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Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navies, and in many navies is the highest rank.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Agriculture in the Empire of Japan was an important component of the pre-war Japanese economy.
was a Japanese chemist and the first to synthesize methamphetamine in crystalline form in 1919.
was a Japanese seismologist.
Prince Albrecht of Urach (Fürst Albrecht von Urach, Graf von Württemberg; or Albrecht Fürst von Urach.) (18 October 1903 – 11 December 1969) was a German nobleman, artist and wartime author, journalist, linguist and diplomat.
Alexander Vasilyevich Kolchak CB (Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Колча́к, – 7 February 1920) was an Imperial Russian admiral, military leader and polar explorer who served in the Imperial Russian Navy, who fought in the Russo-Japanese War and the First World War.
Allied submarines were used extensively during the Pacific War and were a key contributor to the defeat of the Empire of Japan.
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
The American Academy of Political and Social Science was founded in 1889 to promote progress in the social sciences.
The American Expeditionary Force, Siberia (AEF in Siberia) was a formation of the United States Army involved in the Russian Civil War in Vladivostok, Russia, during the end of World War I after the October Revolution, from 1918 to 1920.
Archbishop Andronik (also spelled Andronic; Архиепископ Андроник, secular name Vladimir Alexandrovich Nikolsky, Владимир Александрович Никольский; August 1, 1870 – July 7, 1918), was a bishop in the Russian Orthodox Church and a saint, glorified as Hieromartyr Andronik, Archbishop Of Perm in 2000.
The first was signed in London at Lansdowne House, on 30 January 1902, by Lord Lansdowne (British foreign secretary) and Hayashi Tadasu (Japanese minister in London).
Annexation (Latin ad, to, and nexus, joining) is the administrative action and concept in international law relating to the forcible transition of one state's territory by another state.
The Anti-Comintern Pact was an anti-Communist pact concluded between Germany and Japan (later to be joined by other, mainly fascist, governments) on November 25, 1936, and was directed against the Communist International.
After the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, and until 1933, large volunteer armies waged war against Japanese and Manchukuo forces over much of Northeast China.
Anti-Japanese banner in Lijiang, Yunnan 2013. The Chinese reads "Japanese people not allowed to enter, disobey at your own risk." Anti-Japanese sentiment in China is among the strongest in the world.
was a diplomat and Foreign Minister in Meiji period Japan.
was a medical scientist and doctor.
The Armed forces of the Netherlands consist of the Army, Navy, and Air Force.
Asia-Pacific or Asia Pacific (abbreviated as APAC, Asia-Pac, AsPac, APJ, JAPA or JAPAC) is the part of the world in or near the Western Pacific Ocean.
During the final stage of World War II, the United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively.
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Territory, on the morning of December 7, 1941.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army and Minister of War during World War I. His son, Hiroshi Ōshima was also a lieutenant general in the Army, and served as Japanese ambassador to Nazi Germany.
Ōshima Takatō (大島 高任, May 11, 1826–March 29, 1901) was a Japanese engineer who created the first reverberation blast furnace and first Western-style gun in Japan.
was a Japanese lexicographer, linguist, and historian.
The was a Japanese military-political coalition established and disestablished over the course of several months in early to mid-1868 during the Boshin War.
was a Japanese field marshal, and one of the founders of the Imperial Japanese Army.
refers to the final years of the Edo period when the Tokugawa shogunate ended.
Baron is a rank of nobility or title of honour, often hereditary.
The Battle of Ambon (30 January – 3 February 1942) occurred on the island of Ambon in the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia), during World War II.
The Battle of Bataan (Filipino: Labanan sa Bataan) (7 January – 9 April 1942) represented the most intense phase of Imperial Japan's invasion of the Philippines during World War II.
The Battle of Beiping–Tianjin, also known as the Battle of Beijing and the Peiking-Tientsin Operation or by the Japanese as the (25–31 July 1937) was a series of battles of the Second Sino-Japanese War fought in the proximity of Beiping (now Beijing) and Tianjin.
The Battle of Corregidor (Filipino: Labanan sa Corregidor), fought May 5–6, 1942, was the culmination of the Japanese campaign for the conquest of the Commonwealth of the Philippines during World War II.
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.
The was fought in Japan from December 4, 1868 to June 27, 1869, between the remnants of the Tokugawa shogunate army, consolidated into the armed forces of the rebel Ezo Republic, and the armies of the newly formed Imperial government (composed mainly of forces of the Chōshū and the Satsuma domains).
The Battle of Hong Kong (8–25 December 1941), also known as the Defence of Hong Kong and the Fall of Hong Kong, was one of the first battles of the Pacific War in World War II.
The Battle of Iwo Jima (19 February – 26 March 1945) was a major battle in which the United States Marine Corps landed on and eventually captured the island of Iwo Jima from the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) during World War II.
The Battle of Lake Khasan (July 29 – August 11, 1938), also known as the Changkufeng Incident (Russian: Хасанские бои, Chinese and Japanese: 張鼓峰事件; Chinese Pinyin: Zhānggǔfēng Shìjiàn; Japanese Romaji: Chōkohō Jiken) in China and Japan, was an attempted military incursion by Manchukuo (Japanese) into the territory claimed by the Soviet Union.
The Battle of Leyte Gulf (Filipino: Labanan sa Golpo ng Leyte) is generally considered to have been the largest naval battle of World War II and, by some criteria, possibly the largest naval battle in history.
The Battle of Midway was a decisive naval battle in the Pacific Theater of World War II which occurred between 4 and 7 June 1942, only six months after Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor and one month after the Battle of the Coral Sea.
The Battle of Milne Bay (25 August – 7 September 1942), also known as Operation RE or the Battle of Rabi (ラビの戦い) by the Japanese, was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II.
The Battle of Nanking (or Nanjing) was fought in early December 1937 during the Second Sino-Japanese War between the Chinese National Revolutionary Army and the Imperial Japanese Army for control of Nanking (Nanjing), the capital of the Republic of China.
The (Uchinaa ikusa), codenamed Operation Iceberg, was a major battle of the Pacific War fought on the island of Okinawa by United States Marine and Army forces against the Imperial Japanese Army.
The Battle of Palembang was a battle of the Pacific theatre of World War II.
The of Monday 8 February – Tuesday 9 February 1904 marked the commencement of the Russo-Japanese War.
The Battle of Singapore, also known as the Fall of Singapore, was fought in the South-East Asian theatre of World War II when the Empire of Japan invaded the British stronghold of Singapore—nicknamed the "Gibraltar of the East".
The Battle of Tai'erzhuang was a battle of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1938, between the armies of the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan.
The Battle of Tarawa was a battle in the Pacific Theater of World War II that was fought on 20–23 November 1943.
The Battle of the Coral Sea, fought from 4 to 8 May 1942, was a major naval battle between the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) and naval and air forces from the United States and Australia, taking place in the Pacific Theatre of World War II.
The Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands, fought during 25–27 October 1942, sometimes referred to as the Battle of Santa Cruz or in Japan as the (Minamitaiheiyō kaisen), was the fourth carrier battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II.
The Battle of Taku or Dagu Forts was a battle during the Boxer Rebellion between the Chinese military and allied Western and Japanese naval forces.
The Battle of the Yalu River (Japanese) was the largest naval engagement of the First Sino-Japanese War, and took place on 17 September 1894, the day after the Japanese victory at the land Battle of Pyongyang.
The Battle of the Yellow Sea (黄海海戦 Kōkai kaisen; Бой в Жёлтом море) was a major naval engagement of the Russo-Japanese War, fought on 10 August 1904.
The occurred between pro-Imperial and Tokugawa shogunate forces during the Boshin War in Japan.
The Battle of Tsushima (Цусимское сражение, Tsusimskoye srazheniye), also known as the Battle of Tsushima Strait and the Naval Battle of the Sea of Japan (Japanese: 日本海海戦, Nihonkai-Kaisen) in Japan, was a major naval battle fought between Russia and Japan during the Russo-Japanese War.
The Battles of Khalkhyn Gol were the decisive engagements of the undeclared Soviet–Japanese border conflicts fought among the Soviet Union, Mongolia, Japan and Manchukuo in 1939.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
The, or Amur River Society, was a prominent paramilitary, ultranationalist right-wing group in Japan.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
The Bombardment of Kagoshima, also known as the, took place on 15–17 August 1863 during the Late Tokugawa shogunate.
The Bombing of Darwin, also known as the Battle of Darwin, on 19 February 1942 was the largest single attack ever mounted by a foreign power on Australia.
On the night of 9/10 March 1945 the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) conducted a devastating firebombing raid on Tokyo, the Japanese capital city.
The Bonin Islands, also known as the, are an archipelago of over 30 subtropical and tropical islands, some directly south of Tokyo, Japan.
Borneo (Pulau Borneo) is the third largest island in the world and the largest in Asia.
The Boxer Protocol was signed on September 7, 1901, between the Qing Empire of China and the Eight-Nation Alliance that had provided military forces (Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States) plus Belgium, Spain and the Netherlands after China's defeat in the intervention to put down the Boxer Rebellion at the hands of the Eight-Power Expeditionary Force.
The Boxer Rebellion (拳亂), Boxer Uprising or Yihetuan Movement (義和團運動) was a violent anti-foreign, anti-colonial and anti-Christian uprising that took place in China between 1899 and 1901, toward the end of the Qing dynasty.
