136 relations: Adamawa Emirate, Afghanistan, Agaie Emirate, Aghlabids, Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, Algeria, Almería, Anatolia, Arabian Peninsula, Arabic, Arcos de la Frontera, Arminiya, Aydınids, Az Zubayr, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bari, Basra Governorate, Bauchi Emirate, Beylik of Dulkadir, Bida Emirate, Biu Emirate, Borgu Emirate, Borno Emirate, Caliphate, Cameroon, Cartagena, Spain, Caucasus, Caucasus Emirate, Chechnya, China, Crete, Cyrenaica Emirate, Dagestan, Daura Emirate, Dikwa Emirate, Dynasty, Electoral college, Emir, Emirate of Abu Dhabi, Emirate of Afghanistan, Emirate of Ajman, Emirate of Bari, Emirate of Beihan, Emirate of Bukhara, Emirate of Córdoba, Emirate of Crete, Emirate of Dhala, Emirate of Diriyah, Emirate of Dubai, ..., Emirate of Granada, Emirate of Jabal Shammar, Emirate of Nejd, Emirate of Nejd and Hasa, Emirate of Sharjah, Emirate of Sicily, Emirate of Tbilisi, Emirate of Transjordan, Emirate of Trarza, Ethiopia, Fika Emirate, First East Turkestan Republic, Fujairah, Georgia (country), Gombe Emirate, Greece, Gumel, Gwandu, Hadhramaut Governorate, Hafsid dynasty, Hakim (title), Harar, Hejaz, Ibn Saud, Idrisid Emirate of Asir, Ifriqiya, Ilorin Emirate, Iraq, Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, Italy, Jerez de la Frontera, Jizan, Jordan, Kano Emirate, Karamanids, Katagum, Kazaure, Kebbi Emirate, Khanate, Kingdom of Libya, Kingdom of Nekor, Kontagora Emirate, Lapai Emirate, Libya, List of rulers of Mosul, Malatya, Malik, Marwanids, Mauritania, Middle East, Morocco, Mosul, Muri, Nigeria, Nigeria, North Caucasian Emirate, Oghuz Turks, Ottoman Empire, Pakistan, Portugal, Potiskum Emirate, Ramazanids, Ras al-Khaimah, Regions of Saudi Arabia, Rif, Saudi Arabia, Sicily, Soran Emirate, Spain, Suleja Emirate, Sultan, Taifa of Almería, Taifa of Badajoz, Taliban, Timur, Timurid dynasty, Tunisia, Turkey, Umm al-Quwain, United Arab Emirates, Uyunid Emirate, Uzbekistan, Waziristan, Yauri Emirate, Yemen, Zab Emirate, Zazzau. Expand index (86 more) » « Shrink index
The Adamawa Emirate (Adamaua; Adamaoua) is a traditional state located in Fombina, an area which now roughly corresponds to areas of Adamawa State and Taraba state in Nigeria, and previously also in the three northern provinces of Cameroon (Far North, North, and Adamawa), including minor Parts of Western Chad and the Central African Republic.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
The Agaie Emirate was a state created by Malam Baba, a Fulani warrior who conquered the Nupe people of the area in 1822.
The Aghlabids (الأغالبة) were an Arab dynasty of emirs from Banu Tamim, who ruled Ifriqiya, nominally on behalf of the Abbasid Caliph, for about a century, until overthrown by the new power of the Fatimids.
Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (lit or, Tanẓīm Qā‘idat al-Jihād fī Jazīrat al-‘Arab, "Organization of Jihad's Base in the Arabian Peninsula"), or AQAP, also known as Ansar al-Sharia in Yemen (جماعة أنصار الشريعة, Jamā‘at Anṣār ash-Sharī‘ah, "Group of the Helpers of the Sharia"), is a militant Islamist organization, primarily active in Yemen and Saudi Arabia.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Almería is a city in Andalusia, Spain, located in the southeast of Spain on the Mediterranean Sea, and is the capital of the province of the same name.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arcos de la Frontera is a town and municipality in the Sierra de Cádiz comarca, province of Cádiz, in Andalusia, Spain.
