111 relations: Adolf Engler, Aglaophyton, Alternation of generations, Antheridium, Aquatic plant, Archaeopteridales, Archaeplastida, Archegonium, Arctic–alpine, Armen Takhtajan, Arthur Cronquist, Autogamy, Bryophyte, Carbon dioxide, Carboniferous, Cell wall, Cellulose, Charales, Chlorophyta, Chloroplast, Chromosome, Clade, Class (biology), Coleochaetales, Cycad, Desiccation, Devonian, Embryophyte, Eophyllophyton, Equisetum, Ernst Haeckel, Eukaryote, Euphyllophyte, Fern, Flower, Flowering plant, Fred Alexander Barkley, Frond, Gamete, Gametophyte, Ginkgoales, Gnetophyta, Green, Green algae, Gymnosperm, Horneophyton, Horneophytopsida, Hornwort, Insect, Leaf, ..., Lepidodendron, Lycopodiophyta, Lynn Margulis, Marchantiophyta, Meristem, Mesotaeniaceae, Metamerism (biology), Molecular clock, Monophyly, Moss, Multicellular organism, Paleozoic, Paraphyly, Pertica, Petal, Photosynthesis, Phragmoplast, Phragmoplastophyta, Phylum, Pinophyta, Plant, Plant stem, Plastid, Ploidy, Pollen, Polysporangiophyte, Pteridophyte, Pteridospermatophyta, Rhynia, Rhyniophytina, Root, Seed, Sex organ, Silurian, Species, Spermatophyte, Spore, Sporophyte, Starch, Stephan Endlicher, Streptophyta, Subaerial, Synapomorphy and apomorphy, Taxonomic rank, Taxonomy (biology), Tracheid, Trentepohliales, Trimerophytopsida, Tundra, Turgor pressure, Vacuole, Vascular plant, Vascular tissue, Vegetation, Viridiplantae, Werner Rothmaler, Wind, Zosterophyllopsida, Zygnematales, Zygnematophyceae, Zygote. Expand index (61 more) » « Shrink index
Heinrich Gustav Adolf Engler (25 March 1844 – 10 October 1930) was a German botanist.
Aglaophyton major (or more correctly Aglaophyton majus) was the sporophyte generation of a diplohaplontic, pre-vascular, axial, free-sporing land plant of the Lower Devonian (Pragian stage, around). It had anatomical features intermediate between those of the bryophytes and vascular plants or tracheophytes.
Alternation of generations (also known as metagenesis) is the type of life cycle that occurs in those plants and algae in the Archaeplastida and the Heterokontophyta that have distinct sexual haploid and asexual diploid stages.
An antheridium is a haploid structure or organ producing and containing male gametes (called antherozoids or sperm).
Aquatic plants are plants that have adapted to living in aquatic environments (saltwater or freshwater).
The Archaeopteridales are an extinct order of plants belonging to Progymnospermae, and dominant forest trees of the Late Devonian.
The Archaeplastida (or kingdom Plantae sensu lato) are a major group of eukaryotes, comprising the red algae (Rhodophyta), the green algae, and the land plants, together with a small group of freshwater unicellular algae called glaucophytes.
An archegonium (pl: archegonia), from the ancient Greek ἀρχή ("beginning") and γόνος ("offspring"), is a multicellular structure or organ of the gametophyte phase of certain plants, producing and containing the ovum or female gamete.
An Arctic–alpine taxon is one whose natural distribution includes the Arctic and more southerly mountain ranges, particularly the Alps.
Armen Leonovich Takhtajan or Takhtajian (Արմեն Լևոնի Թախտաջյան; Армен Леонович Тахтаджян; surname also transliterated Takhtadjan, Takhtadzhi︠a︡n or Takhtadzhian, pronounced TAHK-tuh-jahn) (June 10, 1910 – November 13, 2009), was a Soviet-Armenian botanist, one of the most important figures in 20th century plant evolution and systematics and biogeography.
Arthur John Cronquist (March 19, 1919 – March 22, 1992) was a United States biologist, botanist and a specialist on Compositae.
Autogamy, or self-fertilization, refers to the fusion of two gametes that come from one individual.
