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Emil Artin

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Emil Artin (March 3, 1898 – December 20, 1962) was an Austrian mathematician of Armenian descent. [1]

136 relations: A Christmas Carol, Abstract algebra, Ackermann–Teubner Memorial Award, Adolf Hitler, Albert W. Tucker, Alexander Murray MacBeath, Alfred Kinsey, Algebraic number theory, Algebraic topology, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Andromeda Galaxy, Armenians, Artin L-function, Artin's conjecture on primitive roots, Astrophysics, Atomic theory, Austria, Austria-Hungary, Austrians, Bartel Leendert van der Waerden, Bernard Dwork, Blaise Pascal, Braid theory, Bremerhaven, Buddhism, Charles Dickens, Christopher Hooley, Class field theory, Clavichord, Conditional proof, David Gilbarg, David Hilbert, Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Dolomites, E. Power Biggs, Emmy Noether, Enemy alien, Eschatology, ETH Zurich, Field (mathematics), Flute, Foundations of geometry, France, Galois group, Galois theory, Generalized Riemann hypothesis, Geometric Algebra, German Instrument of Surrender, Germany, Gian-Carlo Rota, ..., Group (mathematics), Group cohomology, Gustav Herglotz, Hamburg, Hamburg America Line, Hammond organ, Hans Zassenhaus, Harpsichord, Húsavík, Hel Braun, Helmut Hasse, Hermann Weyl, Hilbert's seventeenth problem, History of psychiatric institutions, Hoboken, New Jersey, Iceland, Indiana University Bloomington, Italy, Japan, Jews, Johann Sebastian Bach, John Tate, K. G. Ramanathan, Karel deLeeuw, Kassel, L-function, Latin, Leica Camera, Leipzig, Leipzig University, Liberec, List of things named after Emil Artin, Luther P. Eisenhart, Mark Twain, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mathematician, Mathematics, Max August Zorn, Maxwell's equations, Mechanics, Michael Artin, Mischling, Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe Hamburg, Natascha Artin Brunswick, Nazi Germany, Nazi Party, Nesmith Ankeny, New York University, Norway, O. Timothy O'Meara, Oscar Wilde, Otto Hölder, Philipp Furtwängler, Physics, Primitive root modulo n, Princeton University, Privatdozent, Quantum mechanics, Radioactive decay, Representation theory, Reykjavík, Richard Courant, Ring (mathematics), Russians, Serge Lang, Soubrette, South Bend, Indiana, Stanford University, Symplectic geometry, Syphilis, University of Clermont-Ferrand, University of Freiburg, University of Göttingen, University of Hamburg, University of Kiel, University of Münster, University of Michigan, University of Notre Dame, University of Vienna, Vienna, Washington, D.C., West Germany, Wilhelm Blaschke, World War II, Zen, Zentralblatt MATH. Expand index (86 more) »

A Christmas Carol

A Christmas Carol in Prose, Being a Ghost-Story of Christmas, commonly known as A Christmas Carol, is a novella by Charles Dickens, first published in London by Chapman & Hall in 1843; the first edition was illustrated by John Leech.

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Abstract algebra

In algebra, which is a broad division of mathematics, abstract algebra (occasionally called modern algebra) is the study of algebraic structures.

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Ackermann–Teubner Memorial Award

The Alfred Ackermann–Teubner Memorial Award for the Promotion of Mathematical Sciences recognized work in mathematical analysis.

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Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.

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Albert W. Tucker

Albert William Tucker (28 November 1905 – 25 January 1995) was a Canadian mathematician who made important contributions in topology, game theory, and non-linear programming.

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Alexander Murray MacBeath

Alexander Murray Macbeath (30 June 1923 Glasgow – 14 May 2014 Warwick) was a mathematician who worked on Riemann surfaces.

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Alfred Kinsey

Alfred Charles Kinsey (June 23, 1894 – August 25, 1956) was an American biologist, professor of entomology and zoology, and sexologist who in 1947 founded the Institute for Sex Research at Indiana University, previously known as the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction.

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Algebraic number theory

Algebraic number theory is a branch of number theory that uses the techniques of abstract algebra to study the integers, rational numbers, and their generalizations.

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Algebraic topology

Algebraic topology is a branch of mathematics that uses tools from abstract algebra to study topological spaces.

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American Academy of Arts and Sciences

The American Academy of Arts and Sciences is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States of America.

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Andromeda Galaxy

The Andromeda Galaxy, also known as Messier 31, M31, or NGC 224, is a spiral galaxy approximately 780 kiloparsecs (2.5 million light-years) from Earth, and the nearest major galaxy to the Milky Way.

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Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.

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Artin L-function

In mathematics, an Artin L-function is a type of Dirichlet series associated to a linear representation ρ of a Galois group G. These functions were introduced in the 1923 by Emil Artin, in connection with his research into class field theory.