Arminiya, also known as the Ostikanate of Arminiya (Արմինիա ոստիկանություն, Arminia vostikanut'yun), Emirate of Armenia (إمارة أرمينيا, imārat Arminiya), was a political and geographic designation given by the Muslim Arabs to the lands of Greater Armenia, Caucasian Iberia, and Caucasian Albania, following their conquest of these regions in the 7th century.
The Aydinids or Aydinid dynasty (Modern Turkish: Aydınoğulları, Aydınoğulları Beyliği), also known as the Principality of Aydin and Beylik of Aydin (Aydın Beyliği), was one of the Anatolian beyliks and famous for its seaborne raiding.
Az Zubayr (الزبير) is a city in and the capital of Al-Zubair District, part of the Basra Governorate of Iraq.
Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.
Bari (Barese: Bare; Barium; translit) is the capital city of the Metropolitan City of Bari and of the Apulia region, on the Adriatic Sea, in southern Italy.
Basra Governorate (محافظة البصرة) (or Basra Province) is a governorate in southern Iraq, bordering Kuwait to the south and Iran to the east.
The Bauchi Emirate was founded by Fula in the early 19th century in what is now Bauchi State, Nigeria, with its capital in Bauchi.
The Anatolian beylik of Dulkadir (Modern Turkish: Dulkadiroğulları Beyliği), was one of the frontier principalities established by the Oghuz, Turcoman clans Bayat, Afshar and Begdili after the decline of Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm.
The Bida Emirate is a traditional state in Nigeria, a successor to the old Nupe Kingdom, with its headquarters in Bida, Niger State.
The Biu Emirate is a traditional state based in Biu in Borno State, Nigeria.
The Borgu Emirate is a Nigerian traditional state with its capital in New Bussa, Niger State, Nigeria.
The Borno Emirate or Borno Sultanate is a traditional Nigerian state formed at the start of the 20th century.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
Cartagena (Carthago Nova) is a Spanish city and a major naval station located in the Region of Murcia, by the Mediterranean coast, south-eastern Spain.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
The Caucasus Emirate (Имарат Кавказ Imarat Kavkaz (IK); Кавказский Эмират Kavkazskiy Emirat), also known as the Caucasian Emirate, was a militant Jihadist organisation active in the southwestern region of the Russian Federation.
The Chechen Republic (tɕɪˈtɕɛnskəjə rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə; Нохчийн Республика, Noxçiyn Respublika), commonly referred to as Chechnya (p; Нохчийчоь, Noxçiyçö), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
The Emirate of Cyrenaica, or "Principality of Cyrenaica", came into existence when Sayyid Idris unilaterally proclaimed Cyrenaica an independent Senussi emirate on 1 March 1949, backed by the United Kingdom.
The Republic of Dagestan (Респу́блика Дагеста́н), or simply Dagestan (or; Дагеста́н), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia, located in the North Caucasus region.
The Daura Emirate is a religious and traditional state in Northern Nigeria, the Emir of Daura still rules as a ceremonial hereditary monarch, and maintains a palace.
The Dikwa Emirate is one of the successor states to the old Bornu Empire, a traditional state within Borno State, Nigeria.
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family,Oxford English Dictionary, "dynasty, n." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1897.
An electoral college is a set of electors who are selected to elect a candidate to a particular office.
An emir (أمير), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West African, and Afghanistan.
The Emirate of Abu Dhabi (or; إمارة أبوظبي), is one of seven emirates that constitute the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
The Emirate of Afghanistan (د افغانستان امارت) was an emirate between Central Asia and South Asia, which is today's Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.
The Emirate of Ajman (إمارة عجمان) is one of the seven Emirates (states) of the United Arab Emirates.
The Emirate of Bari was a short-lived Islamic state ruled by non-Arab mawali.
Beihan or Bayhan, officially the Emirate of Beihan, was a state in the British Aden Protectorate and the Federation of South Arabia.
The Emirate of Bukhara (امارت بخارا; Buxoro amirligi) was a Central Asian state that existed from 1785 to 1920, which is now modern-day Uzbekistan.
The Emirate of Córdoba (إمارة قرطبة, Imārat Qurṭuba) was an independent emirate in the Iberian Peninsula ruled by the Umayyad dynasty with Córdoba as its capital.
The Emirate of Crete (called Iqritish or Iqritiya in Arabic) was a Muslim state that existed on the Mediterranean island of Crete from the late 820s to the Byzantine reconquest of the island in 961.
