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Index Emotion

Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure. [1]

259 relations: AD (Bud) Craig, Adrenaline, Aesthetics, Affect (psychology), Affect display, Affect infusion model, Affect measures, Affect theory, Affection, Affective computing, Affective events theory, Affective forecasting, Affective neuroscience, Affective science, Aggression, Anger, Anomie, Anthropology, Antonio Damasio, Appraisal theory, Aristotle, Arlie Russell Hochschild, Arousal, Artificial intelligence, Attitude change, Avicenna, Émile Durkheim, Barbara Fredrickson, Baruch Spinoza, Behaviorism, Brain, Brainstem, Cannon–Bard theory, Carl Lange (physician), Cerebral cortex, Charles Darwin, Chimpanzee, Cingulate cortex, Cognition, Cognitive appraisal, Cognitive science, Communication studies, Computer science, Consciousness, Consensus decision-making, Contempt, Contrasting and categorization of emotions, Criminal law, Criminology, Cross-cultural, ..., Cross-cultural psychology, Curiosity, David Hume, Derek Denton, Diencephalon, Diffusion, Disgust, Disposition, Dominique Moïsi, Donald B. Lindsley, Dopamine, Dror Green, Economics, Education, Emoticon, Emotion and memory, Emotion classification, Emotion in animals, Emotion Review, Emotional climate, Emotional expression, Emotional intelligence, Emotional labor, Emotions and culture, Emotions in virtual communication, Empathy, Empiricism, Endocrinology, Essentialism, Ethics, Ethology, Evolution, Evolutionary psychology, Facial Action Coding System, Facial expression, Facial feedback hypothesis, Fear, Feeling, Fernando Pessoa University, Forebrain, FOXP2, Functional accounts of emotion, Functional magnetic resonance imaging, Fuzzy-trace theory, Gary Berntson, Gender essentialism, Gene, George Mandler, Gestalt therapy, Gregorio Marañón, Group emotion, Hackett Publishing Company, Happiness, Herbert A. Simon, Hippocampus, Hippocrates, Historical trauma, History, History of emotions, Homeostasis, Homeostatic emotion, Human science, Human voice, Hunger, Hypothalamus, Intentionality, International Affective Picture System, Irritation, Islamic Golden Age, Jaak Panksepp, James A. Russell, James Papez, James–Lange theory, Jerome E. Singer, Jesse Prinz, John T. Cacioppo, Jonathan H. Turner, Joseph E. LeDoux, Klaus Scherer, Language, Law, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Limbic system, Lineage (evolution), Linguistics, Lisa Feldman Barrett, Literature, Love, Magda B. Arnold, Mammal, Marriage, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mating system, Medicine, Mental state, Meta-emotion, Metabolism, Middle Ages, Mind (journal), Mood (psychology), Motivation, Multidimensional scaling, Music and emotion, Natural selection, Nervous system, Neural circuit, Neurochemical, Neuroendocrinology, Neuroimaging, Neuron, Neuroscience, Niccolò Machiavelli, Nico Frijda, Norepinephrine, Nursing, Olfaction, PAD emotional state model, Passions (philosophy), Paul Broca, Paul D. MacLean, Paul Ekman, Personality psychology, Peter Goldie, Phenotype, Pheromone, Philosophy, Philosophy of music, Physiology, Pleasure, Political science, Polymath, Positive psychology, Positron emission tomography, Prefrontal cortex, Prentice Hall, Primary color, Psychiatry, Psychological trauma, Psychology, Psychophysiology, Psychotherapy, Qi, Qualia, Randall Collins, Rational emotive behavior therapy, Reason, Reciprocal determinism, René Descartes, Reptile, Richard Davidson, Richard Lazarus, Robert C. Solomon, Robert Plutchik, Robert Zajonc, Ronald de Sousa, Rosalind Picard, Sadness, Schadenfreude, Scholasticism, Science, Sensor, Sensory cue, Sentimentality, Serotonin, Silvan Tomkins, Situationism (psychology), Social constructivism, Social emotions, Social neuroscience, Social norm, Social organization, Social science, Social sharing of emotions, Social stratification, Sociology, Sociology of emotions, Somatic marker hypothesis, Speciation, Speech, Spinal cord, Stanley Schachter, Stoicism, Stress (biology), Subjectivity, Suffering, Surprise (emotion), Taste (sociology), Temperament, Thalamus, The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, The Managed Heart, Thomas Aquinas, Thomas Hobbes, Tort, Transgenerational trauma, Two-factor theory of emotion, University of California, Riverside, University of Chicago, University of Pennsylvania, Valence (psychology), Vasopressin receptor, Vertebrate, Virtue, Vole, Walter Bradford Cannon, Western philosophy, William James, Yerkes–Dodson law, Zygote. Expand index (209 more) »