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Artin's conjecture on primitive roots

In number theory, Artin's conjecture on primitive roots states that a given integer a which is neither a perfect square nor −1 is a primitive root modulo infinitely many primes p. The conjecture also ascribes an asymptotic density to these primes.

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Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects, rather than their positions or motions in space".

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Atomic theory

In chemistry and physics, atomic theory is a scientific theory of the nature of matter, which states that matter is composed of discrete units called atoms.

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Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.

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Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.

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Austrians (Österreicher) are a Germanic nation and ethnic group, native to modern Austria and South Tyrol that share a common Austrian culture, Austrian descent and Austrian history.

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Bartel Leendert van der Waerden

Bartel Leendert van der Waerden (February 2, 1903 – January 12, 1996) was a Dutch mathematician and historian of mathematics.

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Bernard Dwork

Bernard Morris Dwork (May 27, 1923 – May 9, 1998) was an American mathematician, known for his application of p-adic analysis to local zeta functions, and in particular for a proof of the first part of the Weil conjectures: the rationality of the zeta-function of a variety over a finite field.

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Blaise Pascal

Blaise Pascal (19 June 1623 – 19 August 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Catholic theologian.

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Braid theory

In topology, a branch of mathematics, braid theory is an abstract geometric theory studying the everyday braid concept, and some generalizations.

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Bremerhaven (literally "Bremen's harbour", Low German: Bremerhoben) is a city at the seaport of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, a state of the Federal Republic of Germany.

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Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Charles Dickens

Charles John Huffam Dickens (7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic.

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Christopher Hooley

Christopher Hooley FLSW FRS (born 7 August 1928) is a British mathematician, emeritus professor of mathematics at Cardiff University.

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Class field theory

In mathematics, class field theory is a major branch of algebraic number theory that studies abelian extensions of local fields (one-dimensional local fields) and "global fields" (one-dimensional global fields) such as number fields and function fields of curves over finite fields in terms of abelian topological groups associated to the fields.

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The clavichord is a European stringed keyboard instrument that was used largely in the late Medieval, through the Renaissance, Baroque and Classical eras.

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Conditional proof

A conditional proof is a proof that takes the form of asserting a conditional, and proving that the antecedent of the conditional necessarily leads to the consequent.

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David Gilbarg

David Gilbarg (17 September 1918, Boston, Massachusetts – 20 April 2001, Palo Alto, California) was an American mathematician, and a professor emeritus at Stanford University.

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David Hilbert

David Hilbert (23 January 1862 – 14 February 1943) was a German mathematician.

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Dictionary of Scientific Biography

The Dictionary of Scientific Biography is a scholarly reference work that was published from 1970 through 1980.

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The Dolomites (Dolomiti; Ladin: Dolomites; Dolomiten; Dołomiti: Dolomitis) are a mountain range located in northeastern Italy.

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E. Power Biggs

Edward George Power Biggs (March 29, 1906 – March 10, 1977) was a British-born American concert organist and recording artist.

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Emmy Noether

Amalie Emmy NoetherEmmy is the Rufname, the second of two official given names, intended for daily use.

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Enemy alien

In customary international law, an enemy alien is any native, citizen, denizen or subject of any foreign nation or government with which a domestic nation or government is in conflict with and who are liable to be apprehended, restrained, secured and removed.

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Eschatology is a part of theology concerned with the final events of history, or the ultimate destiny of humanity.

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ETH Zurich

ETH Zurich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich; Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich) is a science, technology, engineering and mathematics STEM university in the city of Zürich, Switzerland.

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Field (mathematics)

In mathematics, a field is a set on which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are defined, and behave as when they are applied to rational and real numbers.

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The flute is a family of musical instruments in the woodwind group.

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Foundations of geometry

Foundations of geometry is the study of geometries as axiomatic systems.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Galois group

In mathematics, more specifically in the area of abstract algebra known as Galois theory, the Galois group of a certain type of field extension is a specific group associated with the field extension.

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Galois theory

In the field of algebra within mathematics, Galois theory, provides a connection between field theory and group theory.

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Generalized Riemann hypothesis

The Riemann hypothesis is one of the most important conjectures in mathematics.

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Geometric Algebra

Geometric Algebra is a book written by Emil Artin and published by Interscience Publishers, New York, in 1957.

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German Instrument of Surrender

The German Instrument of Surrender ended World War II in Europe.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Gian-Carlo Rota

Gian-Carlo Rota (April 27, 1932 – April 18, 1999) was an Italian-born American mathematician and philosopher.

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Group (mathematics)

In mathematics, a group is an algebraic structure consisting of a set of elements equipped with an operation that combines any two elements to form a third element and that satisfies four conditions called the group axioms, namely closure, associativity, identity and invertibility.