Dhala or Dhali`, Amiri, or the Emirate of Dhala was a state in the British Aden Protectorate, the Federation of Arab Emirates of the South, and its successor, the Federation of South Arabia.
The Emirate of Diriyah was the first Saudi state.
The Emirate of Dubai (إمارة دبيّ) is one of the seven emirates of the United Arab Emirates.
The Emirate of Granada (إمارة غرﻧﺎﻃﺔ, trans. Imarat Gharnāṭah), also known as the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada (Reino Nazarí de Granada), was an emirate established in 1230 by Muhammad ibn al-Ahmar.
The Emirate of Jabal Shammar (إمارة جبل شمر), also known as the Emirate of Haʾil (إمارة حائل) or the Emirate of The House of Rashīd (إمارة آل رشيد), was a state in the Nejd region of Arabia, existing from the mid-nineteenth century to 1921.
The Emirate of Nejd was the second Saudi state, existing between 1824 and 1891 in Nejd, the regions of Riyadh and Ha'il of what is now Saudi Arabia.
The Emirate of Nejd and Hasa was the first iteration of the third Saudi state from 1902 to 1921.
The Emirate of Sharjah (الشارقة) is one of the emirates of the United Arab Emirates.
The Emirate of Sicily (إِمَارَةُ صِقِلِّيَة) was an emirate on the island of Sicily which existed from 831 to 1091.
The Emirs of Tbilisi (თბილისის საამირო, إمارة تفليسي) ruled over the parts of today’s eastern Georgia from their base in the city of Tbilisi, from 736 to 1080 (nominally to 1122).
The Emirate of Transjordan (إمارة شرق الأردن lit. "Emirate of east Jordan"), also hyphenated as Trans-Jordan and previously known as Transjordania or Trans-Jordania, was a British protectorate established in April 1921.
The Emirate of Trarza was a precolonial state in what is today southwest Mauritania.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
The Fika Emirate is a traditional state with headquarters in Potiskum, Yobe State, Nigeria.
The First East Turkistan Republic (ETR), officially the Turkic Islamic Republic of East Turkistan (شەرقىي تۈركىستان ئىسلام جۇمھۇرىيىتى, Шәрқий Түркистан Ислам Җумхурийити), was a short-lived breakaway would-be Islamic republic founded in 1933.
Fujairah (الفجيرة) is one of the seven emirates that make up the United Arab Emirates, and the only one of the seven that has a coastline solely on the Gulf of Oman and none on the Persian Gulf.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Gombe Emirate is a traditional state in Nigeria that roughly corresponds in area to the modern Gombe State.
Gumel or Gumal (as the natives call it) is a town and traditional emirate in Jigawa State, Nigeria.
Gwandu, also called Gwandu, is a town and emirate in Kebbi State, Nigeria.
Hadhramaut or Hadramawt (حضرموت Ḥaḍramawt) is a governorate of Yemen.
The Hafsids (الحفصيون al-Ḥafṣiyūn) were a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Berber descent who ruled Ifriqiya (western Libya, Tunisia, and eastern Algeria) from 1229 to 1574.
and are two Arabic titles derived from the same triliteral root Ḥ-K-M "appoint, choose, judge".
Harar (Harari: ሐረር), and known to its inhabitants as Gēy (Harari: ጌይ), is a walled city in eastern Ethiopia.
The Hejaz (اَلْـحِـجَـاز,, literally "the Barrier"), is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia.
Abdulaziz ibn Abdul Rahman ibn Faisal ibn Turki ibn Abdullah ibn Muhammad Al Saud (عبد العزيز بن عبد الرحمن آل سعود,; 15 January 1875 – 9 November 1953), usually known within the Arab world as Abdulaziz and in the West as Ibn Saud, was the first monarch and founder of Saudi Arabia, the "third Saudi state".
The Idrisid Emirate of Asir was a state located on the Arabian Peninsula.
Ifriqiya or Ifriqiyah or el-Maghrib el-Adna (Lower West) was the area during medieval history that comprises what is today Tunisia, Tripolitania (western Libya) and the Constantinois (eastern Algeria); all part of what was previously included in the Africa Province of the Roman Empire.