AD (Bud) Craig

AD (Bud) Craig, Jr. (born August 31, 1951) is an American neuroanatomist and neuroscientist.

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Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.

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Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.

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Affect (psychology)

Affect is a concept used in psychology to describe the experience of feeling or emotion.

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Affect display

Affect displays are the verbal and non-verbal displays of emotion.

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Affect infusion model

The Affect infusion model (AIM) is a theoretical model in the field of human psychology.

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Affect measures

One common way of studying human emotion is to obtain self-reports from participants to quantify their current feelings or average feelings over a longer period of time.

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Affect theory

Affect theory is a theory that seeks to organize affects, sometimes used interchangeably with emotions, or subjectively experienced feelings, into discrete categories and to typify their physiological, social, interpersonal, and internalized manifestations.

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Affection, attraction, infatuation, or fondness is a "disposition or state of mind or body" that is often associated with a feeling or type of love.

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Affective computing

Affective computing (sometimes called artificial emotional intelligence, or emotion AI) is the study and development of systems and devices that can recognize, interpret, process, and simulate human affects.

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Affective events theory

Affective events theory (AET) is a model developed by organizational psychologists Howard M. Weiss (Georgia Institute of Technology) and Russell Cropanzano (University of Colorado) to explain how emotions and moods influence job performance and job satisfaction.

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Affective forecasting

Affective forecasting (also known as hedonic forecasting, or the hedonic forecasting mechanism) is the prediction of one's affect (emotional state) in the future.

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Affective neuroscience

Affective neuroscience is the study of the neural mechanisms of emotion.

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Affective science

Affective science is the scientific study of emotion or affect.

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Aggression is overt, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other unpleasantness upon another individual.

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Anger or wrath is an intense negative emotion.

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Anomie is a "condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals".

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Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.

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Antonio Damasio

Antonio Damasio (António Damásio) is a Portuguese-American neuroscientist.

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Appraisal theory

Appraisal theory is the theory in psychology that emotions are extracted from our evaluations (appraisals or estimates) of events that cause specific reactions in different people.

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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Arlie Russell Hochschild

Arlie Russell Hochschild (born January 15, 1940) is an American sociologist and academic.

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Arousal is the physiological and psychological state of being awoken or of sense organs stimulated to a point of perception.

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Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.

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Attitude change

Attitudes are associated beliefs and behaviors towards some object.

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Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.

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Émile Durkheim

David Émile Durkheim (or; April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a French sociologist.

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Barbara Fredrickson

Barbara Lee Fredrickson (born June 15, 1964) is an American professor in the department of psychology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where she is the Kenan Distinguished Professor of Psychology.

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Baruch Spinoza

Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa,; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.

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Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is a systematic approach to understanding the behavior of humans and other animals.

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The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

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The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.

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Cannon–Bard theory

The main concepts of the Cannon–Bard theory are that emotional expression results from the function of hypothalamic structures, and emotional feeling results from stimulations of the dorsal thalamus.

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Carl Lange (physician)

Carl Georg Lange (4 December 1834 – 29 May 1900) was a Danish physician who made contributions to the fields of neurology, psychiatry, and psychology.

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Cerebral cortex

The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.

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Charles Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.

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The taxonomical genus Pan (often referred to as chimpanzees or chimps) consists of two extant species: the common chimpanzee and the bonobo.