The Indian Army (IA), often known since 1947 (but rarely during its existence) as the British Indian Army to distinguish it from the current Indian Army, was the principal military of the British Indian Empire before its decommissioning in 1947.
The term British Malaya loosely describes a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the island of Singapore that were brought under British control between the 18th and the 20th centuries.
was a Japanese physics professor, in the World War II Japanese Atomic Energy Research Program of the Imperial Japanese Navy.
was a Japanese botanist noted for his taxonomic work in Japan and Formosa (Taiwan).
is a Japanese collective term for the many codes of honour and ideals that dictated the samurai way of life, loosely analogous to the concept of chivalry in Europe.
The Caroline Islands (or the Carolines) are a widely scattered archipelago of tiny islands in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, to the north of New Guinea.
Central Java (Jawa Tengah, abbreviated as Jateng) is a province of Indonesia.
Charles Lennox Richardson (16 April 1834 – 14 September 1862) was an English merchant based in Shanghai who was killed in Japan during the Namamugi Incident.
The was promulgated at the enthronement of Emperor Meiji of Japan on 6 April 1868 in Kyoto Imperial Palace.
The was a feudal domain of Japan during the Edo period (1603–1867).
or often Romanized as Tyôzaburô Tanaka (November 3, 1885 in Osaka – June 28, 1976) was a Japanese botanist and mycologist.
was a Japanese aviation pioneer.
was a Japanese admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) during World War II and onetime commander of the Kido Butai (the carrier battle group).
Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also romanized as Chiang Chieh-shih or Jiang Jieshi and known as Chiang Chungcheng, was a political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975, first in mainland China until 1949 and then in exile in Taiwan.
, was a Japanese naval officer, engineer, and politician, who is most notable for having founded Nakajima Aircraft Company in 1917, a major supplier of airplanes in the Empire of Japan.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The chonmage (丁髷, ちょんまげ) is a form of Japanese traditional topknot haircut worn by men.
A Christian mission is an organized effort to spread Christianity.
Chuang Guandong (IPA:; literally "Crashing into Guandong" with Guandong being an older name for Manchuria) is descriptive of the rush into Manchuria of the Han Chinese population, especially from the Shandong Peninsula and Zhili, during the hundred-year period starting at the last half of the 19th century.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
The Commonwealth of the Philippines (Commonwealth de Filipinas; Komonwelt ng Pilipinas) was the administrative body that governed the Philippines from 1935 to 1946, aside from a period of exile in the Second World War from 1942 to 1945 when Japan occupied the country.
In international law, a concession is a territory within a country that is administered by an entity other than the state which holds sovereignty over it.This is usually a colonizing power, or at least mandated by one, as in the case of colonial chartered companies.
The is the fundamental law of Japan.
was one of the main political parties in pre-war Empire of Japan.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
On March 31, 1854, the or was the first treaty between the United States and the Tokugawa shogunate.
The Convention or First Convention of Peking, sometimes now known as the Convention of Beijing, is an agreement comprising three distinct treaties concluded between the Qing dynasty of China and the United Kingdom, French Empire, and Russian Empire in 1860.
Count (Male) or Countess (Female) is a title in European countries for a noble of varying status, but historically deemed to convey an approximate rank intermediate between the highest and lowest titles of nobility.
The, also known as the Great Council of State, was (i) (Daijō-kan) the highest organ of Japan's premodern Imperial government under Ritsuryō legal system during and after the Nara period or (ii) (Dajō-kan) the highest organ of Japan's government briefly restored to power after the Meiji Restoration, which was replaced by the Cabinet.
The were powerful Japanese feudal lords who, until their decline in the early Meiji period, ruled most of Japan from their vast, hereditary land holdings.
"Datsu-A Ron" (Japanese Kyūjitai: 脫亞論, Shinjitai: 脱亜論) was an editorial published in the Japanese newspaper Jiji Shimpo on March 16, 1885 arguing that Meiji Japan should abandon the conservative governments of Qing China and Joseon Korea and align itself with the West.
In law and government, de jure (lit) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.
The title Defence Minister, Minister for Defence, Minister of National Defense, Secretary of Defence, Secretary of State for Defense or some similar variation, is assigned to the person in a cabinet position in charge of a Ministry of Defence, which regulates the armed forces in sovereign states.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
The population of Japan at the time of the Meiji Restoration was estimated to be 34,985,000 on January 1, 1873, while the official and de facto populations on the same day were 33,300,644 and 33,416,939, respectively.
Demoralization is, in a context of warfare, national security, and law enforcement, a process in psychological warfare with the objective to erode morale among enemy combatants and/or noncombatants.
Divie Bethune McCartee (Simplified Chinese: 麦嘉缔) (1820–1900) was an American Protestant Christian medical missionary, educator and U.S. diplomat in China and Japan, first appointed by the American Presbyterian Mission in 1843.
The is a joke: only redlinks ! The Donghak Peasant Revolution, also known as the Donghak Peasant Movement, Donghak Rebellion, Peasant Revolt of 1894, Gabo Peasant Revolution, and a variety of other names, was an armed rebellion in Korea led by aggravated peasants and followers of the Donghak religion, a panentheistic snobism (in any case: not in the lead) religion viewed by many rebels as a political ideology.
The Doolittle Raid, also known as the Tokyo Raid, on Saturday, April 18, 1942, was an air raid by the United States on the Japanese capital Tokyo and other places on the island of Honshu during World War II, the first air operation to strike the Japanese Home Islands.
The was a Japanese military secret society of the 1920s.
Douglas MacArthur (26 January 18805 April 1964) was an American five-star general and Field Marshal of the Philippine Army.
On 11 March 1942, during World War II, General Douglas MacArthur and members of his family and staff left the Philippine island of Corregidor and his forces, which were surrounded by the Japanese.
The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; Nederlands(ch)-Indië; Hindia Belanda) was a Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia.
The Dutch East Indies Campaign of 1941–42 was the conquest of the Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia) by forces from the Empire of Japan in the early days of the Pacific Campaign of World War II. Forces from the Allies attempted unsuccessfully to defend the islands. The East Indies were targeted by the Japanese for their rich oil resources which would become a vital asset during the war. The campaign and subsequent three and a half year Japanese occupation was also a major factor in the end of Dutch colonial rule in the region.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
The German East Asia Squadron (Ger Kreuzergeschwader or Ostasiengeschwader) was an Imperial German Navy cruiser squadron which operated mainly in the Pacific Ocean between the mid-1890s and 1914.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
, also known as, is a flatland castle that was built in 1457 by Ōta Dōkan.
The or is the period between 1603 and 1868 in the history of Japan, when Japanese society was under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate and the country's 300 regional daimyō.
was a Japanese scientist, alpinist and technologist.
was the 121st emperor of Japan,Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō): according to the traditional order of succession.
, or, was the 122nd Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from February 3, 1867 until his death on July 29, 1912.
The Emperor of Japan is the head of the Imperial Family and the head of state of Japan.
was the 123rd Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from 30 July 1912 until his death in 1926.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
Empire of the Sun is a 1984 novel by English writer J. G. Ballard; it was awarded the James Tait Black Memorial Prize and was shortlisted for the Man Booker Prize.
An equal-to-the-apostles (ἰσαπόστολος, isapóstolos; aequalis apostolis; მოციქულთასწორი, motsikultastsori; întocmai cu Apostolii; равноапостольный, ravnoapostol'nyj; Bulgarian and Serbian: равноапостолни, ravnoapostolni; i barabartë me Apostolët) is a special title given to some saints in Eastern Orthodoxy and in Byzantine Catholicism.
The European theatre of World War II, also known as the Second European War, was a huge area of heavy fighting across Europe, from Germany's and the Soviet Union's joint invasion of Poland in September 1939 until the end of the war with the Soviet Union conquering most of Eastern Europe along with the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945 (Victory in Europe Day).
In general, expansionism consists of policies of governments and states that involve territorial, military or economic expansion.
Extraterritoriality is the state of being exempted from the jurisdiction of local law, usually as the result of diplomatic negotiations.
The Far Eastern Republic (p), sometimes called the Chita Republic, was a nominally independent state that existed from April 1920 to November 1922 in the easternmost part of the Russian Far East.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
The was an attempted coup d'état in the Empire of Japan on 26 February 1936.
Firebombing is a bombing technique designed to damage a target, generally an urban area, through the use of fire, caused by incendiary devices, rather than from the blast effect of large bombs.
The First Sino-Japanese War (25 July 1894 – 17 April 1895) was fought between Qing dynasty of China and Empire of Japan, primarily for influence over Joseon.
The national flag of Japan is a rectangular white banner bearing a crimson-red disc at its center.
The was an unofficial and informal political faction within the Imperial Japanese Navy in the 1920s and 1930s of officers opposed to the conditions imposed by the Washington Naval Treaty.
During the Empire of Japan and up to 1945, Japan was dependent on imported foods and raw materials for industry.
The foreign government advisors in Meiji Japan, known in Japanese as oyatoi gaikokujin (Kyūjitai: 御雇ひ外國人, Shinjitai: 御雇い外国人, "hired foreigners"), were those foreign advisors hired by the Japanese government for their specialized knowledge to assist in the modernization of Japan at the end of the Bakufu and during the Meiji period.
The (abbreviated as) was a Japanese political and social movement for democracy in the 1880s.