The Ilorin Emirate is a traditional state based in the city of Ilorin in Kwara State, Nigeria.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (د افغانستان اسلامي امارات) was an Islamic state established in September 1996 when the Taliban began their rule of Afghanistan after the fall of Kabul.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jerez de la Frontera, or simply Jerez, is a Spanish city and municipality in the province of Cádiz in the autonomous community of Andalusia, in southwestern Spain, located midway between the Atlantic Ocean and the Cádiz Mountains.
Jizan (جازان), also spelled Jazan, Gizan or Gazan, is a port city and the capital of Jizan Region, which lies in the southwest corner of Saudi Arabia and directly north of the border with Yemen.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
The Kano Emirate was a religious state in Northern Nigeria, the Emirate was formed in 1805 during the Fulani jihad, when the old Hausa Sultanate of Kano became subject to the Sokoto Caliphate.
The Karamanids or Karamanid dynasty (Modern Turkish: Karamanoğulları, Karamanoğulları Beyliği), also known as the Principality of Karaman and Beylik of Karaman (Karaman Beyliği), was one of the Islamic Anatolian beyliks, centered in south-central Anatolia around the present-day Karaman Province.
https://katagum.com Katagum is a town, a local government area and a traditional emirate in Bauchi State of northern Nigeria.
Kazaure is an Emirate and a Local Government Area of Jigawa State, Nigeria.
The Kebbi Emirate, also known as the Argungu Emirate is a traditional state based on the town of Argungu in Kebbi State, Nigeria.
A Khanate or Khaganate is a political entity ruled by a Khan or Khagan.
The Kingdom of Libya (المملكة الليبية; Libyan Kingdom; Regno di Libia), originally called the United Kingdom of Libya, came into existence upon independence on 24 December 1951 and lasted until a coup d'état led by Muammar Gaddafi on 1 September 1969 overthrew King Idris and established the Libyan Arab Republic.
The Kingdom of Nekor (Berber: ⵜⴰⴳⵍⴷⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵏⴽⴽⵓⵔ (Tageldit n Nekkur); إمارة بني صالح) was an emirate centered in the Rif area of present-day Morocco.
The Kontagora Emirate is a traditional state with the capital city of Kontagora, Niger State, Nigeria.
The Lapai Emirate, today in Nigeria, is a traditional state that lies near the Gurara River, a tributary to the Niger River, and was originally inhabited by the Gbari people, covering roughly the same area as the modern Lapai local government area.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
This is a list of the rulers of the Iraqi city of Mosul.
Malatya (Մալաթիա Malat'ya; Meletî; ܡܠܝܛܝܢܐ Malīṭīná; مالاتيا) is a large city in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey and the capital of Malatya Province.
Malik, Melik, Malka, Malek or Melekh (𐤌𐤋𐤊; ملك; מֶלֶךְ) is the Semitic term translating to "king", recorded in East Semitic and later Northwest Semitic (e.g. Aramaic, Canaanite, Hebrew) and Arabic.
The Marwanids (990–1085) were a Kurdish Muslim dynasty in the Diyar Bakr region of Upper Mesopotamia (present day northern Iraq/southeastern Turkey) and Armenia, centered on the city of Amid (Diyarbakır).
Mauritania (موريتانيا; Gànnaar; Soninke: Murutaane; Pulaar: Moritani; Mauritanie), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwestern Africa.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Mosul (الموصل, مووسڵ, Māwṣil) is a major city in northern Iraq. Located some north of Baghdad, Mosul stands on the west bank of the Tigris, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank. The metropolitan area has grown to encompass substantial areas on both the "Left Bank" (east side) and the "Right Bank" (west side), as the two banks are described by the locals compared to the flow direction of Tigris. At the start of the 21st century, Mosul and its surrounds had an ethnically and religiously diverse population; the majority of Mosul's population were Arabs, with Assyrians, Armenians, Turkmens, Kurds, Yazidis, Shabakis, Mandaeans, Kawliya, Circassians in addition to other, smaller ethnic minorities. In religious terms, mainstream Sunni Islam was the largest religion, but with a significant number of followers of the Salafi movement and Christianity (the latter followed by the Assyrians and Armenians), as well as Shia Islam, Sufism, Yazidism, Shabakism, Yarsanism and Mandaeism. Mosul's population grew rapidly around the turn of the millennium and by 2004 was estimated to be 1,846,500. In 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant seized control of the city. The Iraqi government recaptured it in the 2016–2017 Battle of Mosul. Historically, important products of the area include Mosul marble and oil. The city of Mosul is home to the University of Mosul and its renowned Medical College, which together was one of the largest educational and research centers in Iraq and the Middle East. Mosul, together with the nearby Nineveh plains, is one of the historic centers for the Assyrians and their churches; the Assyrian Church of the East; its offshoot, the Chaldean Catholic Church; and the Syriac Orthodox Church, containing the tombs of several Old Testament prophets such as Jonah, some of which were destroyed by ISIL in July 2014.