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Cingulate cortex

The cingulate cortex is a part of the brain situated in the medial aspect of the cerebral cortex.

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Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".

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Cognitive appraisal

Cognitive appraisal is a personal interpretation of a situation and possible reactions to it; it was first discussed in the context of the transactional model of stress management.

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Cognitive science

Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.

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Communication studies

Communication studies or communication sciences is an academic discipline that deals with processes of human communication.

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Computer science

Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.

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Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.

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Consensus decision-making

Consensus decision-making is a group decision-making process in which group members develop, and agree to support a decision in the best interest of the whole.

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Contempt, not classified among Paul Ekman's six basic emotions of anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise, is a mixture of disgust and anger.

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Contrasting and categorization of emotions

The contrasting and categorization of emotions describes how emotions are thought to relate to each other.

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Criminal law

Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.

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Criminology (from Latin crīmen, "accusation" originally derived from the Ancient Greek verb "krino" "κρίνω", and Ancient Greek -λογία, -logy|-logia, from "logos" meaning: “word,” “reason,” or “plan”) is the scientific study of the nature, extent, management, causes, control, consequences, and prevention of criminal behavior, both on the individual and social levels.

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Cross-cultural may refer to.

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Cross-cultural psychology

Cross-cultural psychology is the scientific study of human behavior and mental processes, including both their variability and invariance, under diverse cultural conditions.

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Curiosity (from Latin cūriōsitās, from cūriōsus "careful, diligent, curious", akin to cura "care") is a quality related to inquisitive thinking such as exploration, investigation, and learning, evident by observation in humans and other animals.

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David Hume

David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.

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Derek Denton

Derek Ashworth Denton (born 27 May 1924) is an Australian scientist known for his research exploring the nature of consciousness in animals.

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The diencephalon is a division of the forebrain (embryonic prosencephalon), and is situated between the telencephalon and the midbrain (embryonic mesencephalon).

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Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.

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Disgust is an emotional response of revulsion to something considered offensive, distasteful, or unpleasant.

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A disposition is a quality of character, a habit, a preparation, a state of readiness, or a tendency to act in a specified way that may be learned.

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Dominique Moïsi

Dominique Moïsi (born 21 October 1946) is a French political scientist and writer.

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Donald B. Lindsley

Donald Benjamin Lindsley (December 23, 1907 – June 19, 2003) was a physiological psychologist most known as a pioneer in the field of brain function study.

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Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.

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Dror Green

Dror Green (born 1954) (Hebrew: דרור גרין) is a psychotherapist and author.

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Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

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Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.

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An emoticon (rarely pronounced) is a pictorial representation of a facial expression using characters—usually punctuation marks, numbers, and letters—to express a person's feelings or mood, or as a time-saving method.

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Emotion and memory

Emotion can have a powerful effect on humans and animals.

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Emotion classification

Emotion classification, the means by which one may distinguish one emotion from another, is a contested issue in emotion research and in affective science.

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Emotion in animals

Charles Darwin was one of the first scientists to write about the existence and nature of emotions in animals.

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Emotion Review

Emotion Review is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal published by Sage Publications in association with the International Society for Research on Emotions (ISRE).

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Emotional climate

Emotional climate is a concept that quantifies the “climate” of a community, being a small group, a classroom, an organization, a geographical region.

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Emotional expression

Emotional expressions in psychology are.

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Emotional intelligence

Emotional intelligence (EI), also known as Emotional quotient (EQ) and Emotional Intelligence Quotient (EIQ), is the capability of individuals to recognize their own emotions and those of others, discern between different feelings and label them appropriately, use emotional information to guide thinking and behavior, and manage and/or adjust emotions to adapt to environments or achieve one's goal(s).

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Emotional labor

Emotional labor is the process of managing feelings and expressions to fulfill the emotional requirements of a job.

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Emotions and culture

According to some theories, emotions are universal phenomena, albeit affected by culture.

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Emotions in virtual communication

Emotions in virtual communication differ in a variety of ways from those in face-to-face interactions due to the characteristics of computer-mediated communication (CMC).