French Indochina (previously spelled as French Indo-China) (French: Indochine française; Lao: ສະຫະພັນອິນດູຈີນ; Khmer: សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន; Vietnamese: Đông Dương thuộc Pháp/東洋屬法,, frequently abbreviated to Đông Pháp; Chinese: 法属印度支那), officially known as the Indochinese Union (French: Union indochinoise) after 1887 and the Indochinese Federation (French: Fédération indochinoise) after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
was a Japanese parasitologist who discovered a parasite called Schistosoma japonicum.
, originally a phrase from the ancient Chinese historical work on the Warring States period, Zhan Guo Ce, was Japan's national slogan during the Meiji period, replacing the slogan sonnō jōi ("Revere the Emperor, Expel the Barbarians").
was a Japanese physician, pathologist and Emeritus Professor of Nippon Medical School in Tokyo.
was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army.
was a Japanese author, writer, teacher, translator, entrepreneur and journalist who founded Keio University, Jiji-Shinpō (a newspaper) and the Institute for Study of Infectious Diseases.
Prince was a Japanese politician in the Empire of Japan who served as the 34th, 38th and 39th Prime Minister of Japan and founder/leader of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association.
was a civil engineer and president of Kōka Daigaku, the present college of engineering of the University of Tokyo.
was a pioneer Japanese seismologist, second chairman of seismology at the Imperial University of Tokyo and president of the Japanese Imperial Earthquake Investigation Committee.
was a Japanese botanist, author of several papers and monographs on phytogeography including work on roses and Amygdaloideae (Rosaceae), maples (Aceraceae), mulberries (the genus Morus), and many other plants.
General of the Army (GA) is a military rank used (primarily in the United States of America) to denote a senior military leader, usually a general in command of a nation's army.
was a Japanese botanist, who worked in Formosa and then, after World War II, Taiwan.
was a Japanese anatomist of the Meiji period.
Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (– 18 June 1974) was a Soviet Red Army General who became Chief of General Staff, Deputy Commander-in-Chief, Minister of Defence and a member of the Politburo.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
German New Guinea (Deutsch-Neuguinea) was the first part of the German colonial empire.
In the years leading up to the outbreak of World War II in Europe in 1939, there was some significant collaborative development in heavy industry between German companies and their Japanese counterparts as part of the two nation's evolving relations.
The was the government that was formed by politicians of the Satsuma Domain and Chōshū Domain in the 1860s.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
The, later known as the, was a nationalist youth organization in the Empire of Japan modeled after Nazi Germany's Hitler Youth.
A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
The was an imperial concept created and promulgated for occupied Asian populations during 1930–1945 by the Empire of Japan.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Guadalcanal (indigenous name: Isatabu) is the principal island in Guadalcanal Province of the nation of Solomon Islands, located in the south-western Pacific, northeast of Australia.
The Guadalcanal Campaign, also known as the Battle of Guadalcanal and codenamed Operation Watchtower by American forces, was a military campaign fought between 7 August 1942 and 9 February 1943 on and around the island of Guadalcanal in the Pacific theater of World War II.
Guam (Chamorro: Guåhån) is an unincorporated and organized territory of the United States in Micronesia in the western Pacific Ocean.
Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.
In international politics, gunboat diplomacy (or "Big Stick ideology" in U.S. history) refers to the pursuit of foreign policy objectives with the aid of conspicuous displays of naval powerimplying or constituting a direct threat of warfare, should terms not be agreeable to the superior force.
Gyeongbokgung, also known as Gyeongbokgung Palace or Gyeongbok Palace, was the main royal palace of the Joseon dynasty.
was a Japanese field marshal who served as successively as chief of the Army General Staff, and minister of war in the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II between 1937 and 1944.
was a Japanese medical scientist of the Meiji and Taishō periods.
was a Japanese political slogan that became popular from the Second Sino-Japanese War to World War II, and was popularized in a speech by Prime Minister of Japan Fumimaro Konoe on January 8, 1940.
is a city and port located in Oshima Subprefecture, Hokkaido, Japan.
The Han Chinese,.
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul (from Korean hangeul 한글), has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by Sejong the Great.
Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters.
was a Japanese physicist and a pioneer of Japanese physics during the Meiji period.
(1872–1947) was a Japanese physicist and astronomer.
was a Japanese career diplomat and cabinet minister in Meiji period Japan.
This article is on the Japanese Scouting figure.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
was a Japanese pathologist and archaeologist living in Fukuoka.
Herbert P. Bix (born 1938) is an American historian.
Hideki Tojo (Kyūjitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;; December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a general of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA), the leader of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association, and the 27th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 17, 1941, to July 22, 1944.
, was a Japanese theoretical physicist and the first Japanese Nobel laureate.
was a pioneer of Japanese rocketry, popularly known as "Dr.
was a Japanese electrical engineer from Osaka, Japan.
, also known as, was a prominent Japanese bacteriologist who in 1911 discovered the agent of syphilis as the cause of progressive paralytic disease.
was a Japanese railroad engineer.
was a prominent pre–World War II right-wing Japanese politician and the 24th Prime Minister of Japan from 5 January 1939 to 30 August 1939.
was a Japanese botanist and painter.
was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from 25 December 1926, until his death on 7 January 1989.
Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan (2000) is a book by Herbert P. Bix covering the reign of Emperor Hirohito of Japan from 1926 until his death in 1989.
was a Japanese biochemist known for first suggesting that Nickel may be a dietary element.
is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture and the largest city in the Chūgoku region of western Honshu - the largest island of Japan.
was a Japanese astronomer originally from Kanazawa, Ishikawa.
As a consequence of the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II, Germany was cut between the two global blocs in the East and West, a period known as the division of Germany.
Hong Kong (1800s–1930s) was a period largely dominated by the British Empire.
The first human habitation in the Japanese archipelago has been traced to prehistoric times.
was a Japanese geneticist known for his work on the genetics of wheat.
(), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is the second largest island of Japan, and the largest and northernmost prefecture.
The was the upper house of the Imperial Diet as mandated under the Constitution of the Empire of Japan (in effect from 11 February 1889 to 3 May 1947).
The is the lower house of the National Diet of Japan.
The Hundred Regiments Offensive (20 August – 5 December 1940) was a major campaign of the Communist Party of China's National Revolutionary Army divisions commanded by Peng Dehuai against the Imperial Japanese Army in Central China.
was a Japanese mycologist.
Marshal Admiral Baron was a Meiji-period career officer in the Imperial Japanese Navy.
was a Japanese botanist, specializing in citrus, who was hailed as the "father of citrus" especially in his native Shizuoka Prefecture.
The Immigration Act of 1924, or Johnson–Reed Act, including the National Origins Act, and Asian Exclusion Act, was a United States federal law that set quotas on the number of immigrants from certain countries while providing funding and an enforcement mechanism to carry out the longstanding (but hitherto unenforced) ban on other non-white immigrants.
An imperial cult is a form of state religion in which an emperor or a dynasty of emperors (or rulers of another title) are worshipped as demigods or deities.
The was part of the Supreme War Council and was established in 1893 to coordinate efforts between the Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy during wartime.
The, also referred to as the Imperial Family and the Yamato Dynasty, comprises those members of the extended family of the reigning Emperor of Japan who undertake official and public duties.
The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA; Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun; "Army of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945.
The, also called the Army General Staff, was one of the two principal agencies charged with overseeing the Imperial Japanese Army.
The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN; Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍 or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun, "Navy of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the navy of the Empire of Japan from 1868 until 1945, when it was dissolved following Japan's defeat and surrender in World War II.
The, or Imperial Aid Association, was Japan's wartime organization created by Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoe on October 12, 1940, to promote the goals of his Shintaisei ("New Order") movement.
The Imperial Seal of Japan, also called the, or, is one of the national seals and a crest (mon) used by the Emperor of Japan and members of the Imperial Family.
The was a political faction in the Imperial Japanese Army, active in the 1920s and 1930s and largely supported by junior officers aiming to establish a military government that promoted totalitarian, militarist, and expansionist ideals.
, was a Japanese anthropologist and folklorist known for his studies in Taiwanese Aborigines.
Incendiary weapons, incendiary devices or incendiary bombs are weapons designed to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using fire (and sometimes used as anti-personnel weaponry), that use materials such as napalm, thermite, magnesium powder, chlorine trifluoride, or white phosphorus.
Incheon (formerly romanized as Inchŏn; literally "kind river"), officially the Incheon Metropolitan City (인천광역시), is a city located in northwestern South Korea, bordering Seoul and Gyeonggi to the east.
The Indian Ocean raid (known in Japan as Operation C) was a naval sortie by the fast carrier strike force of the Imperial Japanese Navy from 31 March to 10 April 1942 against Allied shipping and bases in the Indian Ocean.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
This article covers the development of the industry in the Empire of Japan, during the rise of statism in the first part of the Shōwa era.
Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.
Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol Autonomous Region (Ѳвѳр Монголын Ѳѳртѳѳ Засах Орон in Mongolian Cyrillic), is one of the autonomous regions of China, located in the north of the country.
was a Japanese philosopher, Buddhist reformer, educator, and royalist.
Marshal Admiral Viscount was a career naval officer and admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy during Meiji-period Japan.
was a Japanese politician, cabinet minister, and Prime Minister of Japan from 13 December 1931 to 15 May 1932.
Irmologion (τὸ εἱρμολόγιον heirmologion) is a liturgical book of the Eastern Orthodox Church and those Eastern Catholic Churches which follow the Byzantine Rite.
The Iron Curtain was the name for the boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991.
was a Japanese theoretical physicist, known for fluid mechanics and mathematical physics.