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Group cohomology

In mathematics (more specifically, in homological algebra), group cohomology is a set of mathematical tools used to study groups using cohomology theory, a technique from algebraic topology.

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Gustav Herglotz

Gustav Herglotz (2 February 1881 – 22 March 1953) was a German Bohemian mathematician.

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Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.

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Hamburg America Line

The Hamburg-Amerikanische Packetfahrt-Actien-Gesellschaft (HAPAG for short, often referred to in English as Hamburg America Line (sometimes also Hamburg-American Line, Hamburg-Amerika Linie or Hamburg Line); literally Hamburg American Packet-shipping Joint-stock company) was a transatlantic shipping enterprise established in Hamburg, Germany, in 1847.

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Hammond organ

The Hammond organ is an electric organ, invented by Laurens Hammond and John M. Hanert and first manufactured in 1935.

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Hans Zassenhaus

Hans Julius Zassenhaus (28 May 1912 – 21 November 1991) was a German mathematician, known for work in many parts of abstract algebra, and as a pioneer of computer algebra.

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A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard which activates a row of levers that in turn trigger a mechanism that plucks one or more strings with a small plectrum.

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Húsavík is a town in Norðurþing municipality on the north coast of Iceland on the shores of Skjálfandi bay with 2,182 inhabitants.

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Hel Braun

Helene (Hel) Braun (June 3, 1914 – May 15, 1986) was a German mathematician who specialized in number theory and modular forms.

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Helmut Hasse

Helmut Hasse (25 August 1898 – 26 December 1979) was a German mathematician working in algebraic number theory, known for fundamental contributions to class field theory, the application of p-adic numbers to local class field theory and diophantine geometry (Hasse principle), and to local zeta functions.

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Hermann Weyl

Hermann Klaus Hugo Weyl, (9 November 1885 – 8 December 1955) was a German mathematician, theoretical physicist and philosopher.

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Hilbert's seventeenth problem

Hilbert's seventeenth problem is one of the 23 Hilbert problems set out in a celebrated list compiled in 1900 by David Hilbert.

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History of psychiatric institutions

The rise of the lunatic asylum and its gradual transformation into, and eventual replacement by, the modern psychiatric hospital, explains the rise of organised, institutional psychiatry.

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Hoboken, New Jersey

Hoboken (Unami: Hupokàn) is a city in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States.

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Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.

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Indiana University Bloomington

Indiana University Bloomington (abbreviated "IU Bloomington" and colloquially referred to as "IU" or simply "Indiana") is a public research university in Bloomington, Indiana, United States.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.

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Johann Sebastian Bach

Johann Sebastian Bach (28 July 1750) was a composer and musician of the Baroque period, born in the Duchy of Saxe-Eisenach.

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John Tate

John Torrence Tate Jr. (born March 13, 1925) is an American mathematician, distinguished for many fundamental contributions in algebraic number theory, arithmetic geometry and related areas in algebraic geometry.

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K. G. Ramanathan

Kollagunta Gopalaiyer Ramanathan (13 November 1920 – 10 May 1992) was an Indian mathematician known for his work in number theory.

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Karel deLeeuw

Karel deLeeuw, or de Leeuw (–), was a mathematics professor at Stanford University, specializing in harmonic analysis and functional analysis.

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Kassel (spelled Cassel until 1928) is a city located at the Fulda River in northern Hesse, Germany.

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In mathematics, an L-function is a meromorphic function on the complex plane, associated to one out of several categories of mathematical objects.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Leica Camera

Leica Camera AG is a German company that manufactures cameras, lenses, binoculars, rifle scopes and ophthalmic lenses.

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Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.

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Leipzig University

Leipzig University (Universität Leipzig), in Leipzig in the Free State of Saxony, Germany, is one of the world's oldest universities and the second-oldest university (by consecutive years of existence) in Germany.

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Liberec (Reichenberg) is a city in the Czech Republic.

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List of things named after Emil Artin

These are things named after Emil Artin, a mathematician.

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Luther P. Eisenhart

Luther Pfahler Eisenhart (13 January 1876 – 28 October 1965) was an American mathematician, best known today for his contributions to semi-Riemannian geometry.

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Mark Twain

Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, humorist, entrepreneur, publisher, and lecturer.

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.

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A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems.

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Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

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Max August Zorn

Max August Zorn (June 6, 1906 – March 9, 1993) was a German mathematician.

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Maxwell's equations

Maxwell's equations are a set of partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electromagnetism, classical optics, and electric circuits.

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Mechanics (Greek μηχανική) is that area of science concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment.

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Michael Artin

Michael Artin (born 28 June 1934) is an American mathematician and a professor emeritus in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology mathematics department, known for his contributions to algebraic geometry.