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Empathy is the capacity to understand or feel what another person is experiencing from within their frame of reference, i.e., the capacity to place oneself in another's position.

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In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.

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Endocrinology (from endocrine + -ology) is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones.

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Essentialism is the view that every entity has a set of attributes that are necessary to its identity and function.

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Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.

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Ethology is the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, usually with a focus on behaviour under natural conditions, and viewing behaviour as an evolutionarily adaptive trait.

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Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Evolutionary psychology

Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective.

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Facial Action Coding System

Facial Action Coding System (FACS) is a system to taxonomize human facial movements by their appearance on the face, based on a system originally developed by a Swedish anatomist named Carl-Herman Hjortsjö.

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Facial expression

A facial expression is one or more motions or positions of the muscles beneath the skin of the face.

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Facial feedback hypothesis

The facial feedback hypothesis states that facial movement can influence emotional experience.

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Fear is a feeling induced by perceived danger or threat that occurs in certain types of organisms, which causes a change in metabolic and organ functions and ultimately a change in behavior, such as fleeing, hiding, or freezing from perceived traumatic events.

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Feeling is the nominalization of the verb to feel.

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Fernando Pessoa University

Universidade Fernando Pessoa is a private university located in Porto and Ponte de Lima, Portugal.

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In the anatomy of the brain of vertebrates, the forebrain or prosencephalon is the rostral-most (forward-most) portion of the brain.

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Forkhead box protein P2 (FOXP2) is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the FOXP2 gene, also known as CAGH44, SPCH1 or TNRC10, and is required for proper development of speech and language.

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Functional accounts of emotion

A functional account of emotions posits that emotions facilitate adaptive responses to environmental challenges.

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Functional magnetic resonance imaging

Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow.

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Fuzzy-trace theory

Fuzzy-trace theory (FTT) is a theory of cognition originally proposed by Charles Brainerd and Valerie F. Reyna that draws upon dual-trace conceptions to predict and explain cognitive phenomena, particularly in the memory and reasoning domains.

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Gary Berntson

Gary Berntson (born 1945) is professor at Ohio State University with appointments in the departments of psychology, psychiatry and pediatrics.

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Gender essentialism

Gender essentialism is the theory that there are certain universal, innate, biologically- or psychologically-based features of gender (different from sex) that are at the root of observed differences in the behavior of men and women.

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In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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George Mandler

George Mandler (June 11, 1924 – May 6, 2016) was an Austrian-born American psychologist, who became a distinguished professor of psychology at the University of California, San Diego.

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Gestalt therapy

Gestalt therapy is an existential/experiential form of psychotherapy that emphasizes personal responsibility, and that focuses upon the individual's experience in the present moment, the therapist–client relationship, the environmental and social contexts of a person's life, and the self-regulating adjustments people make as a result of their overall situation.

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Gregorio Marañón

Gregorio Marañón y Posadillo (19 May 1887 in Madrid – 27 March 1960 in Madrid) was a Spanish physician, scientist, historian, writer and philosopher.

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Group emotion

Group emotion refers to the moods, emotions and dispositional affects of a group of people.

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Hackett Publishing Company

Hackett Publishing Company, Inc. is an academic publishing house based in Indianapolis, Indiana.

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In psychology, happiness is a mental or emotional state of well-being which can be defined by positive or pleasant emotions ranging from contentment to intense joy.

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Herbert A. Simon

Herbert Alexander Simon (June 15, 1916 – February 9, 2001) was an American economist and political scientist whose primary interest was decision-making within organizations and is best known for the theories of "bounded rationality" and "satisficing".

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The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.

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Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.

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Historical trauma

Historical trauma (HT), a term used by social workers, historians and psychologists, refers to the cumulative emotional and psychological wounding of an individual or generation caused by a traumatic experience or event.

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History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.

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History of emotions

The history of emotions is a field of historical research concerned with human emotion, especially variations among cultures and historical periods in the experience and expression of emotions.

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Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.