Viscount, was a Japanese diplomat and cabinet minister in Meiji, Taishō and early Shōwa period Japan.
was a Japanese biologist, zoologist, evolutionary theorist, and ichthyologist at the Naples Zoological Station starting 1887.
was a Japanese Marshal Admiral of the Navy and the commander-in-chief of the Combined Fleet during World War II until his death.
Issac (Issaku) Koga (December 5, 1899 in Tashiro Village (now Tosu), Saga Prefecture, Japan – September 2, 1982) the eldest of 7 children.
Prince was a Japanese statesman and genrō.
Marshal-Admiral Count (20 May 1843 – 16 January 1914) was a Japanese career officer and admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy in Meiji-period Japan.
The Iwakura Mission or Iwakura Embassy (岩倉使節団, Iwakura Shisetsudan) was a Japanese diplomatic voyage to the United States and Europe conducted between 1871 and 1873 by leading statesmen and scholars of the Meiji period.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
The Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876, also known as the Japan-Korea Treaty of Amity in Japanese or Treaty of Ganghwa Island in Korean, was made between representatives of the Empire of Japan and the Korean Kingdom of Joseon in 1876.
The Japan–Korea Treaty of 1905, also known as the Eulsa Treaty, Eulsa Unwilling Treaty or Japan–Korea Protectorate Treaty, was made between the Empire of Japan and the Korean Empire in 1905.
The Japan–Korea Treaty of 1910, also known as the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty, was made by representatives of the Empire of Japan and the Korean Empire on August 22, 1910.
The is the group of islands that forms the country of Japan, and extends roughly from northeast to southwest along the northeastern coast of the Eurasia mainland, washing upon the northwestern shores of the Pacific Ocean.
was a pre-dreadnought battleship built for the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) in the late 1890s.
The Japanese colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies established by Imperial Japan in the Western Pacific and East Asia region from 1895.
General elections were held in Japan on 20 February 1932.
The was a short undeclared military confrontation between the Empire of Japan and Vichy France in northern Indochina.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Japanese military yen (Chinese and Japanese: 日本軍用手票, also 日本軍票 in short), commonly abbreviated as JMY, was the:currency issued to the soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army and the Imperial Japanese Navy as a salary.
The Japanese program to develop nuclear weapons was conducted during World War II.
The is the official currency of Japan.
The was the radio broadcast in which Japanese Emperor Hirohito (Emperor Shōwa 昭和天皇 Shōwa-tennō) read out the, announcing to the Japanese people that the Japanese Government had accepted the Potsdam Declaration demanding the unconditional surrender of the Japanese military at the end of World War II.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
The Jiaozhou Bay (Kiautschou Bucht) is a gulf located in Qingdao, China.
was a Japanese botanist, born in Ibaraki Prefecture, of a samurai family.
was the chief engineer of many Japanese fighter designs of World War II, including the Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighter.
Christian name Joseph, is a Japanese aircraft and automotive engineer.
was Japanese botanist.
John W. Dower (born June 21, 1938 in Providence, Rhode Island) is an American author and historian.
John Whitney Hall (September 13, 1916 – October 21, 1997),"John Whitney Hall papers, 1930-1999", Yale University Library the Tokyo-born son of missionaries in Japan, grew up to become a pioneer in the field of Japanese studies and one of the most respected historians of Japan of his generation.
The Joseon dynasty (also transcribed as Chosŏn or Chosun, 조선; officially the Kingdom of Great Joseon, 대조선국) was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
was a Japanese industrialist and businessman who founded automobile manufacturer Mazda Motor Corporation.
Jun Ishiwara or Atsushi Ishihara (石原 純; January 15, 1881 – January 19, 1947) was a Japanese theoretical physicist, known for his works on the electronic theory of metals, the theory of relativity and quantum theory.
is the capital city of Kagoshima Prefecture at the south western tip of the island of Kyushu in Japan, and the largest city in the prefecture by some margin.
was a Japanese fisheries biologist and cnidariologist and a professor of the Imperial University of Tokyo (Faculty of Agriculture) between 1908 and 1928.
was a statesman and diplomat in Meiji period Japan.
was a Japanese botanist and mycologist.
Kanji (漢字) are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the Japanese writing system.
Baron was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy, member and final leader of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association and 42nd Prime Minister of Japan from 7 April to 17 August 1945.
, commonly called South Sakhalin, was the Japanese administrative division corresponding to Japanese territory on southern Sakhalin island from 1905 to 1945.
Historically, were one of the traditionally made that were used by the samurai of ancient and feudal Japan.
Count was a Japanese politician and the 14th Prime Minister of Japan from 11 June 1924 until his death on 28 January 1926, during the period which historians have called "Taishō Democracy".
Marshal-Admiral Viscount was a career officer in the Imperial Japanese Navy, cabinet minister, and 12th Prime Minister of Japan from 12 June 1922 to 24 August 1923.
Katsuji Miyazaki (c. 1915 – 18 March 1993) was a Japanese aeronautical engineer living near Tokyo, Japan.
was a Japanese embryologist and cell biologist.
(1908—1992) was a Japanese ichthyologist.
was a Japanese astronomer, who, together with astronomer Okuro Oikawa, co-discovered the Mars-crosser asteroid 1139 Atami in 1929.
was a Japanese general in the Imperial Japanese Army, the 5th principal of Takushoku University, and twice Governor-General of Korea.
Kôdi Husimi (June 29, 1909 – May 8, 2008, 伏見康治) was a Japanese theoretical physicist who served as the president of the Science Council of Japan.
was a Japanese diplomat and politician who served as the 32nd Prime Minister of Japan from 9 March 1936 to 2 February 1937.
was a Japanese industrialist who founded Panasonic, the largest Japanese consumer electronics company.
, also known as Seiryō Hamada, was a Japanese academic, archaeologist, author and President of Kyoto University.
was a Japanese physicist.
was a Japanese physician and biologist.
was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy, politician and the 31st Prime Minister of Japan from 8 July 1934 to 9 March 1936.
was a Japanese engineer and a pioneer in the development of television.
The was the military police arm of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1881 to 1945.
The was a short-lived political party in the pre-war Empire of Japan.
was a Japanese leprologist and director of the Tama Zenshoen Sanatorium (1914–1931) and the National Sanatorium Nagashima Aiseien (1931–1957).
The Kiautschou Bay Leased Territory was a German leased territory in Imperial and Early Republican China which existed from 1898 to 1914.
Baron was a mathematician, educator, and education administrator in Meiji period Empire of Japan.
was a Japanese chemist and Tokyo Imperial University professor of Chemistry who, in 1908, uncovered the chemical basis of a taste he named umami.
was a Japanese malacologist.
is the national anthem of Japan.
was a Japanese agricultural chemist and microbiologist.
was a Japanese electrical engineering researcher and professor who made major contributions to magnetron and radar development.
The, also known as the, was a rebellion against the Tokugawa shogunate that took place on August 20, 1864, at the Imperial Palace in Kyoto.
is a Japanese botanist and educationalist (1867 - 1935).
(1901–1990) was a Japanese aircraft designer who worked for Mitsubishi and designed aircraft used in World War II such as the Mitsubishi G3M (Nell) and the Mitsubishi G4M (Betty).
Baron was a Japanese physician and bacteriologist during the reign of the Empire of Japan, prior to World War 2.
was an early seismologist at the Central Meteorological Observatory of Japan (now known as the Japan Meteorological Agency), researching deep (subduction zone) earthquakes.
was a Japanese physician and bacteriologist.
was a Japanese mathematician.
was a Japanese astronomer, best known for his discovery that many asteroid orbits were more similar to one another than chance would allow, leading to the concept of asteroid families, now called "Hirayama families" in his honour.
Viscount was a Japanese general in the Imperial Japanese Army, and government minister during Meiji period Japan.
was a Japanese anatomist and anthropologist of the Meiji period.
The was a nationalist political society in late 1920s and early 1930s Japan.
was a statesman and diplomat in Meiji period Japan.
was a Japanese biologist and cytologist.
Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
Korea under Japanese rule began with the end of the short-lived Korean Empire in 1910 and ended at the conclusion of World War II in 1945.
The Great Korean Empire was proclaimed in October 1897 by Emperor Gojong of the Joseon dynasty, under pressure after the Donghak Peasant Revolution of 1894 to 1895 and the Gabo Reforms that swept the country from 1894 to 1896.
The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula of Eurasia located in East Asia.
The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).
The Korean yen was the currency of Korea between 1910 and 1945.
Kotaro Honda (本多 光太郎, Honda Kōtarō, born on February 23, 1870 in Okazaki, Aichi Prefecture – February 12, 1954) was a Japanese scientist and inventor.
was a Japanese chemical engineer known for many famous inventions.
was a Japanese general in the Imperial Japanese Army, Governor-General of Korea and 28th Prime Minister of Japan from July 22, 1944, to April 7, 1945.
was a Japanese physician and physiologist.
was a Japanese scholar and considered the father of Japanese native folkloristics, or minzokugaku.
The Kuril Islands or Kurile Islands (or; p or r; Japanese: or), in Russia's Sakhalin Oblast region, form a volcanic archipelago that stretches approximately northeast from Hokkaido, Japan, to Kamchatka, Russia, separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the north Pacific Ocean.
Kusumoto Ine (楠本 イネ, 31 May 1827 – 27 August 1903; born Shiimoto Ine 失本 稲) was a Japanese physician.