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("mixed-blood" in German, plural) was the German legal term used in Nazi Germany to denote persons deemed to have both "Aryan" and Jewish ancestry.

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Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe Hamburg

The Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe Hamburg (Museum of Art and Design Hamburg) is a museum of fine, applied and decorative arts in Hamburg, Germany.

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Natascha Artin Brunswick

Natascha Artin Brunswick, née Jasny (June 11, 1909 – February 3, 2003) was a German-American mathematician and photographer.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Nazi Party

The National Socialist German Workers' Party (abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945 and supported the ideology of Nazism.

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Nesmith Ankeny

Nesmith Cornett Ankeny (1927, Walla Walla, Washington – 4 August 1993, Seattle) was an American mathematician specialising in number theory.

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New York University

New York University (NYU) is a private nonprofit research university based in New York City.

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Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.

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O. Timothy O'Meara

Onorato Timothy O'Meara (January 29, 1928 – June 17, 2018) was an American mathematician known for his work in number theory, linear groups and quadratic forms.

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Oscar Wilde

Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 185430 November 1900) was an Irish poet and playwright.

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Otto Hölder

Otto Ludwig Hölder (December 22, 1859 – August 29, 1937) was a German mathematician born in Stuttgart.

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Philipp Furtwängler

Friederich Pius Philipp Furtwängler (April 21, 1869 – May 19, 1940) was a German number theorist.

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Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Primitive root modulo n

In modular arithmetic, a branch of number theory, a number g is a primitive root modulo n if every number a coprime to n is congruent to a power of g modulo n. That is, for every integer a coprime to n, there is an integer k such that gk ≡ a (mod n).

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Princeton University

Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.

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Privatdozent (for men) or Privatdozentin (for women), abbreviated PD, P.D. or Priv.-Doz., is an academic title conferred at some European universities, especially in German-speaking countries, to someone who holds certain formal qualifications that denote an ability to teach (venia legendi) a designated subject at university level.

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Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

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Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.

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Representation theory

Representation theory is a branch of mathematics that studies abstract algebraic structures by representing their elements as linear transformations of vector spaces, and studies modules over these abstract algebraic structures.

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Reykjavík is the capital and largest city of Iceland.

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Richard Courant

Richard Courant (January 8, 1888 – January 27, 1972) was a German American mathematician.

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Ring (mathematics)

In mathematics, a ring is one of the fundamental algebraic structures used in abstract algebra.

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Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.

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Serge Lang

Serge Lang (May 19, 1927 – September 12, 2005) was a French-born American mathematician and activist.

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A soubrette is a type of operatic soprano voice fach, often cast as a female stock character in opera and theatre.

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South Bend, Indiana

South Bend is a city in and the county seat of St. Joseph County, Indiana, United States, on the St. Joseph River near its southernmost bend, from which it derives its name.

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Stanford University

Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.

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Symplectic geometry

Symplectic geometry is a branch of differential geometry and differential topology that studies symplectic manifolds; that is, differentiable manifolds equipped with a closed, nondegenerate 2-form.

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Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.

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University of Clermont-Ferrand

The University of Clermont-Ferrand was officially founded in 1896, by merging of two existing faculties (Literature and Sciences) and a medical school.

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University of Freiburg

The University of Freiburg (colloquially Uni Freiburg), officially the Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg (Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg), is a public research university located in Freiburg im Breisgau, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

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University of Göttingen

The University of Göttingen (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, GAU, known informally as Georgia Augusta) is a public research university in the city of Göttingen, Germany.

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University of Hamburg

The University of Hamburg (Universität Hamburg, also referred to as UHH) is a comprehensive university in Hamburg, Germany.

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University of Kiel

Kiel University (German: Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, CAU) is a university in the city of Kiel, Germany.

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University of Münster

The University of Münster (Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, WWU) is a public university located in the city of Münster, North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany.

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University of Michigan

The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.

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University of Notre Dame

The University of Notre Dame du Lac (or simply Notre Dame or ND) is a private, non-profit Catholic research university in the community of Notre Dame, Indiana, near the city of South Bend, in the United States.

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University of Vienna

The University of Vienna (Universität Wien) is a public university located in Vienna, Austria.

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Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.

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Washington, D.C.

Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.

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West Germany

West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.

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Wilhelm Blaschke

Wilhelm Johann Eugen Blaschke (13 September 1885 – 17 March 1962) was an Austrian differential and integral geometer.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Zen (p; translit) is a school of Mahayana Buddhism that originated in China during the Tang dynasty as Chan Buddhism.

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Zentralblatt MATH

zbMATH, formerly Zentralblatt MATH, is a major international reviewing service providing reviews and abstracts for articles in pure and applied mathematics, produced by the Berlin office of FIZ Karlsruhe – Leibniz Institute for Information Infrastructure GmbH.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emil_Artin

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