Muri is a town and traditional emirate in the northwestern Taraba State of eastern Nigeria, approximately between 9° and 11° 40′ E. and 7° 10′ and 9° 40′ N. The Benue River is nearby, and the portion on the southern bank of the river is watered by streams flowing from the Cameroon region to the Benue.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
The North Caucasian Emirate (Северо-Кавказский эмират Severo-Kavkazskij èmirat) was a mainly Avar and Chechen Islamic state that existed in the territory of Chechnya and western Dagestan during the Russian Civil War from September 1919 to March 1920.
The Oghuz, Oguz or Ghuzz Turks were a western Turkic people who spoke the Oghuz languages from the Common branch of Turkic language family.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
The Potiskum Emirate (or Pataskum Emirate) is a traditional state in Nigeria, with headquarters in Potiskum, Yobe State.
The Ramadanids, also known as the Ramadanid dynasty, Emirate of Ramadan, Beylik of Adana, and Ramadanid principality (Modern Turkish: Ramazanoğulları, Ramazan and Ramazanoğulları Beyliği), was one of the Anatolian beyliks.
Ras al-Khaimah (رأس الخيمة), historically known as Julfar, is one of the seven emirates that make up the United Arab Emirates (UAE).Its name could be taken to mean "headland of the small huts", which can be attributed to the indigenous buildings that existed along the coast.
Saudi Arabia is divided into 13 regions (مناطق إدارية; manātiq idāriyya, sing. منطقة إدارية; mintaqah idariyya).
The Rif or Riff (Berber: ⴰⵔⵉⴼ Arif or ⴰⵔⵔⵉⴼ Arrif or ⵏⴽⵔ Nkor) is a mainly mountainous region in the northern part of the Kingdom of Morocco.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
Soran was a Kurdish Sunni Muslim emirate based in the geographic region of Kurdistan, specifically in what is today known as Iraqi (i.e. southern) Kurdistan.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The Suleja Emirate is a Hausa principality in what is now Niger State, Nigeria.
Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.
The Taifa of Almería (rtl, Ta'ifa al-Mariyah) was a Muslim medieval Moorish kingdom located in what is now the province of Almería in Spain.
The Taifa of Badajoz (from طائفة بطليوس) was a medieval Islamic Moorish kingdom located in what is now parts of Portugal and Spain.
The Taliban (طالبان "students"), alternatively spelled Taleban, which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), is a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country.
Timur (تیمور Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror.
The Timurid dynasty (تیموریان), self-designated as Gurkani (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān), was a Sunni Muslim dynasty or clan of Turco-Mongol lineageB.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006Encyclopædia Britannica, "", Online Academic Edition, 2007.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Umm al-Quwain (أمّ القيوين) is the least populous of the seven sovereign emirates in the United Arab Emirates, located in the north of the country.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
The Uyunid Emirate, Uyunid Kingdom or Uyunid State (الدولة العيونية), was founded by Abdullah bin Ali Al Uyuni in 1076-1077.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
Waziristan (Pashto and وزیرستان, "land of the Wazir") is a mountainous region covering the North Waziristan and South Waziristan districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Yauri (or Yawuri) is an emirate in Nigeria's Kebbi State, occupying the Yauri Local Government Area.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Zab Emirate (امارة الزاب) was a short lived emirate around 1400 in the highlands and desert fringes of what is today eastern Algeria.
The Zazzau, also known as the Zaria Emirate is a traditional state with headquarters in the city of Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.