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Homeostatic emotion

A homeostatic emotion, primordial emotion or primordial feeling is an attention-demanding sensation and motivation (e.g., thirst, pain, fatigue) evoked by an internal body state that drives behavior (drinking, withdrawing and resting in these examples) aimed at maintaining the body's internal environment in its ideal state.

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Human science

Human Science studies the philosophical, biological, social, and cultural aspects of human life.

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Human voice

The human voice consists of sound made by a human being using the vocal tract, such as talking, singing, laughing, crying, screaming, etc.

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In politics, humanitarian aid, and social science, hunger is a condition in which a person, for a sustained period, is unable to eat sufficient food to meet basic nutritional needs.

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The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.

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Intentionality is a philosophical concept and is defined by the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy as "the power of minds to be about, to represent, or to stand for, things, properties and states of affairs".

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International Affective Picture System

The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) is a database of pictures designed to provide a standardized set of pictures for studying emotion and attention Lang, P.J., Bradley, M.M., & Cuthbert, B.N. (2008).

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Irritation, in biology and physiology, is a state of inflammation or painful reaction to allergy or cell-lining damage.

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Islamic Golden Age

The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.

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Jaak Panksepp

Jaak Panksepp (June 5, 1942 – April 18, 2017) was an Estonian neuroscientist and psychobiologist who coined the term "affective neuroscience", the name for the field that studies the neural mechanisms of emotion.

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James A. Russell

James A. Russell is an American psychologist whose work focuses on emotion.

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James Papez

James Wenceslas Papez (Livingston, Kenneth E.. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1981; 1883–1958) was an American neuroanatomist.

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James–Lange theory

The James–Lange theory refers to a hypothesis on the origin and nature of emotions and is one of the earliest theories of emotion within modern psychology.

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Jerome E. Singer

Jerome Everett Singer (1934–2010) was the founding chair of the Medical and Clinical Psychology Department at Uniformed Services University.

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Jesse Prinz

Jesse J. Prinz is a Distinguished Professor of philosophy and Director of the Committee for Interdisciplinary Science Studies at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York.

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John T. Cacioppo

John Terrence Cacioppo (12 June 1951 – 5 March 2018) was the Tiffany and Margaret Blake Distinguished Service Professor at the University of Chicago.

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Jonathan H. Turner

Jonathan H. Turner (born September 7, 1942), is a professor of sociology at University of California, Riverside.

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Joseph E. LeDoux

Joseph E. LeDoux (born December 7, 1949) is an American neuroscientist whose research is primarily focused on the biological underpinnings of emotion and memory, especially brain mechanisms related to fear and anxiety.

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Klaus Scherer

Klaus Rainer Scherer (born 1943) is Professor of Psychology and director of the Swiss Center for Affective Sciences in Geneva.

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Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.

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Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.

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Lecture Notes in Computer Science

Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) is a series of computer science books published by Springer Science+Business Media (formerly Springer-Verlag) since 1973.

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Limbic system

The limbic system is a set of brain structures located on both sides of the thalamus, immediately beneath the cerebrum.

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Lineage (evolution)

An evolutionary lineage is a temporal series of organisms, populations, cells, or genes connected by a continuous line of descent from ancestor to descendent.

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Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.

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Lisa Feldman Barrett

Lisa Feldman Barrett is a University Distinguished Professor of Psychology at Northeastern University, where she focuses on the study of emotion.

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Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.

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Love encompasses a variety of different emotional and mental states, typically strongly and positively experienced, ranging from the most sublime virtue or good habit, the deepest interpersonal affection and to the simplest pleasure.

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Magda B. Arnold

Magda Blondiau Arnold (1903–2002) was an American psychologist; the first contemporary theorist to develop appraisal theory of emotions, which moved the direction of emotion theory away from "feeling" theories (e.g. James-Lange theory) and "behaviorist" theories (e.g. Cannon-Bard theory) and toward the cognitive approaches which dominate today.

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Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock, is a socially or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity (in-laws and other family through marriage).

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.

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Mating system

A mating system is a way in which a group is structured in relation to sexual behaviour.