The Kwantung Army was an army group of the Imperial Japanese Army in the first half of the 20th century.
was a Japanese linguist from Morioka, Iwate Prefecture.
, officially, is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture, located in the Kansai region of Japan.
The is one of the active palaces of the Emperor of Japan and has the longest history as the capital of Japan.
was a Japanese doctor specializing in obstetrics and gynecology.
Lüshunkou District (also Lyushunkou District) is a district of Dalian, in Liaoning province, China.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
Leyte is an island in the Visayas group of the Philippines.
The Liaodong Peninsula is a peninsula in Liaoning Province of Northeast China, historically known in the West as Southeastern Manchuria.
The Qing dynasty (1644–1912) was the last imperial dynasty of China.
This is a list of regions occupied or annexed by the Empire of Japan until 1945, the year of the end of World War II in Asia, after the surrender of Japan.
Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group, according to its beliefs, customs and traditions.
was a Japanese biologist.
Malang is the second largest city in Jawa Timur (East Java), Indonesia. It has a history dating back to the age of Singhasari Kingdom. As the second most populous city in the province, the 2016 census recorded 887,443 people in the city. Its built-up (metro) area was home to 2,795,209 inhabitants spread on 2 cities and 22 districts (21 in Malang Regency and 1 in Pasuruan Regency). The city is well known for its mild climate. During the period of Dutch colonization, it was a popular destination for European residents. Until now, Malang still holds its position a popular destination for international tourists. Malang was spared many of the effects of the Asian financial crisis and since that time it has been marked by steady economic and population growth.
The Malay Peninsula (Tanah Melayu, تانه ملايو; คาบสมุทรมลายู,, မလေး ကျွန်းဆွယ်, 马来半岛 / 馬來半島) is a peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Malayan Campaign was a military campaign fought by Allied and Axis forces in Malaya, from 8 December 1941 – 31 January 1942 during the Second World War.
Malays (Orang Melayu, Jawi: أورڠ ملايو) are an Austronesian ethnic group that predominantly inhabit the Malay Peninsula, eastern Sumatra and coastal Borneo, as well as the smaller islands which lie between these locations — areas that are collectively known as the Malay world.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.
Manchukuo was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945.
Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.
Manuel L. Quezon (born Manuel Luís Quezon y Molina; August 19, 1878 – August 1, 1944) was a Filipino statesman, soldier, and politician who served as president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
The Marco Polo Bridge Incident, also known by several other names, was a battle between the Republic of China's National Revolutionary Army and the Imperial Japanese Army.
The Mariana Islands (also the Marianas) are a crescent-shaped archipelago comprising the summits of fifteen mostly dormant volcanic mountains in the western North Pacific Ocean, between the 12th and 21st parallels north and along the 145th meridian east.
Marius Berthus Jansen (April 11, 1922 – December 10, 2000) was an American academic, historian, and Emeritus Professor of Japanese History at Princeton University.
A marquess (marquis) is a nobleman of hereditary rank in various European peerages and in those of some of their former colonies.
The Marshall Islands, officially the Republic of the Marshall Islands (Aolepān Aorōkin M̧ajeļ), is an island country located near the equator in the Pacific Ocean, slightly west of the International Date Line.
, also known under his pen name, was a leading Japanese intellectual and scholar of the Meiji period.
was a Japanese chemist known for the discovery of rhenium, which he named nipponium.
Viscount (December 6, 1878 – August 29, 1952) was a physicist and business executive.
, 18th Marquess Hachisuka, was a Japanese ornithologist and aviculturist.
was a Japanese chemist and one of the pioneers in electrochemistry.
Matsusaburo Fujiwara (藤原 松三郎, Fujiwara Matsusaburō, 14 February 1881, Tsu, Mie – 12 October 1946, Fukushima) was a Japanese mathematician and historian of mathematics.
Matthew Calbraith Perry (April 10, 1794 – March 4, 1858) was a Commodore of the United States Navy who commanded ships in several wars, including the War of 1812 and the Mexican–American War (1846–48).
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
The Constitution of the Empire of Japan (Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國憲法; Shinjitai: 大日本帝国憲法 Dai-Nippon Teikoku Kenpō), known informally as the Meiji Constitution (明治憲法 Meiji Kenpō), was the constitution of the Empire of Japan which had the proclamation on February 11, 1889, and had enacted since November 29, 1890 until May 2, 1947.
The Meiji oligarchy was the name used to describe the new ruling class of Meiji period Japan.
The, also known as the Meiji era, is a Japanese era which extended from October 23, 1868, to July 30, 1912.
The, also known as the Meiji Ishin, Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was an event that restored practical imperial rule to the Empire of Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji.
Mengjiang (Mengkiang;; Hepburn: Mōkyō), also known in English as Mongol Border Land or the Mongol United Autonomous Government, was an autonomous area in Inner Mongolia, existing initially as a puppet state of the Empire of Japan before being under nominal Chinese sovereignty of the Nanjing Nationalist Government from 1940 (which itself was a puppet state).
Mercantilism is a national economic policy designed to maximize the trade of a nation and, historically, to maximize the accumulation of gold and silver (as well as crops).
was a Japanese businessman and inventor, who founded the present multinational motor corporation Suzuki.
was a Japanese agricultural scientist and biochemist whose research focused on the components of green tea.
was a Japanese novelist.
was a Japanese entrepreneur who is credited with creating the first cultured pearl and subsequently starting the cultured pearl industry with the establishment of his luxury pearl company Mikimoto.
Militarism is the belief or the desire of a government or a people that a state should maintain a strong military capability and to use it aggressively to expand national interests and/or values; examples of modern militarist states include the United States, Russia and Turkey.
Militarization, or militarisation, is the process by which a society organizes itself for military conflict and violence.
A military alliance is an international agreement concerning national security, when the contracting parties agree to mutual protection and support in case of a crisis that has not been identified in advance.
A military dictatorship (also known as a military junta) is a form of government where in a military force exerts complete or substantial control over political authority.
was a Japanese Marshal Admiral and commander-in-chief of the Imperial Japanese Navy's Combined Fleet.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
Mining in Japan is minimal because Japan possesses very few mining resources.
The is a cabinet-level ministry of the Japanese government responsible for the country's foreign relations.
was a Japanese microbiologist.
The is a group of autonomous Japanese multinational companies in a variety of industries.
is one of the largest keiretsu in Japan and one of the largest corporate groups in the world.
was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy, and politician.
was a Japanese plant pathologist, mycologist, and herbalist.
is a Japanese noun literally meaning "kill" with "silence", and is used with a verb marker idiomatically to mean "ignore", "take no notice of" or "treat with silent contempt".
The Mongolian People's Republic (Бүгд Найрамдах Монгол Ард Улс (БНМАУ), Bügd Nairamdakh Mongol Ard Uls (BNMAU)), commonly known as Outer Mongolia, was a unitary sovereign socialist state which existed between 1924 and 1992, coterminous with the present-day country of Mongolia in East Asia.
was a Japanese geophysicist who was the first to surmise that the Earth's magnetic field had undergone reversals in the past.
The Mukden Incident, or Manchurian Incident, was a staged event engineered by Japanese military personnel as a pretext for the Japanese invasion in 1931 of northeastern China, known as Manchuria.
Count was a Japanese statesman and diplomat in Meiji period Japan.
was a notable Japanese organic chemist and pharmacologist, best known for his study of ephedrine.
() is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture on the island of Kyushu in Japan.
Baron was a medical doctor, educator and statesman in Meiji period Japan.
, commonly known as, was a Japanese historian and Sinologist.
The (also known sometimes as the Kanagawa Incident, and as the Richardson Affair) was a samurai assault on British subjects in Japan on September 14, 1862, which occurred six days after Ernest Satow set foot on Japanese soil for the first time.
were a series of semi-automatic pistols produced by the Japanese company Koishikawa Arsenal later known as the Tokyo Artillery Arsenal.
was a Japanese entrepreneur and philanthropist who founded Hitachi.
Nanjing, formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with an administrative area of and a total population of 8,270,500.
The Nanking Massacre was an episode of mass murder and mass rape committed by Japanese troops against the residents of Nanjing (Nanking), then the capital of the Republic of China, during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
The preserve Japanese government documents and historical records and make them available to the public.
National Assembly politically is either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries.
The is Japan's bicameral legislature.
The is the national library of Japan and among the largest libraries in the world.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Netherlands New Guinea (Nederlands-Nieuw-Guinea) refers to the Papua region of Indonesia while it was an overseas territory of the Kingdom of the Netherlands from 1949 to 1962.
New Guinea (Nugini or, more commonly known, Papua, historically, Irian) is a large island off the continent of Australia.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
The was a series of events beginning in February of 1920 through early June of the same year during the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, culminating in the massacre of several hundred Japanese expatriates and most of the Russian inhabitants of the town of Nikolayevsk-on-Amur in the Russian Far East.
Ningbo, formerly written Ningpo, is a sub-provincial city in northeast Zhejiang province in China. It comprises the urban districts of Ningbo proper, three satellite cities, and a number of rural counties including islands in Hangzhou Bay and the East China Sea. Its port, spread across several locations, is among the busiest in the world and the municipality possesses a separate state-planning status. As of the 2010 census, the entire administrated area had a population of 7.6 million, with 3.5 million in the six urban districts of Ningbo proper. To the north, Hangzhou Bay separates Ningbo from Shanghai; to the east lies Zhoushan in the East China Sea; on the west and south, Ningbo borders Shaoxing and Taizhou respectively.
was a philosopher in Meiji period Japan who helped introduce Western philosophy into mainstream Japanese education.
was a Japanese educator and leader of the Meiji Enlightenment during the Meiji period.
was a Japanese agricultural economist, author, educator, diplomat, politician, and Christian during the pre-World War II period.
was a Japanese inventor and patent attorney.
was a Japanese botanist and orchidologist.