Bryophytes are an informal group consisting of three divisions of non-vascular land plants (embryophytes): the liverworts, hornworts and mosses.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian Period, Mya.
A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
Charales is an order of freshwater green algae in the division Charophyta, class Charophyceae, commonly known as stoneworts.
Chlorophyta is a division of green algae, informally called chlorophytes.
Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".
In biological classification, class (classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.
The Coleochaetales are an order of parenchymous charophyte algae, that includes some of the closest multicellular relatives of land plants.
Cycads are seed plants with a long fossil history that were formerly more abundant and more diverse than they are today.
Desiccation is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme drying.
The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, Mya.
The Embryophyta are the most familiar group of green plants that form vegetation on earth.
Eophyllophyton bellum is the oldest known plant bearing megaphyllous leaves.
Equisetum (horsetail, snake grass, puzzlegrass) is the only living genus in Equisetaceae, a family of vascular plants that reproduce by spores rather than seeds.
Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) was a German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor, marine biologist, and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coined many terms in biology, including anthropogeny, ecology, phylum, phylogeny, and Protista. Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the influential but no longer widely held recapitulation theory ("ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny") claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarises its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
The euphyllophytes are a clade of plants within the tracheophytes (the vascular plants).
A fern is a member of a group of vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers.
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms).
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.
Fred Alexander Barkley (1908–1989) was an American botanist.
A frond is a large, divided leaf.
A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.
A gametophyte is one of the two alternating phases in the life cycle of plants and algae.
Ginkgoales or Ginkgophyte is a gymnosperm order containing only one extant species: Ginkgo biloba, the ginkgo tree.
Gnetophyta is a division of plants, grouped within the gymnosperms (which also includes conifers, cycads, and ginkgos), that consists of some 70 species across the three relict genera: Gnetum (family Gnetaceae), Welwitschia (family Welwitschiaceae), and Ephedra (family Ephedraceae).
Green is the color between blue and yellow on the visible spectrum.
The green algae (singular: green alga) are a large, informal grouping of algae consisting of the Chlorophyta and Charophyta/Streptophyta, which are now placed in separate divisions, as well as the more basal Mesostigmatophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae and Spirotaenia.
The gymnosperms are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and gnetophytes.
Horneophyton, a member of the Horneophytopsida, is an extinct early plant which may form a "missing link" between the hornworts and the Rhyniopsida.
Horneophytopsida is a class of extinct plants which consisted of branched stems without leaves, true roots or vascular tissue, found from the Late Silurian to the Early Devonian (around). They are the simplest known polysporangiophytes, i.e. plants with sporophytes bearing many spore-forming organs (sporangia) on branched stems.
Hornworts are a group of non-vascular plants constituting the division Anthocerotophyta.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.
Lepidodendron — also known as scale tree — is an extinct genus of primitive, vascular, arborescent (tree-like) plant related to the lycopsids (club mosses).
The Division Lycopodiophyta (sometimes called lycophyta or lycopods) is a tracheophyte subgroup of the Kingdom Plantae.
Lynn Margulis (born Lynn Petra Alexander; March 5, 1938 – November 22, 2011) was an American evolutionary theorist and biologist, science author, educator, and popularizer, and was the primary modern proponent for the significance of symbiosis in evolution.
The Marchantiophyta are a division of non-vascular land plants commonly referred to as hepatics or liverworts.
A meristem is the tissue in most plants containing undifferentiated cells (meristematic cells), found in zones of the plant where growth can take place.
The Mesotaeniaceae (senso stricto: Mesotaenium only) are a small family of unicellular green algae known as the "saccoderm desmids".
In biology, metamerism is the phenomenon of having a linear series of body segments fundamentally similar in structure, though not all such structures are entirely alike in any single life form because some of them perform special functions.
The molecular clock is a technique that uses the mutation rate of biomolecules to deduce the time in prehistory when two or more life forms diverged.
In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.
Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.
Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.
The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.
In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups.
Pertica is a genus of extinct vascular plants of the Early to Middle Devonian (around). It has been placed in the "trimerophytes", a strongly paraphyletic group of early members of the lineage leading to modern ferns and seed plants.