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Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.

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Mental state

A mental state is a state of mind that an agent is in.

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Meta-emotion is "an organized and structured set of emotions and cognitions about the emotions, both one's own emotions and the emotions of others".

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Mind (journal)

Mind is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Mind Association.

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Mood (psychology)

In psychology, a mood is an emotional state.

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Motivation is the reason for people's actions, desires, and needs.

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Multidimensional scaling

Multidimensional scaling (MDS) is a means of visualizing the level of similarity of individual cases of a dataset.

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Music and emotion

The study of music and emotion seeks to understand the psychological relationship between human affect and music.

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Natural selection

Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.

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Nervous system

The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.

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Neural circuit

A neural circuit, is a population of neurons interconnected by synapses to carry out a specific function when activated.

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A neurochemical is a small organic molecule or peptide that participates in neural activity.

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Neuroendocrinology is the branch of biology (specifically of physiology) which studies the interaction between the nervous system and the endocrine system, that is how the brain regulates the hormonal activity in the body.

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Neuroimaging or brain imaging is the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure, function/pharmacology of the nervous system.

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A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.

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Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.

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Niccolò Machiavelli

Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) was an Italian diplomat, politician, historian, philosopher, humanist, and writer of the Renaissance period.

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Nico Frijda

Nico Henri Frijda (1 May 1927 – 11 April 2015) was a Dutch psychologist and professor of the University of Amsterdam.

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Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.

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Nursing is a profession within the health care sector focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life.

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Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell.

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PAD emotional state model

The PAD emotional state model is a psychological model developed by Albert Mehrabian and James A. Russell (1974 and after) to describe and measure emotional states.

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Passions (philosophy)

In philosophy and religion the passions are the instinctive, emotional, primitive drives in a human being (including, for example, lust, anger, aggression and jealousy) which a human being must restrain, channel, develop and sublimate in order to be possessed of wisdom.

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Paul Broca

Pierre Paul Broca (28 June 1824 – 9 July 1880) was a French physician, anatomist and anthropologist.

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Paul D. MacLean

Paul Donald MacLean (May 1, 1913 – December 26, 2007) was an American physician and neuroscientist who made significant contributions in the fields of physiology, psychiatry, and brain research through his work at Yale Medical School and the National Institute of Mental Health.

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Paul Ekman

Paul Ekman (born February 15, 1934) is an American psychologist and professor emeritus at the University of California, San Francisco who is a pioneer in the study of emotions and their relation to facial expressions.

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Personality psychology

Personality psychology is a branch of psychology that studies personality and its variation among individuals.

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Peter Goldie

Peter Goldie (5 November 1946 – 22 October 2011) was a British academic philosopher with interests in ethics and aesthetics.

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A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).

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A pheromone (from Ancient Greek φέρω phero "to bear" and hormone, from Ancient Greek ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species.

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Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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Philosophy of music

Philosophy of music is the study of "...fundamental questions about the nature of music and our experience of it".

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Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.

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Pleasure is a broad class of mental states that humans and other animals experience as positive, enjoyable, or worth seeking.

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Political science

Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.

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A polymath (πολυμαθής,, "having learned much,"The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century Latin: uomo universalis, "universal man") is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas—such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.

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Positive psychology

Positive psychology is "the scientific study of what makes life most worth living",Christopher Peterson (2008), or "the scientific study of positive human functioning and flourishing on multiple levels that include the biological, personal, relational, institutional, cultural, and global dimensions of life".

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Positron emission tomography

Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.

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Prefrontal cortex

In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.

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Prentice Hall

Prentice Hall is a major educational publisher owned by Pearson plc.

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Primary color

A set of primary colors is, most tangibly, a set of real colorants or colored lights that can be combined in varying amounts to produce a gamut of colors.

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Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.

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Psychological trauma

Psychological trauma is a type of damage to the mind that occurs as a result of a severely distressing event.

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Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.

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Psychophysiology (from Greek ψῡχή, psȳkhē, "breath, life, soul"; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of psychology that is concerned with the physiological bases of psychological processes.

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Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.

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In traditional Chinese culture, qi or ch'i is believed to be a vital force forming part of any living entity.

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In philosophy and certain models of psychology, qualia (or; singular form: quale) are defined to be individual instances of subjective, conscious experience.

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Randall Collins

Randall Collins (born 1941) is an American sociologist who has been influential in both his teaching and writing.

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Rational emotive behavior therapy

Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), previously called rational therapy and rational emotive therapy, is an active-directive, philosophically and empirically based psychotherapy, the aim of which is to resolve emotional and behavioral problems and disturbances and to help people to lead happier and more fulfilling lives.

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Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.

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Reciprocal determinism

Reciprocal determinism is the theory set forth by psychologist Albert Bandura which states that a person's behavior both influences and is influenced by personal factors and the social environment.

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René Descartes

René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.

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Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.

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Richard Davidson

Richard J. Davidson (born December 12, 1951) is professor of psychology and psychiatry at the University of Wisconsin–Madison as well as founder and chair of the Center for Healthy Minds.

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Richard Lazarus

Richard S. Lazarus (March 3, 1922 – November 24, 2002) was a psychologist who began rising to prominence in the 1960s, when behaviorists like B. F. Skinner held sway over psychology and explanations for human behavior were often pared down to rudimentary motives like reward and punishment.

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Robert C. Solomon

Robert C. Solomon (September 14, 1942 – January 2, 2007) was an American professor of philosophy at the University of Texas at Austin, where he taught for more than 30 years.

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Robert Plutchik

Robert Plutchik (21 October 1927 – 29 April 2006) was professor emeritus at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine and adjunct professor at the University of South Florida.

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Robert Zajonc

Robert Bolesław Zajonc (November 23, 1923 – December 3, 2008) was a Polish-born American social psychologist who is known for his decades of work on a wide range of social and cognitive processes.

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Ronald de Sousa

Ronald Bon de Sousa Pernes (born 1940 Switzerland) is a Canadian philosopher and academic.

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Rosalind Picard

Rosalind Wright Picard (born May 17, 1962) is an American scholar who is Professor of Media Arts and Sciences at MIT, founder and director of the Affective Computing Research Group at the MIT Media Lab, and co-founder of the startups Affectiva and Empatica.

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Sadness is an emotional pain associated with, or characterized by, feelings of disadvantage, loss, despair, grief, helplessness, disappointment and sorrow.

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Schadenfreude ('harm-joy') is the experience of pleasure, joy, or self-satisfaction that comes from learning of or witnessing the troubles, failures, or humiliation of another.

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Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ("scholastics", or "schoolmen") of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context.

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R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.

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In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor.

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Sensory cue

A sensory cue is a statistic or signal that can be extracted from the sensory input by a perceiver, that indicates the state of some property of the world that the perceiver is interested in perceiving.

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Sentimentality originally indicated the reliance on feelings as a guide to truth, but current usage defines it as an appeal to shallow, uncomplicated emotions at the expense of reason.

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Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.

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Silvan Tomkins

Silvan Solomon Tomkins (June 4, 1911 – June 10, 1991) was a psychologist and personality theorist who developed both affect theory and script theory.

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Situationism (psychology)

Situationism is the theory that changes in human behavior are factors of the situation rather than the traits a person possesses.

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Social constructivism

Social constructivism is a sociological theory of knowledge according to which human development is socially situated and knowledge is constructed through interaction with others.

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Social emotions

Social emotions are emotions that depend upon the thoughts, feelings or actions of other people, "as experienced, recalled, anticipated or imagined at first hand".

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Social neuroscience

Social neuroscience is an interdisciplinary field devoted to understanding how biological systems implement social processes and behavior, and to using biological concepts and methods to inform and refine theories of social processes and behavior.

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Social norm

From a sociological perspective, social norms are informal understandings that govern the behavior of members of a society.

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Social organization

In sociology, a social organization is a pattern of relationships between and among individuals and social groups.

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Social science

Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.

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Social sharing of emotions

The social sharing of emotions is a phenomenon in the field of psychology that concerns the tendency to recount and share emotional experiences with others.

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Social stratification

Social stratification is a kind of social differentiation whereby a society groups people into socioeconomic strata, based upon their occupation and income, wealth and social status, or derived power (social and political).

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Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.

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Sociology of emotions

The sociology of emotion applies sociological theorems and techniques to the study of human emotions.

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Somatic marker hypothesis

The somatic marker hypothesis, formulated by Antonio Damasio, proposes that emotional processes guide (or bias) behavior, particularly decision-making.

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Speciation is the evolutionary process by which populations evolve to become distinct species.

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Speech is the vocalized form of communication used by humans and some animals, which is based upon the syntactic combination of items drawn from the lexicon.

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Spinal cord

The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.

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Stanley Schachter

Stanley Schachter (April 15, 1922 – June 7, 1997) was an American social psychologist, who is perhaps best known for his development of the two factor theory of emotion in 1962 along with Jerome E. Singer.

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Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early 3rd century BC.

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Stress (biology)

Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.

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Subjectivity is a central philosophical concept, related to consciousness, agency, personhood, reality, and truth, which has been variously defined by sources.

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Suffering, or pain in a broad sense, may be an experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with the perception of harm or threat of harm in an individual.

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Surprise (emotion)

Surprise is a brief mental and physiological state, a startle response experienced by animals and humans as the result of an unexpected event.

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Taste (sociology)

In sociology, taste is an individual's personal and cultural patterns of choice and preference.

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In psychology, temperament broadly refers to consistent individual differences in behavior that are biologically based and are relatively independent of learning, system of values and attitudes.

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The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber") is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.

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The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals

The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals is Charles Darwin's third major work of evolutionary theory, following On The Origin of Species (1859) and The Descent of Man (1871).

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The Managed Heart

The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling, by Arlie Russell Hochschild, was first published in 1983.

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Thomas Aquinas

Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.

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Thomas Hobbes

Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.

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A tort, in common law jurisdictions, is a civil wrong that causes a claimant to suffer loss or harm resulting in legal liability for the person who commits the tortious act.

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Transgenerational trauma

Transgenerational trauma is trauma that is transferred from the first generation of trauma survivors to the second and further generations of offspring of the survivors via complex post-traumatic stress disorder mechanisms.

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Two-factor theory of emotion

The two-factor theory of emotion, states that emotion is based on two factors: physiological arousal and cognitive label.

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University of California, Riverside

The University of California, Riverside (UCR or UC Riverside), is a public research university and one of the 10 general campuses of the University of California system.

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University of Chicago

The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.

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University of Pennsylvania

The University of Pennsylvania (commonly known as Penn or UPenn) is a private Ivy League research university located in University City section of West Philadelphia.

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Valence (psychology)

Valence, as used in psychology, especially in discussing emotions, means the intrinsic attractiveness/"good"-ness (positive valence) or averseness/"bad"-ness (negative valence) of an event, object, or situation.

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Vasopressin receptor

The actions of vasopressin are mediated by stimulation of tissue-specific G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) called vasopressin receptors that are classified into the V1 (V1A), V2, and V3 (V1B) receptor subtypes.

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Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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Virtue (virtus, ἀρετή "arete") is moral excellence.

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A vole is a small rodent.

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Walter Bradford Cannon

Walter Bradford Cannon (October 19, 1871 – October 1, 1945) was an American physiologist, professor and chairman of the Department of Physiology at Harvard Medical School.

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Western philosophy

Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.

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William James

William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States.

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Yerkes–Dodson law

The Yerkes–Dodson law is an empirical relationship between arousal and performance, originally developed by psychologists Robert M. Yerkes and John Dillingham Dodson in 1908.

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A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke") is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes.

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Cognitive theory of emotion, Emotion theory, Emotional, Emotional behavior, Emotional cause, Emotional reaction, Emotional response, Emotional skill, Emotional state, Emotional style, Emotionally, Emotions, Gut feel, Gut reaction, Human emotion, Human emotions, Theories of emotion, Unemotional.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emotion

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