stem cell, Endoderm, Epiblast, Epithelial–mesenchymal transition, Epithelium, Executive order, Extracellular matrix, Fetal bovine serum, Fluid dynamics, Gastrulation, Gastruloid, Gelatin, Germ layer, Immortalised cell line, Induced pluripotent stem cell, Induced stem cells, Inner cell mass, Laminin, Mesoderm, Morphogenesis, National Institutes of Health, Neural crest, Neurite, Nuclear transfer, Rho-associated protein kinase, Somatic (biology), Stem cell, Stem cell controversy, Stem cell laws and policy in the United States, Transforming growth factor beta, Transport phenomena, ..., Type IV collagen, Wnt signaling pathway. Expand index (2 more) » « Shrink index
Agar (pronounced, sometimes) or agar-agar is a jelly-like substance, obtained from algae.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.
An antagonist is a character, group of characters, institution or concept that stands in or represents opposition against which the protagonist(s) must contend.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
The basement membrane is a thin, fibrous, extracellular matrix of tissue that separates the lining of an internal or external body surface from underlying connective tissue in metazoans.
The blastocyst is a structure formed in the early development of mammals.
Brachyury is a protein that in humans is encoded by the T gene.
Cardiac muscle cells or cardiomyocytes (also known as myocardiocytes or cardiac myocytes) are the muscle cells (myocytes) that make up the cardiac muscle (heart muscle).
Cadherin-1 also known as CAM 120/80 or epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) or uvomorulin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDH1 gene.
Cell adhesion is the process by which cells interact and attach to neighbouring cells through specialised molecules of the cell surface.
Cell culture is the process by which cells are grown under controlled conditions, generally outside their natural environment.
A cell junction (or intercellular bridge) is a type of structure that exists within the tissue of some multicellular organisms, such as animals.
Cell potency is a cell's ability to differentiate into other cell types The more cell types a cell can differentiate into, the greater its potency.
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.
A cerebral organoid describes artificially grown, in vitro, miniature organs resembling the brain.
The Dickey-Wicker Amendment is the name of an appropriation bill rider attached to a bill passed by United States Congress in 1995, and signed by former President Bill Clinton, which prohibits the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) from using appropriated funds for the creation of human embryos for research purposes or for research in which human embryos are destroyed.
Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo forms and develops.
Embryonic stem cells (ES cells or ESCs) are pluripotent stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, an early-stage pre-implantation embryo.
Endoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.
In amniote animal embryology, the epiblast (also known as the primitive ectoderm) is one of two distinct layers arising from the inner cell mass in the mammalian blastocyst or from the blastodisc in reptiles and birds.
The epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process by which epithelial cells lose their cell polarity and cell-cell adhesion, and gain migratory and invasive properties to become mesenchymal stem cells; these are multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
In the United States, an executive order is a directive issued by the President of the United States that manages operations of the federal government and has the force of law.
In biology, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by support cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells.
Fetal bovine serum (FBS) comes from the blood drawn from a bovine fetus via a closed system of collection at the slaughterhouse.
In physics and engineering, fluid dynamics is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that describes the flow of fluids - liquids and gases.
Gastrulation is a phase early in the embryonic development of most animals, during which the single-layered blastula is reorganized into a multilayered structure known as the gastrula.
Gastruloids are three dimensional aggregates of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) that display many features of early development such as symmetry-breaking, axial organisation, germ layer specification, polarised gene expression and axial elongation.
Gelatin or gelatine (from gelatus meaning "stiff", "frozen") is a translucent, colorless, brittle (when dry), flavorless food derived from collagen obtained from various animal body parts.
A germ layer is a primary layer of cells that form during embryogenesis.
An immortalized cell line is a population of cells from a multicellular organism which would normally not proliferate indefinitely but, due to mutation, have evaded normal cellular senescence and instead can keep undergoing division.
Induced pluripotent stem cells (also known as iPS cells or iPSCs) are a type of pluripotent stem cell that can be generated directly from adult cells.
Induced stem cells (iSC) are stem cells derived from somatic, reproductive, pluripotent or other cell types by deliberate epigenetic reprogramming.
In early embryogenesis of most eutherian mammals, the inner cell mass (abbreviated ICM and also known as the embryoblast in mammals or pluriblast) is the mass of cells inside the primordial embryo that will eventually give rise to the definitive structures of the fetus.
Laminins are high-molecular weight (~400 to ~900 kDa) proteins of the extracellular matrix.
In all bilaterian animals, the mesoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.
Morphogenesis (from the Greek morphê shape and genesis creation, literally, "beginning of the shape") is the biological process that causes an organism to develop its shape.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.
Neural crest cells are a temporary group of cells unique to chordates of the group Cristozoa that arise from the embryonic ectoderm cell layer, and in turn give rise to a diverse cell lineage—including melanocytes, craniofacial cartilage and bone, smooth muscle, peripheral and enteric neurons and glia.
A neurite or neuronal process refers to any projection from the cell body of a neuron.
Nuclear transfer is a form of cloning.
Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) is a kinase belonging to the AGC (PKA/ PKG/PKC) family of serine-threonine kinases.
The term somatic is often used in biology to refer to the cells of the body in contrast to the germ line cells which usually give rise to the gametes (ovum or sperm).
Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.
The stem cell controversy is the consideration of the ethics of research involving the development, use, and destruction of human embryos.
Stem cell laws and policy in the United States have had a complicated legal and political history.
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine belonging to the transforming growth factor superfamily that includes four different isoforms (TGF-β 1 to 4, HGNC symbols TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFB4) and many other signaling proteins produced by all white blood cell lineages.
In engineering, physics and chemistry, the study of transport phenomena concerns the exchange of mass, energy, charge, momentum and angular momentum between observed and studied systems.
Collagen IV (ColIV or Col4) is a type of collagen found primarily in the basal lamina.
The Wnt signaling pathways are a group of signal transduction pathways made of proteins that pass signals into a cell through cell surface receptors.