North China (literally "China's north") is a geographical region of China, lying North of the Qinling Huaihe Line.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
The Allied occupation of Japan at the end of World War II was led by General Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, with support from the British Commonwealth.
was a Japanese astronomer and discoverer of minor planets.
A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
Operation Starvation was an American naval mining operation conducted in World War II by the Army Air Forces, in which vital water routes and ports of Japan were mined from the air in order to disrupt enemy shipping.
Operation Unthinkable was a code name of two related, unrealised plans by the Western Allies against the Soviet Union.
The was an edict issued by the Japanese Emperor Kōmei in 1863 against the Westernization of Japan following the opening of the country by Commodore Perry in 1854.
Hamaguchi Osachi (Kyūjitai: 濱口 雄幸; Shinjitai: 浜口 雄幸, also Hamaguchi Yūkō, 1 April 1870 – 26 August 1931) was a Japanese politician, cabinet minister and Prime Minister of Japan from 2 July 1929 to 14 April 1931.
was a Japanese career naval officer and Admiral of the Fleet in the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1943.
was a paleontologist and geologist.
The Pacific Fleet (Тихоокеанский флот, translit: Tikhookeanskiy flot) is the fleet of the Russian Navy in the Pacific Ocean.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
The Pacific War, sometimes called the Asia-Pacific War, was the theater of World War II that was fought in the Pacific and Asia. It was fought over a vast area that included the Pacific Ocean and islands, the South West Pacific, South-East Asia, and in China (including the 1945 Soviet–Japanese conflict). The Second Sino-Japanese War between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China had been in progress since 7 July 1937, with hostilities dating back as far as 19 September 1931 with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. However, it is more widely accepted that the Pacific War itself began on 7/8 December 1941, when Japan invaded Thailand and attacked the British possessions of Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong as well as the United States military and naval bases in Hawaii, Wake Island, Guam and the Philippines. The Pacific War saw the Allies pitted against Japan, the latter briefly aided by Thailand and to a much lesser extent by the Axis allied Germany and Italy. The war culminated in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and other large aerial bomb attacks by the Allies, accompanied by the Soviet declaration of war and invasion of Manchuria on 9 August 1945, resulting in the Japanese announcement of intent to surrender on 15 August 1945. The formal surrender of Japan ceremony took place aboard the battleship in Tokyo Bay on 2 September 1945. Japan's Shinto Emperor was forced to relinquish much of his authority and his divine status through the Shinto Directive in order to pave the way for extensive cultural and political reforms. After the war, Japan lost all rights and titles to its former possessions in Asia and the Pacific, and its sovereignty was limited to the four main home islands.
In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government.
, S.J. was a Japanese Roman Catholic priest, mathematician, astronomer, Sinologist, lexicographer, academic and administrator.
The Public Security Preservation Laws were a series of laws enacted during the Empire of Japan.
Pearl Harbor is a lagoon harbor on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, west of Honolulu.
The Pentecostarion (Greek: Πεντηκοστάριον, Pentekostárion; Slavonic: Цвѣтнаѧ Трїωдь, Tsvyetnaya Triod', literally "Flowery Triodon"; Penticostar) is the liturgical book used by the Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic churches during the Paschal Season which extends from Pascha (Easter) to the Sunday following All Saints Sunday (i.e., the Second Sunday After Pentecost).
Perm (p;Gramota.ru.) is a city and the administrative center of Perm Krai, Russia, located on the banks of the Kama River in the European part of Russia near the Ural Mountains.
The Philippines Campaign (Filipino: Kampanya sa Pilipinas or Labanan sa Pilipinas) or the Battle of the Philippines, fought 8 December 1941 – 8 May 1942, was the invasion of the Philippines by Imperial Japan and the defense of the islands by United States and Filipino forces during the Second World War.
The Philippines campaign, the Battle of the Philippines or the Liberation of the Philippines (Filipino: Kampanya sa Pilipinas, Labanan sa Pilipinas & Liberasyon ng Pilipinas), (Operation Musketeer I, II, and III) (Filipino: Operasyon Mosketero I, II, at III), was the American and Filipino campaign to defeat and expel the Imperial Japanese forces occupying the Philippines during World War II.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
The of the Empire of Japan comprised numerous police services, in many cases with overlapping jurisdictions.
Post-occupation Japan is the period in Japanese history which started after the Allied occupation of Japan and ended in 1952.
A posthumous name is an honorary name given to royalty, nobles, and sometimes others, in East Asia after the person's death, and is used almost exclusively instead of one's personal name or other official titles during his life.
The Potsdam Declaration or the Proclamation Defining Terms for Japanese Surrender was a statement that called for the surrender of all Japanese armed forces during World War II.
Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to Britain, particularly Scotland, and Ireland.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
The is the head of government of Japan.
Primorsky Krai (p; 프리모르스키 지방) is a federal subject (a krai) of Russia, located in the Far East region of the country and is a part of the Far Eastern Federal District.
A prince is a male ruler or member of a monarch's or former monarch's family ranked below a king and above a duke.
was the eighth head of the house, one of the shinnōke branches of the Imperial Family of Japan, which were eligible to succeed to the Chrysanthemum Throne in the event that the main line should die out.
was a scion of the Japanese imperial family and was a career naval officer who served as chief of staff of the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1932 to 1941.
was the second (and last) head of the Higashifushimi-no-miya, an ōke cadet branch of the Japanese imperial family.
was the sixth head of a cadet branch of the Japanese imperial family, and a career army officer who served as Chief of the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff from 1931 to 1940.
was a Japanese career officer in the Imperial Japanese Army, who was a member of the Fushimi-no-miya, one of the shinnōke branches of the Imperial Family of Japan, which were eligible to succeed to the Chrysanthemum Throne in the event that the main line should die out.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.
The Provisional Priamurye Government (or Provisional Priamur Government, Russian: Приамурский земский край) existed in the Far East Russian region of Priamurye, Russia, between May 27, 1921 and October 25, 1922.
The Book of Psalms (תְּהִלִּים or, Tehillim, "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms or "the Psalms", is the first book of the Ketuvim ("Writings"), the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and a book of the Christian Old Testament.
A puppet state is a state that is supposedly independent but is in fact dependent upon an outside power.
Puyi or Pu Yi (7 February 190617 October 1967), of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan, was the last Emperor of China and the twelfth and final ruler of the Qing dynasty.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Qingdao (also spelled Tsingtao) is a city in eastern Shandong Province on the east coast of China.
Racial equality occurs when institutions give equal opportunity to people of all races.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Rehe (ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ), also known as Jehol, is a former Chinese special administrative region and province.
The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.
The was a short-lived state established in 1869 by a part of the former Tokugawa military in what is now known as Hokkaido, the large but sparsely populated northernmost island in modern Japan.
Republicanism is an ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty.
Rikitarō Fujisawa (Japanese: 藤沢 利喜太郎, Fujisawa Rikitarō; 12 October 1861 – 23 December 1933) was a Japanese mathematician.
The was one of the main political parties in the pre-war Empire of Japan.
The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
The Russo–Japanese War (Russko-yaponskaya voina; Nichirosensō; 1904–05) was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.
was a Japanese inventor.
is known as the "father of Japanese studies" at Columbia University.
was a Japanese aircraft/automotive engineer.
was a Japanese physician, a prominent academic, and bacteriologist researcher.
Baron was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army before and during World War II.
SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.
Saipan (formerly in Spanish: Saipán) is the largest island of the Northern Mariana Islands, a commonwealth of the United States in the western Pacific Ocean.
Viscount was a Japanese naval officer and politician.
Sakhalin (Сахалин), previously also known as Kuye Dao (Traditional Chinese:庫頁島, Simplified Chinese:库页岛) in Chinese and in Japanese, is a large Russian island in the North Pacific Ocean, lying between 45°50' and 54°24' N.
was a Japanese inventor and industrialist.
was the isolationist foreign policy of the Japanese Tokugawa shogunate under which relations and trade between Japan and other countries were severely limited, nearly all foreigners were barred from entering Japan, and common Japanese people were kept from leaving the country for a period of over 220 years.
were the military nobility and officer caste of medieval and early-modern Japan.
Sanshi Imai (今井 三子, 1900–1976) was a Japanese mycologist of Hokkaido Imperial University.
was a Japanese engineer and naval architect of the Meiji period and a career officer in the Imperial Japanese Navy.
The, or Satchō Alliance was a military alliance between the feudal domains of Satsuma and Chōshū formed in 1866 to combine their efforts to restore Imperial rule and overthrow the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan.
was a theoretical physicist.
Satoyasu Iimori (19 October 1885 – 13 October 1982) was a Japanese analytical chemist and a pioneer of radiochemistry.
, also known as Kagoshima Domain, was a Japanese domain of the Edo period.
was an old province of Japan that is now the western half of Kagoshima Prefecture on the island of Kyūshū.
The was a revolt of disaffected samurai against the new imperial government, nine years into the Meiji Era.
was a Japanese parasitologist, entomologist, and helminthologist.
was a Japanese mathematician who worked mainly in mathematical analysis and who posed the Kakeya problem and solved a version of the transportation problem.
The Second Australian Imperial Force (Second, or 2nd, AIF) was the name given to the volunteer personnel of the Australian Army in World War II.
The Second Boer War (11 October 1899 – 31 May 1902) was fought between the British Empire and two Boer states, the South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal) and the Orange Free State, over the Empire's influence in South Africa.
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945.
was a Japanese Rear-Admiral and Engineer.
was a Japanese physicist, known for his explanation of the Kikuchi lines that show up in diffraction patterns of diffusely scattered electrons.
, alternatively Sekiya Kiyokage, was a Japanese geologist, one of the first seismologists, influential in establishing the study of seismology in Japan and known for his model showing the motion of an earth-particle during an earthquake.
was an Imperial Japanese Army commander of the Chosen Army of Japan in Korea during the Mukden Incident and the invasion of Manchuria, and a Japanese politician and the 33rd Prime Minister of Japan from 2 February 1937 to 4 June 1937.
Seoul (like soul; 서울), officially the Seoul Special Metropolitan City – is the capital, Constitutional Court of Korea and largest metropolis of South Korea.
The Seymour Expedition was an attempt by a multi-national military force to march to Beijing and protect the diplomatic legations and foreign nationals in the city from attacks by Boxers in 1900.
The was the military dictator of Japan during the period from 1185 to 1868 (with exceptions).
The, or Shōwa era, refers to the period of Japanese history corresponding to the reign of the Shōwa Emperor, Hirohito, from December 25, 1926 until his death on January 7, 1989.
, born in Saga City, Japan, was a Japanese industrial engineer who is considered as the world’s leading expert on manufacturing practices and the Toyota Production System.
, KCVO (22 September 1878 – 20 October 1967) was a Japanese diplomat and politician who served as Prime Minister of Japan from 1946 to 1947 and from 1948 to 1954, becoming one of the longest serving PMs in Japanese history as the second-longest serving Prime Minister of Post-occupation Japan.
was a Japanese electrical engineer, inventor of the non-loaded cable carrier system, the Minister of the Ministry of Communications (Teishin-in, between August 30, 1945 and April 8, 1946), politician and the founder of Tokai University.
Marshal-Admiral Baron was a Japanese admiral during the First Sino-Japanese and Russo-Japanese Wars as well as one of the first prominent staff officers and naval strategists of the early Imperial Japanese Navy.
The refers to a series of military engagements in 1863 and 1864, fought to control Shimonoseki Straits of Japan by joint naval forces from Great Britain, France, the Netherlands and the United States, against the Japanese feudal domain of Chōshū, which took place off and on the coast of Shimonoseki, Japan.
was the first Japanese astronomer to discover an asteroid.
, usually cited as Sin-Itiro Tomonaga in English, was a Japanese physicist, influential in the development of quantum electrodynamics, work for which he was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1965 along with Richard Feynman and Julian Schwinger.
, also known as, was a Japanese ethnologist, linguist, folklorist, novelist, and poet.
was a Japanese aircraft/automotive engineer.
Winckworth R. (1946).
or kami-no-michi (among other names) is the traditional religion of Japan that focuses on ritual practices to be carried out diligently to establish a connection between present-day Japan and its ancient past.
was a Japanese academic, physicist, astronomer and president of Kyoto University.
was a Japanese physicist who was internationally known for theoretical work on the subatomic particles.
was a Japanese mathematician.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
The Siege of Tsingtao, sometimes Siege of Tsingtau, was the attack on the German port of Tsingtao (Qingdao) in China during World War I by Japan and the United Kingdom.
The sinking of Prince of Wales and Repulse was a naval engagement in the Second World War, part of the war in the Pacific, that took place north of Singapore, off the east coast of Malaya, near Kuantan, Pahang, where the British Royal Navy battleship and battlecruiser were sunk by land-based bombers and torpedo bombers of the Imperial Japanese Navy on 10 December 1941.
Sixth Army is a field army of the United States Army.
was a Japanese engineer and industrialist.
was a Japanese and Chinese political philosophy and a social movement derived from Neo-Confucianism; it became a political slogan in the 1850s and 1860s in the movement to overthrow the Tokugawa shogunate during the Bakumatsu period.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
The Soviet invasion of Manchuria, formally known as the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation (Манчжурская стратегическая наступательная операция, lit. Manchzhurskaya Strategicheskaya Nastupatelnaya Operatsiya) or simply the Manchurian Operation (Маньчжурская операция), began on 9 August 1945 with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The, also known as the, was a pact between the Soviet Union and the Empire of Japan signed on April 13, 1941, two years after the brief Soviet–Japanese Border War.
The Soviet–Japanese War (Советско-японская война; ソ連対日参戦, "Soviet Union entry into war against Japan") was a military conflict within the Second World War beginning soon after midnight on August 9, 1945, with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo.
In the field of international relations, a sphere of influence (SOI) is a spatial region or concept division over which a state or organization has a level of cultural, economic, military, or political exclusivity, accommodating to the interests of powers outside the borders of the state that controls it.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
describes the Empire of Japan's ideological use of the native folk traditions of Shinto.
was a political syncretism of Japanese right-wing political ideologies, developed over a period of time from the Meiji Restoration.
The Stavka (Ставка) was the high command of the armed forces in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union.
The Straits Settlements (Negeri-negeri Selat, نݢري٢ سلت) were a group of British territories located in Southeast Asia.
Strategic bombing is a military strategy used in a total war with the goal of defeating the enemy by destroying its morale or its economic ability to produce and transport materiel to the theatres of military operations, or both.
Strategic material is any sort of raw material that is important to an individual's or organization's strategic plan and supply chain management.
thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.
Sumatra is an Indonesian island in Southeast Asia that is part of the Sunda Islands.
The is one of the largest Japanese keiretsu, or business groups, founded by Masatomo Sumitomo around 1615.
was a Japanese pathologist known for the discovery of the atrioventricular node.
Surrender, in military terms, is the relinquishment of control over territory, combatants, fortifications, ships or armament to another power.
The surrender of Imperial Japan was announced on August 15 and formally signed on September 2, 1945, bringing the hostilities of World War II to a close.
Suzerainty (and) is a back-formation from the late 18th-century word suzerain, meaning upper-sovereign, derived from the French sus (meaning above) + -erain (from souverain, meaning sovereign).
The, or Taishō era, is a period in the history of Japan dating from July 30, 1912, to December 25, 1926, coinciding with the reign of the Emperor Taishō.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
The was the currency of Japanese Taiwan from 1895 to 1946.
was a Japanese theoretical physicist, known for group theory in quantum mechanics first proposed by Yamanouchi in Japan.
was a member of the Imperial House of Japan.
Baron was a Japanese naval physician.
was a Japanese chemist.
was a Japanese biochemist and oncologist known for demonstrating the induction of liver cancer in rats by Ortho-Aminoazotoluene with his pupil Tomizo Yoshida.
was a Japanese botanist.
was a Japanese aircraft designer.
was a Japanese radio astronomer.
was a prominent Japanese physicist and Marxist.
was a Japanese meteorologist, biologist, ethnologist historian.
, (1884–1962) was a Japanese naturalist in Korea under Japanese rule (1910–1945).
Baron was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army, politician, and the 26th Prime Minister of Japan from 20 April 1927 to 2 July 1929.
was a Japanese rangaku scholar, engineer and inventor during the Bakumatsu and early Meiji period in Japan.
Tanaka Yoshio (September 27, 1838 – June 22, 1916) was a Japanese civil servant and naturalist.
was a Japanese physicist with diverse interests and effect.
Tatsuo Hasegawa (長谷川 龍雄, Hasegawa Tatsuo, February 8, 1916 – April 29, 2008) was a Japanese automotive engineer, and known as the development chief of the first Toyota Corolla.
Marshal-Admiral The Marquis Tōgō Heihachirō, OM, GCVO (東郷 平八郎; 27 January 184830 May 1934), was a gensui or admiral of the fleet in the Imperial Japanese Navy and one of Japan's greatest naval heroes.
, was a political faction in the Imperial Japanese Army active in the 1920s and the 1930s.
Teiji Takagi (高木 貞治 Takagi Teiji, April 21, 1875 – February 28, 1960) was a Japanese mathematician, best known for proving the Takagi existence theorem in class field theory.
Gensui Count, GCB (5 February 1852 – 3 November 1919), was a Japanese military officer, proconsul and politician.
was an important figure in the field of Japanese language studies and Sinology.
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was an American statesman and writer who served as the 26th President of the United States from 1901 to 1909.
Tianjin, formerly romanized as Tientsin, is a coastal metropolis in northern China and one of the four national central cities of the People's Republic of China (PRC), with a total population of 15,469,500, and is also the world's 11th-most populous city proper.
was a Japanese scientist and academic.
The Tokugawa shogunate, also known as the and the, was the last feudal Japanese military government, which existed between 1600 and 1868.
was the 15th and last shōgun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan.
was a Japanese businessman and the founder of Hayakawa Kinzoku Kōgyō (the present-day Sharp Corporation).
was a Japanese metallurgist.
was a municipality in Japan and part of Tokyo-fu which existed from 1 May 1889 until its merger with its prefecture on 1 July 1943.
Tomitaro Makino was a pioneer Japanese botanist noted for his taxonomic work.
was a prominent Japanese pathologist, famous for discovering the Yoshida sarcoma.
The was the smallest unit of the national mobilization program established by the Japanese government in World War II.
was a Japanese physicist and author who was born in Tokyo.
Ryuzo Torii (鳥居 龍藏; May 4, 1870 – January 14, 1953) was a Japanese anthropologist, ethnologist, archaeologist and folklorist.
was Professor Emeritus at Keio University in Japan and author of many books on Islam and other religions.
Toshiwo Doko (土光 敏夫 Dokō Toshio, September 15, 1896 - August 4, 1988) was a Japanese engineer born in Mitsu District, Okayama, Manager, President and Chairman of Toshiba.
Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
A tract is a literary work, and in current usage, usually religious in nature.
The was an unofficial and informal political faction within the Imperial Japanese Navy in the 1920s-1930s of officers supporting the Washington Naval Treaty.
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on 3 March 1918 between the new Bolshevik government of Soviet Russia and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire), that ended Russia's participation in World War I. The treaty was signed at Brest-Litovsk (Brześć Litewski; since 1945 Brest), after two months of negotiations.
The Treaty of Portsmouth formally ended the 1904–05 Russo-Japanese War.
The (Russian:Петербургский договор) between the Empire of Japan and Empire of Russia was signed on 7 May 1875, and its ratifications exchanged at Tokyo on 22 August 1875.
The was a treaty signed at the Shunpanrō hotel, Shimonoseki, Japan on 17 April 1895, between the Empire of Japan and the Qing Empire, ending the First Sino-Japanese War.
A tributary state is a term for a pre-modern state in a particular type of subordinate relationship to a more powerful state which involved the sending of a regular token of submission, or tribute, to the superior power.
The Triodion (Τριῴδιον, Triōdion; Slavonic: Постнаѧ Трїωдь, Postnaya Triod; Triodul, Albanian: Triod/Triodi), also called the Lenten Triodion (Τριῴδιον κατανυκτικόν, Triodion katanyktikon), is the liturgical book used by the Eastern Orthodox Church.
The Tripartite Pact, also known as the Berlin Pact, was an agreement between Germany, Italy and Japan signed in Berlin on 27 September 1940 by, respectively, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Galeazzo Ciano and Saburō Kurusu.
The was a diplomatic intervention by Russia, Germany, and France on 23 April 1895 over the terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki signed between Japan and Qing Dynasty China that ended the First Sino-Japanese War.
is a city in Fukui Prefecture, Japan.
was a Japanese mathematician and historian of Japanese mathematics.
was a Japanese psychologist and the first Japanese woman to receive a Doctor of Philosophy.
The Twenty-One Demands (対華21ヶ条要求, Taika Nijūikkajō Yōkyū) were a set of demands made during the First World War by the Empire of Japan under Prime Minister Ōkuma Shigenobu sent to the government of the Republic of China on January 8, 1915.
was a Japanese physicist and science essayist known for his work in glaciology and low-temperature sciences.
was a Japanese scientist, born in Shizuoka Prefecture.
Unequal treaty is the name given by the Chinese to a series of treaties signed with Western powers during the 19th and early 20th centuries by Qing dynasty China after suffering military defeat by the West or when there was a threat of military action by those powers.
United Nations trust territories were the successors of the remaining League of Nations mandates, and came into being when the League of Nations ceased to exist in 1946.
The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF or AAF), informally known as the Air Force, was the aerial warfare service of the United States of America during and immediately after World War II (1939/41–1945), successor to the previous United States Army Air Corps and the direct predecessor of the United States Air Force of today, one of the five uniformed military services.
Ushinosuke Mori (森 丑之助 Mori Ushinosuke, January 16, 1877 - July 4, 1926) was a Japanese anthropologist and folklorist.
The USS Panay incident was a Japanese attack on the American gunboat while it was anchored in the Yangtze River outside Nanking (now spelled Nanjing), China on 12 December 1937.
Vice admiral is a senior naval flag officer rank, equivalent to lieutenant general and air marshal.
A viscount (for male) or viscountess (for female) is a title used in certain European countries for a noble of varying status.
were armed civil defense units planned in 1945 in the Empire of Japan as a last desperate measure to defend the Japanese home islands against the projected Allied invasion during Operation Downfall (Ketsugo Sakusen) in the final stages of World War II.
Baron was a Japanese politician and the 25th and 28th Prime Minister of Japan.
Wang Jingwei (Wang Ching-wei; 4 May 1883 – 10 November 1944); born as Wang Zhaoming (Wang Chao-ming), but widely known by his pen name "Jingwei", was a Chinese politician.
The Wang Jingwei regime is the common name of the Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China (p), a puppet state of the Empire of Japan, located in eastern China.
War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.
The Washington Naval Treaty, also known as the Five-Power Treaty, the Four-Power Treaty, and the Nine-Power Treaty, was a treaty signed during 1922 among the major nations that had won World War I, which agreed to prevent an arms race by limiting naval construction.
Westernization (US) or Westernisation (UK), also Europeanization/Europeanisation or occidentalization/occidentalisation (from the Occident, meaning the Western world; see "occident" in the dictionary), is a process whereby societies come under or adopt Western culture in areas such as industry, technology, law, politics, economics, lifestyle, diet, clothing, language, alphabet, religion, philosophy, and values.
The term White Australia policy comprises various historical policies that effectively barred people of non-European descent from emigrating into Australia.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Xenophobia is the fear and distrust of that which is perceived to be foreign or strange.
was a Japanese zoologist.
The Yalta Conference, also known as the Crimea Conference and code named the Argonaut Conference, held from 4 to 11 February 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union for the purpose of discussing Germany and Europe's postwar reorganization.
Prince, also known as Yamagata Kyōsuke, was a Japanese field marshal in the Imperial Japanese Army and twice Prime Minister of Japan.
was a Japanese pathologist who carried out pioneering work into the causes of cancer.
was a Japanese samurai of the late Edo period who went on to become a noted physicist, university president, and author of several histories of the Boshin War.
Viscount was a Japanese samurai of the late Edo period who became an influential member of the Meiji era government of Japan.
was a Japanese civil engineer and corporate executive in the electric power industry.
was a financial conglomerate owned and managed by the Yasuda clan.
, also known as Prince Yasuhito, was the second son of Emperor Taishō, a younger brother of the Emperor Hirohito and a general in the Imperial Japanese Army.
was a Japanese electrical scientist from Matsusaka, Mie.
Yasunori Miyoshi, (三好保徳 Miyoshi Yasunori) born 17 April 1909 and died 19 April 1995, was a Japanese zoologist, ichthyologist, and myriapodologist.
was a Japanese botanist who worked alongside Tomitaro Makino 'The Father of Japanese Botany', at the University of Tokyo.
Yo Takenaka (竹中 要 Takenaka Yō, 1903–1966) was a Japanese plant geneticist and a Professor of Department of Cell Genetics, National Institute of Genetics.
was a Japanese malacologist.
was an engineer and scientist that had a major role in the Japanese development of magnetrons and the Radio Range Finder (RRF – the code name for a radar).
The was an elite para-military youth branch of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association political party of wartime Empire of Japan established in January 1942, and based on the model of the German Sturmabteilung (stormtroopers).
(January 4, 1882 – January 8, 1949) was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army in World War II.
was a Japanese mathematician and wasan historian.
was a Japanese physicist.
was a Japanese engineer and an assistant of Thomas Edison.
was a philosopher, educator, and statesman in Shōwa period Japan.
was a Japanese entrepreneur, businessman, and politician, noteworthy as the founder and first president of the Nissan zaibatsu between 1931 and 1945.
was a Japanese astronomer noted for his contributions to celestial mechanics.
was a Japanese archaeologist, historian and anthropologist.
Yutaka Taniyama (Japanese: 谷山 豊 Taniyama Yutaka; 12 November 1927, Kisai near Tokyo – 17 November 1958, Tokyo) was a Japanese mathematician known for the Taniyama–Shimura conjecture.
Vice Admiral Baron was a career naval officer in the Imperial Japanese Navy, Doctor of Engineering and head of the engineering school of Tokyo Imperial University and a leading Japanese naval architect in the 1910s and 1920s, responsible for designing a number of famous warships, many of which would later see action during World War II.
is a Japanese term referring to industrial and financial business conglomerates in the Empire of Japan, whose influence and size allowed control over significant parts of the Japanese economy from the Meiji period until the end of World War II.
was a Japanese scholar, known particularly for his work on the Omoro sōshi, a written collection of songs and poems which constitute an oral history of Okinawa and the Ryūkyū Kingdom.
The was an infantry division in the Imperial Japanese Army.
The 50th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 50 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The was an infantry division of the Imperial Japanese Army.
was an infantry division in the Imperial Japanese Army.
Colonial Japan, Dai Nippon, Dai Nippon Teikoku, Dai-Nippon, Empire of Greater Japan, Empire of Japan (culture, religion and education), Empire of Japan (culture,religion and education), Empire of japan, Great Japanese Empire, Greater Japan, Greater Japanese Empire, Imperial Japan, Imperial Japanese, Imprial Japan, Japan Empire, Japan in WWII, Japan in the Second World War, Japan/Expansionism, Japanese Colonial Government, Japanese Empire, Japanese Expansion, Japanese Imperial, Japanese Imperial era, Japanese empire, The Empire of Japan, The Japanese Empire, 大日本帝国, 大日本帝國.