38 relations: Affricate consonant, Afroasiatic languages, Arabic, Aramaic language, Ayin, Ḍād, Ẓāʾ, Consonant, Dental and alveolar ejectives, Dental fricative, Ejective consonant, Ethiopian Semitic languages, Glottal stop, Hebrew language, Implosive consonant, Indo-European languages, Lateral consonant, Latin alphabet, Linguistics, Maltese language, Modern Hebrew, Modern South Arabian languages, Obstruent, Pharyngealization, Proto-Semitic language, Qoph, Secondary articulation, Semitic languages, Semitic studies, Teth, Tsade, Uvularization, Velar stop, Velarization, Voice (phonetics), Voiceless alveolar fricative, Voiceless uvular stop, Voicelessness.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
Ayin (also ayn, ain; transliterated) is the sixteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Hebrew, Aramaic, Syriac ܥ, and Arabic rtl (where it is sixteenth in abjadi order only).
(ض), is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being). In name and shape, it is a variant of.
, or (ظ), is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being). In Classical Arabic and Modern Standard Arabic it represents a pharyngealized or velarized voiced dental fricative or.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
The alveolar ejective is a type of consonantal sound, usually described as voiceless, being pronounced with a glottalic egressive airstream.
The dental fricative or interdental fricative is a fricative consonant pronounced with the tip of the tongue against the teeth.
In phonetics, ejective consonants are usually voiceless consonants that are pronounced with a glottalic egressive airstream.
Ethiopian Semitic (also known as Ethiosemitic or Ethiopic, or in the past by a few linguists as Abyssinian due to geographyIgor Mikhailovich Diakonov: Nauka, Central Department of Oriental Literature, (1965) pp 12) is a language group which forms the Western branch of the South Semitic languages.
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.
Implosive consonants are a group of stop consonants (and possibly also some affricates) with a mixed glottalic ingressive and pulmonic egressive airstream mechanism.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
Maltese (Malti) is the national language of Malta and a co-official language of the country alongside English, while also serving as an official language of the European Union, the only Semitic language so distinguished.
The Modern South Arabian languages (Eastern South Semitic or Eastern South Arabian) are spoken mainly by small populations inhabiting the Arabian Peninsula, in Yemen and Oman.
An obstruent is a speech sound such as,, or that is formed by obstructing airflow.
Pharyngealization is a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the pharynx or epiglottis is constricted during the articulation of the sound.
Proto-Semitic is a hypothetical reconstructed language ancestral to the historical Semitic languages.
Qoph or Qop (Phoenician Qōp) is the nineteenth letter of the Semitic abjads.
Secondary articulation occurs when the articulation of a consonant is equivalent to the combined articulations of two or three simpler consonants, at least one of which is an approximant.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
Semitic studies, or Semitology, is the academic field dedicated to the studies of Semitic languages and literatures and the history of the Semitic-speaking peoples.
Teth, also written as or Tet, is the ninth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Ṭēt, Hebrew Ṭēt, Aramaic Ṭēth, Syriac Ṭēṯ ܛ, and Arabic ط. It is 16th in modern Arabic order.
Ṣade (also spelled Ṣādē, Tsade, Ṣaddi,, Tzadi, Sadhe, Tzaddik) is the eighteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Çādē, Hebrew Ṣādi, Aramaic Ṣāḏē, Syriac Ṣāḏē ܨ, Ge'ez Ṣädäy ጸ, and Arabic.
Uvularization is a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the back of the tongue is constricted toward the uvula and upper pharynx during the articulation of a sound with its primary articulation elsewhere.
In phonetics and phonology, a velar stop is a type of consonantal sound, made with the back of the tongue in contact with the soft palate (also known as the velum, hence velar), held tightly enough to block the passage of air (hence a stop consonant).
Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
A voiceless alveolar fricative is a type of fricative consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth.
The voiceless uvular stop or voiceless uvular plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.