Petals are modified leaves that surround the reproductive parts of flowers.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Phragmoplast and cell plate formation in a plant cell during cytokinesis. Left side: Phragmoplast forms and cell plate starts to assemble in the center of the cell. Towards the right: Phragmoplast enlarges in a donut-shape towards the outside of the cell, leaving behind mature cell plate in the center. The cell plate will transform into the new cell wall once cytokinesis is complete. The phragmoplast is a plant cell specific structure that forms during late cytokinesis.
The Phragmoplastophyta (Lecointre & Guyander 2006) or Streptophytina (Lewis & McCourt 2004, incl. Coleochaetophyceae, Zygnematophyceae and Mesotaeniaceae) are a proposed sister clade of the Klebsormidiaceae, with which they form the Streptophyte/Charophyte clade.
In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.
The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant, the other being the root.
The plastid (Greek: πλαστός; plastós: formed, molded – plural plastids) is a double-membrane organelle found in the cells of plants, algae, and some other eukaryotic organisms.
Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.
Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells).
Polysporangiophytes, also called polysporangiates or formally Polysporangiophyta, are plants in which the spore-bearing generation (sporophyte) has branching stems (axes) that terminate in sporangia.
A pteridophyte is a vascular plant (with xylem and phloem) that disperses spores (and lacks seeds).
The term Pteridospermatophyta (or "seed ferns" or "Pteridospermatopsida") refers to several distinct groups of extinct seed-bearing plants (spermatophytes).
Rhynia is a single-species genus of Devonian vascular plants.
Rhyniophytina is a subdivision of extinct early vascular plants that are considered to be similar to the genus Rhynia, found in the Early Devonian (around). Sources vary in the name and rank used for this group, some treating it as the class Rhyniopsida, others as the division Rhyniophyta.
In vascular plants, the root is the organ of a plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil.
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.
A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal's body that is involved in sexual reproduction.
The Silurian is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician Period, at million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Devonian Period, Mya.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
The spermatophytes, also known as phanerogams or phenogamae, comprise those plants that produce seeds, hence the alternative name seed plants.
In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions.
A sporophyte is the diploid multicellular stage in the life cycle of a plant or alga.
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
Stephan Ladislaus Endlicher also known as Endlicher István László (24 June 1804, Pressburg (Bratislava) – 28 March 1849, Vienna) was an Austrian botanist, numismatist and Sinologist.
Streptophyta, informally the streptophytes (from the Greek strepto, for twisted, i.e., the morphology of the sperm of some members), is an unranked clade of plants.
In natural science, subaerial (literally "under the air"), has been used since 1833, in the Merriam-Webster dictionary.
In phylogenetics, apomorphy and synapomorphy refer to derived characters of a clade – characters or traits that are derived from ancestral characters over evolutionary history.
In biological classification, taxonomic rank is the relative level of a group of organisms (a taxon) in a taxonomic hierarchy.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
Tracheids are elongated cells in the xylem of vascular plants that serve in the transport of water and mineral salts.
Trentepohliales is an order of Ulvophyceaen green algae.
Trimerophytopsida (or Trimeropsida) is a class of early vascular plants from the Devonian, informally called trimerophytes.
In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.
Turgor pressure is the force within the cell that pushes the plasma membrane against the cell wall.
A vacuole is a membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal and bacterial cells.
Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.
Vascular tissue is a complex conducting tissue, formed of more than one cell type, found in vascular plants.
Vegetation is an assemblage of plant species and the ground cover they provide.
Viridiplantae (literally "green plants") are a clade of eukaryotic organisms made up of the green algae, which are primarily aquatic, and the land plants (embryophytes), which emerged within them.
Werner Walter Hugo Paul Rothmaler (born 20 August 1908 in Sangerhausen, died 13 April 1962 in Leipzig) was a German botanist and from 1953 until 1962 head of the Institute for Agricultural Biology of the University of Greifswald.
Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale.
The zosterophylls were a group of extinct land plants that first appeared in the Silurian period.
The Zygnematales (ζυγός (zygós) and νῆμα (nḗma) (nom.), νήματος (nḗmatos) (gen.)), also called the Conjugatales, are an order of green algae, comprising several thousand different species in two families.
Zygnematophyceae (or Conjugatophyceae) is a class of green algae in the division Charophyta.
A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke") is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes.