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Empire of Trebizond

Index Empire of Trebizond

The Empire of Trebizond or the Trapezuntine Empire was a monarchy that flourished during the 13th through 15th centuries, consisting of the far northeastern corner of Anatolia and the southern Crimea. [1]

174 relations: Abu'l-Fida, Alexios I Komnenos, Alexios I of Trebizond, Alexios II of Trebizond, Alexios III Angelos, Alexios III of Trebizond, Alexios IV of Trebizond, Alexios V Doukas, Amasya, Anatolia, Andronikos I Komnenos, Angelos, Anna Komnene, Anthony Bryer, Aq Qoyunlu, Arabs, Archon, Artvin Province, Aspron, Augustus, Autokrator, Çoruh River, Ünye, Bandon (Byzantine Empire), Bartın Province, Basil of Trebizond, Basileus, Basilios Bessarion, Battle of Ankara, Bayburt Province, Belgrade, Black Death, Black Sea, Buffer state, Bursa, Byzantine Empire, Chaldia, Cherson (theme), Client state, Constantine Gabras, Constantinople, Council of Florence, Crimea, David Komnenos, David of Trebizond, Despina Khatun, Despot (court title), Despotate of Epirus, Diocese, Don Quixote, ..., Dorothy Dunnett, Double-headed eagle, Dowry, Dumbarton Oaks Papers, Eastern Orthodox Church, Elective monarchy, Emir, Empire of Nicaea, Empire of Thessalonica, Erzurum, Fall of Constantinople, Feodosia, Fourth Crusade, François Rabelais, Fyodor Uspensky, Gazaria (Genoese colonies), Gümüşhane Province, George Amiroutzes, George Finlay, George III of Georgia, George Pachymeres, Georgian expedition to Chaldia, Giresun, Giresun Province, Gregory Gabras, Gregory Taronites (governor of Chaldia), Hagia Sophia, Trabzon, Heraclea Pontica, Hulagu Khan, Iran, Isaac II Angelos, Islamization, Jahan Shah, Jakob Philipp Fallmerayer, Jerusalem, John II Komnenos, John II of Trebizond, John IV of Trebizond, John Lazaropoulos, John VIII Palaiologos, Kara Koyunlu, Karadeniz Ereğli, Karamanids, Kastamonu Province, Kerch, Kingdom of Georgia, Kingdom of Iberia, Komnenos, Laskaris, Late Middle Ages, Latin Empire, Lawrence Schoonover, Laz language, Laz people, Lazia (Pontus), Lazica, Limnia (Pontus), List of Byzantine emperors, List of rulers of Aq Qoyunlu, List of Trapezuntine emperors, Manuel I of Trebizond, Manuel III of Trebizond, Manuel Komnenos (son of Andronikos I), Marco Polo, Marriage of state, Mehmed the Conqueror, Michael I Komnenos Doukas, Michael of Trebizond, Michael VIII Palaiologos, Miguel de Cervantes, Monarchy, Mongol Empire, Mongols, Murad II, Of, Turkey, Ordu Province, Ottoman Empire, Palaiologos, Paphlagonia, Perateia, Pontic Greek, Pontic Greeks, Pontic Mountains, Principality of Theodoro, Provinces of Turkey, Republic of Genoa, Republic of Venice, Rize, Rize Province, Rose Macaulay, Rusudan, daughter of George III of Georgia, Sack of Constantinople (1204), Safavid dynasty, Samsun Province, Second Bulgarian Empire, Seljuq dynasty, Serbian Empire, Sergey Karpov, Siege of Baghdad (1258), Siege of Trebizond (1461), Silk Road, Sinop Province, Sinop, Turkey, Steven Runciman, Strategos, Sultanate of Rum, Sumela Monastery, Tabriz, Tamar of Georgia, The Towers of Trebizond, Theme (Byzantine district), Theodore Gabras, Theodore I Laskaris, Thomas F. Madden, Timur, Trabzon, Trabzon Province, Trapezuntine Civil War, Turkish people, Turkmens, Uzun Hasan, William Miller (historian), Yeşilırmak (river), Zonguldak Province. Expand index (124 more) »

Abu'l-Fida

Abu al-Fida (أبو الفداء; November 1273October 27, 1331), fully Abu Al-fida' Isma'il Ibn 'ali ibn Mahmud Al-malik Al-mu'ayyad 'imad Ad-din and better known in English as Abulfeda, was a Kurdish historian, geographer and local governor of Hama.

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Alexios I Komnenos

Alexios I Komnenos (Ἀλέξιος Αʹ Κομνηνός., c. 1048 – 15 August 1118) was Byzantine emperor from 1081 to 1118.

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Alexios I of Trebizond

Alexios I Megas Komnenos or Alexius I Megas Comnenus (translit; c. 1182 – 1 February 1222) was, with his brother David, the founder of the Empire of Trebizond, which he ruled from 1204 until his death in 1222.

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Alexios II of Trebizond

Alexios II Megas Komnenos or Alexius II (translit, Sept./Dec. 1282 – 3 May 1330), was Emperor of Trebizond from 1297 to 1330.

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Alexios III Angelos

Alexios III Angelos (Αλέξιος Γ' Άγγελος) (1211) was Byzantine Emperor from March 1195 to July 17/18, 1203.

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Alexios III of Trebizond

Alexios III Megas Komnenos (translit, 5 October 1338 – 20 March 1390), or Alexius III, was Emperor of Trebizond from December 1349 until his death.

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Alexios IV of Trebizond

Alexios IV Megas Komnenos or Alexius IV (translit, 1382–1429), Emperor of Trebizond from 5 March 1417 to October 1429.

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Alexios V Doukas

Alexios V Doukas, Alexios V Doukas Mourtzouphlos or Alexius V Ducas (Ἀλέξιος Εʹ Δούκας; December 1204) was Byzantine emperor from 5 February to 12 April 1204 during the second and final siege of Constantinople by the participants of the Fourth Crusade.

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Amasya

Amasya (Ἀμάσεια) is a city in northern Turkey and is the capital of Amasya Province, in the Black Sea Region.

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Anatolia

Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.

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Andronikos I Komnenos

Andronikos I Komnenos (Ανδρόνικος Αʹ Κομνηνός, Andrónikos I Komnēnós; – 12 September 1185), usually Latinized as Andronicus I Comnenus, was Byzantine Emperor from 1183 to 1185.

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Angelos

The Angelos family (Ἄγγελος), feminine form Angelina (Άγγελίνα), plural Angeloi (Ἄγγελοι), was a Byzantine or Eastern Roman noble lineage which gave rise to three Byzantine emperors who ruled between 1185 and 1204.

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Anna Komnene

Anna Komnene (Ἄννα Κομνηνή, Ánna Komnēnḗ; 1 December 1083 – 1153), commonly latinized as Anna Comnena, was a Byzantine princess, scholar, physician, hospital administrator, and historian.

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Anthony Bryer

Anthony Applemore Mornington Bryer OBE was a British historian of the Byzantine Empire and founder of the Centre for Byzantine, Ottoman and Modern Greek Studies at the University of Birmingham.

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Aq Qoyunlu

The Aq Qoyunlu or Ak Koyunlu, also called the White Sheep Turkomans (Āq Quyūnlū), was a Persianate Sunni Oghuz Turkic tribal federation that ruled present-day Armenia, Azerbaijan, Eastern Turkey, most part of Iran, and Iraq from 1378 to 1501.

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Arabs

Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.

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Archon

Archon (ἄρχων, árchon, plural: ἄρχοντες, árchontes) is a Greek word that means "ruler", frequently used as the title of a specific public office.

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Artvin Province

Artvin Province (Artvin ili, ართვინის პროვინცია Artvinis provintsia) is a province in Turkey, on the Black Sea coast in the north-eastern corner of the country, on the border with Georgia. The provincial capital is the city of Artvin.

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Aspron

The aspron (ἄσπρον), from Latin asper, was a late Byzantine name for silver or silver-alloy coins.

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Augustus

Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.

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Autokrator

Autokratōr (αὐτοκράτωρ, autokrátor, αὐτοκράτορες, autokrátores, Ancient Greek pronunciation, Byzantine pronunciation lit. "self-ruler", "one who rules by himself", from αὐτός and κράτος) is a Greek epithet applied to an individual who exercises absolute power, unrestrained by superiors.

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Çoruh River

The Çoruh River (Çoruh, ჭოროხი ch'orokhi, Άκαμψις, Akampsis) rises in the Mescit Mountains in north-eastern Turkey, flows through the cities of Bayburt, Ispir, Yusufeli, and Artvin, along the Kelkit-Çoruh Fault, before flowing into Georgia, where it reaches the Black Sea just south of Batumi and a few kilometers north of the Turkish-Georgian border.

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Ünye

Ünye (Oinòe, Οινόη in ancient Greek) is a large town and district of Ordu Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey, 76 km west of the city of Ordu.

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Bandon (Byzantine Empire)

The bandon (βάνδον) was the basic military unit and administrative territorial entity of the middle Byzantine Empire.

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Bartın Province

Bartın Province (Bartın ili), a small province in northern Turkey on the Black Sea, surrounds the city of Bartın.

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Basil of Trebizond

Basil Megas Komnenos (Basileios Megas Komnēnos) (died 6 April 1340) was Emperor of Trebizond from August 1332 until his death in 1340.

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Basileus

Basileus (βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title that has signified various types of monarchs in history.

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Basilios Bessarion

Basilios (or Basilius) Bessarion (Greek: Βασίλειος Βησσαρίων; 2 January 1403 – 18 November 1472), a Roman Catholic Cardinal Bishop and the titular Latin Patriarch of Constantinople, was one of the illustrious Greek scholars who contributed to the great revival of letters in the 15th century.

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Battle of Ankara

The Battle of Ankara (or Angora) was fought on 20 July 1402 at the Çubuk plain near Ankara between the forces of the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I and Timur (Tamerlane), ruler of the Timurid Empire.

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Bayburt Province

Bayburt Province (Bayburt ili) is a province of Turkey. Located in the Northeast Anatolia region of the country, the capital city is Bayburt, and with a population of 74,412 is the least-populous province in Turkey.

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Belgrade

Belgrade (Beograd / Београд, meaning "White city",; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.

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Black Death

The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.

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Black Sea

The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.

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Buffer state

A buffer state is a country lying between two rival or potentially hostile greater powers.

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Bursa

Bursa is a large city in Turkey, located in northwestern Anatolia, within the Marmara Region.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Chaldia

Chaldia (Χαλδία, Khaldia) was a historical region located in mountainous interior of the eastern Black Sea, northeast Anatolia (modern Turkey).

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Cherson (theme)

The Theme of Cherson (θέμα Χερσῶνος, thema Chersōnos), originally and formally called the Klimata (Greek: τὰ Κλίματα) was a Byzantine theme (a military-civilian province) located in the southern Crimea, headquartered at Cherson.

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Client state

A client state is a state that is economically, politically, or militarily subordinate to another more powerful state in international affairs.

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Constantine Gabras

Constantine Gabras or Gavras (Κωνσταντίνος Γαβρᾶς) was the governor or doux (duke) of the Byzantine province of Chaldia, centred on the Black Sea port of Trebizond and its mountainous hinterland, the Pontic Alps, in northeast Anatolia, now part of Turkey.

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Constantinople

Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.

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Council of Florence

The Seventeenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church was convoked as the Council of Basel by Pope Martin V shortly before his death in February 1431 and took place in the context of the Hussite wars in Bohemia and the rise of the Ottoman Empire.

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Crimea

Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.

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David Komnenos

David Komnenos (Δαβίδ Κομνηνός) (c. 1184 – 1212) was one of the founders of the Empire of Trebizond and its joint ruler together with his brother Alexios until his death.

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David of Trebizond

David Megas Komnenos (Δαβίδ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Dabid Megas Komnēnos) (1408 – 1 November 1463) was the last Emperor of Trebizond from 1459 to 1461.

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Despina Khatun

Theodora Megale Komnene (Θεοδώρα Μεγάλη Κομνηνή), also known as Despina Khatun (دسپینا خاتون; from the Greek title Despoina and Mongol title Khatun, both meaning "Lady, princess, queen") was the daughter of John IV of Trebizond, who married the Aq Qoyunlu ruler Uzun Hasan in 1458.

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Despot (court title)

Despot or despotes (from δεσπότης, despótēs, "lord", "master") was a senior Byzantine court title that was bestowed on the sons or sons-in-law of reigning emperors, and initially denoted the heir-apparent.

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Despotate of Epirus

The Despotate of Epirus (Δεσποτάτο της Ηπείρου) was one of the successor states of the Byzantine Empire established in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade in 1204 by a branch of the Angelos dynasty.

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Diocese

The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration".

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Don Quixote

The Ingenious Nobleman Sir Quixote of La Mancha (El Ingenioso Hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha), or just Don Quixote (Oxford English Dictionary, ""), is a Spanish novel by Miguel de Cervantes.

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Dorothy Dunnett

Dorothy Dunnett (née Halliday, 25 August 1923 – 9 November 2001) was a Scottish historical novelist.

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Double-headed eagle

In heraldry and vexillology, the double-headed eagle is a charge associated with the concept of Empire.

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Dowry

A dowry is a transfer of parental property, gifts or money at the marriage of a daughter.

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Dumbarton Oaks Papers

Dumbarton Oaks Papers (DOP) is an academic journal founded in 1941 for the publication of articles relating to civilizations of the late antique, early medieval, and Byzantine periods.

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Eastern Orthodox Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.

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Elective monarchy

An elective monarchy is a monarchy ruled by an elected monarch, in contrast to a hereditary monarchy in which the office is automatically passed down as a family inheritance.

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Emir

An emir (أمير), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West African, and Afghanistan.

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Empire of Nicaea

The Empire of Nicaea or the Nicene Empire was the largest of the three Byzantine GreekA Short history of Greece from early times to 1964 by W. A. Heurtley, H. C. Darby, C. W. Crawley, C. M. Woodhouse (1967), page 55: "There in the prosperous city of Nicaea, Theodoros Laskaris, the son in law of a former Byzantine Emperor, establish a court that soon become the Small but reviving Greek empire." rump states founded by the aristocracy of the Byzantine Empire that fled after Constantinople was occupied by Western European and Venetian forces during the Fourth Crusade.

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Empire of Thessalonica

Empire of Thessalonica (Αυτοκρατορία της Θεσσαλονίκης) is a historiographic term used by some modern scholars to refer to the short-lived Byzantine Greek state centred on the city of Thessalonica between 1224 and 1246 and ruled by the Komnenodoukas dynasty of Epirus.

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Erzurum

Erzurum (Կարին) is a city in eastern Anatolia (Asian Turkey).

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Fall of Constantinople

The Fall of Constantinople (Ἅλωσις τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Halōsis tēs Kōnstantinoupoleōs; İstanbul'un Fethi Conquest of Istanbul) was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading Ottoman army on 29 May 1453.

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Feodosia

Feodosia (Феодо́сия, Feodosiya; Феодо́сія, Feodosiia; Crimean Tatar and Turkish: Kefe), also called Theodosia (from), is a port and resort, a town of regional significance in Crimea on the Black Sea coast.

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Fourth Crusade

The Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) was a Latin Christian armed expedition called by Pope Innocent III.

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François Rabelais

François Rabelais (between 1483 and 1494 – 9 April 1553) was a French Renaissance writer, physician, Renaissance humanist, monk and Greek scholar.

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Fyodor Uspensky

Fyodor Ivanovich Uspensky or Uspenskij (Фёдор Иванович Успенский) was the preeminent Russian Byzantinist in the first third of the 20th century.

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Gazaria (Genoese colonies)

Gazara (Gazaria is a Russified version of the name; also Cassaria, Cacsarea, Gazaria, Gasaria) is the name given to the Genoese colonies in Crimea and around the Black Sea from the mid-13th century to the late 15th century.

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Gümüşhane Province

Gümüşhane Province (Gümüşhane ili) is a province in northern Turkey, bordering Bayburt to the east, Trabzon to the north, Giresun and Erzincan to the west.

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George Amiroutzes

George Amiroutzes (Γεώργιος Αμιρουτζής) (1400–1470) was a Pontic Greek Renaissance scholar, philosopher and civil servant.

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George Finlay

George Finlay (Faversham, Kent, 21 December 1799 – Athens, 26 January 1875) was a Scottish historian.

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George III of Georgia

George III (გიორგი III) (died 27 March 1184), of the Bagrationi dynasty, was the King of Georgia from 1156 to 1184. His reign was part of what would be called the Georgian Golden Age - a historical period in the High Middle Ages, during which the Kingdom of Georgia reached the peak of its military power and development. George was the father of Queen Tamar the Great.

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George Pachymeres

Georgius Pachymeres (Γεώργιος Παχυμέρης; 1242 – c. 1310), a Byzantine Greek historian, philosopher and miscellaneous writer.

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Georgian expedition to Chaldia

Georgian intervention in Chaldia the remarkable event of Queen Tamar's reign, which resulted by foundation of the Empire of Trebizond on the Black Sea coast in 1204.

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Giresun

Giresun, formerly Cerasus (Κερασοῦς), is the provincial capital of Giresun Province in the Black Sea Region of northeastern Turkey, about west of the city of Trabzon.

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Giresun Province

Giresun Province (Giresun ili) is a province of Turkey on the Black Sea coast. Its adjacent provinces are Trabzon to the east, Gümüşhane to the southeast, Erzincan to the south, Sivas to the southwest, and Ordu to the west. The provincial capital is Giresun.

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Gregory Gabras

Gregory Gabras (Γρηγόριος Γαβρᾶς) was the son of the Byzantine governor of Trebizond, Theodore Gabras who was involved in a minor unsuccessful rebellion against the Emperor Alexios I Komnenos around the year 1091.

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Gregory Taronites (governor of Chaldia)

Gregory Taronites (Γρηγόριος Ταρωνίτης) was a Byzantine governor of the theme of Chaldia (modern north-eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey) who rebelled against Emperor Alexios I Komnenos in 1103/4 and governed his province as a virtually independent ruler until his defeat in battle in 1106/7.

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Hagia Sophia, Trabzon

Hagia Sophia (Ἁγία Σοφία, meaning "Holy Wisdom" Ayasofya) is a museum, formerly Greek Orthodox church which was converted into a mosque in 1584, and located in Trabzon, in the north-eastern part of Turkey.

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Heraclea Pontica

__notoc__ Heraclea Pontica (Ἡράκλεια Ποντική Hērakleia Pontikē) was an ancient city on the coast of Bithynia in Asia Minor, at the mouth of the river Lycus.

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Hulagu Khan

Hulagu Khan, also known as Hülegü or Hulegu (ᠬᠦᠯᠡᠭᠦ|translit.

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Iran

Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Isaac II Angelos

Isaac II Angelos or Angelus (Ἰσαάκιος Β’ Ἄγγελος, Isaakios II Angelos; September 1156 – January 1204) was Byzantine Emperor from 1185 to 1195, and again from 1203 to 1204.

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Islamization

Islamization (also spelled Islamisation, see spelling differences; أسلمة), Islamicization or Islamification is the process of a society's shift towards Islam, such as found in Sudan, Pakistan, Iran, Malaysia, or Algeria.

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Jahan Shah

Muzaffar al-Din Jahan Shah ibn Yusuf (1397 in Khoy – 1467 in Tabriz) (جهان شاه; Cahan Şah/جهان شاه) was the leader of the Kara Koyunlu oghuz Turks dynasty in Azerbaijan and Arran who reigned c. 1438 – 1467.

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Jakob Philipp Fallmerayer

Jakob Philipp Fallmerayer (10 December 1790 – 26 April 1861) was a Tyrolean traveller, journalist, politician and historian, best known for his controversial Dream Nation: Enlightenment, Colonization, and the Institution of Modern Greece, Stathis Gourgouris p.142-143Sociolinguistic Variation and Change, Peter Trudgill, p.131The Fragments of Death, Fables of Identity: An Athenian Anthropography, Neni Panourgia - Social Science - 1995, p. 28 theories concerning the racial origins of the Greeks, and for his travel writings.

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Jerusalem

Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.

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John II Komnenos

John II Komnenos or Comnenus (Ίωάννης Βʹ Κομνηνός, Iōannēs II Komnēnos; 13 September 1087 – 8 April 1143) was Byzantine Emperor from 1118 to 1143.

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John II of Trebizond

John II Megas Komnenos (Ιωάννης Β΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Iōannēs II Megas Komnēnos) (c. 1262 – 16 August 1297) was Emperor of Trebizond from 1280 to 1297.

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John IV of Trebizond

John IV Megas Komnenos (Ιωάννης Δ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Iōannēs IV Megas Komnēnos) (1403 – 1460) was Emperor of Trebizond from 1429 until his death.

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John Lazaropoulos

John Lazaropoulos (c.1310 - 1369) was the Metropolitan of Trebizond (as Joseph) from 1364 to November 1367 and a religious writer.

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John VIII Palaiologos

John VIII Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Iōannēs Palaiologos; 18 December 1392 – 31 October 1448) was the penultimate reigning Byzantine Emperor, ruling from 1425 to 1448.

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Kara Koyunlu

The Kara Koyunlu or Qara Qoyunlu, also called the Black Sheep Turkomans (قره قویونلو), were a Muslim Oghuz Turkic monarchy that ruled over the territory comprising present-day Azerbaijan, Armenia (1406), northwestern Iran, eastern Turkey, and northeastern Iraq from about 1374 to 1468.

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Karadeniz Ereğli

Karadeniz Ereğli is a city and district in Zonguldak Province of Turkey, on the Black Sea shore at the mouth of the Kılıçsu River.

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Karamanids

The Karamanids or Karamanid dynasty (Modern Turkish: Karamanoğulları, Karamanoğulları Beyliği), also known as the Principality of Karaman and Beylik of Karaman (Karaman Beyliği), was one of the Islamic Anatolian beyliks, centered in south-central Anatolia around the present-day Karaman Province.

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Kastamonu Province

Kastamonu Province (Kastamonu ili) is one of the provinces of Turkey, in the Black Sea region to the north of the country. It is surrounded by Sinop to the east, Bartın, Karabük to the west, Çankırı to the south, Çorum to the southeast and the Black Sea to the north.

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Kerch

Kerch (Керчь, Керч, Old East Slavic: Кърчевъ, Ancient Greek: Παντικάπαιον Pantikapaion, Keriç, Kerç) is a city of regional significance on the Kerch Peninsula in the east of the Crimea.

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Kingdom of Georgia

The Kingdom of Georgia (საქართველოს სამეფო), also known as the Georgian Empire, was a medieval Eurasian monarchy which emerged circa 1008 AD.

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Kingdom of Iberia

In Greco-Roman geography, Iberia (Ancient Greek: Ἰβηρία; Hiberia) was an exonym (foreign name) for the Georgian kingdom of Kartli (ქართლი), known after its core province, which during Classical Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages was a significant monarchy in the Caucasus, either as an independent state or as a dependent of larger empires, notably the Sassanid and Roman empires.

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Komnenos

Komnenos (Κομνηνός), Latinized Comnenus, plural Komnenoi or Comneni (Κομνηνοί), is a noble family who ruled the Byzantine Empire from 1081 to 1185, and later, as the Grand Komnenoi (Μεγαλοκομνηνοί, Megalokomnenoi) founded and ruled the Empire of Trebizond (1204–1461).

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Laskaris

The Laskaris or Lascaris (Λάσκαρις, later Λάσκαρης) family was a Byzantine Greek noble family whose members formed the ruling dynasty of the Empire of Nicaea from 1204 to 1261 and remained among the senior nobility up to the dissolution of the Byzantine Empire, whereupon many emigrated to Italy and then to Smyrna (much later).

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Late Middle Ages

The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.

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Latin Empire

The Empire of Romania (Imperium Romaniae), more commonly known in historiography as the Latin Empire or Latin Empire of Constantinople, and known to the Byzantines as the Frankokratia or the Latin Occupation, was a feudal Crusader state founded by the leaders of the Fourth Crusade on lands captured from the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire.

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Lawrence Schoonover

Lawrence Schoonover (1906–1980) was an American novelist.

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Laz language

The Laz language (ლაზური ნენა, lazuri nena; ლაზური ენა, lazuri ena, or ჭანური ენა, ç̌anuri ena / chanuri ena) is a Kartvelian language spoken by the Laz people on the southeastern shore of the Black Sea.

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Laz people

The Laz people or Lazi (ლაზი, lazi; or ჭანი, ch'ani; Laz) are an indigenous Kartvelian-speaking ethnic group inhabiting the Black Sea coastal regions of Turkey and Georgia.

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Lazia (Pontus)

The Theme of Lazia or Greater Lazia (θέμα Μεγάλης Λαζίας; ლაზონა lazona) was the easternmost subdivision of the medieval Empire of Trebizond (1204–1461) located in mountainous interior of the eastern Black Sea, northeast Anatolia (modern Turkey).

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Lazica

Lazica (ეგრისის სამეფო, Egrisi; ლაზიკა, Laziǩa; Λαζική, Lazikē; لازستان, Lazistan; Եգեր, Yeger) was the Latin name given to the territory of Colchis during the Roman/Byzantine period, from about the 1st century BC.

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Limnia (Pontus)

Limnia (τα Λιμνία) was the westernmost subdivision of the medieval Empire of Trebizond, consisting of the southern coastline of the Black Sea around the mouth of the Yeşilırmak River.

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List of Byzantine emperors

This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Byzantine Empire (or the Eastern Roman Empire), to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD.

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List of rulers of Aq Qoyunlu

This is the list of rulers of Aq Qoyunlu dynasty ("The Horde of the White Sheep").

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List of Trapezuntine emperors

This is a list of the Trapezuntine emperors from the foundation of the Empire of Trebizond in 1204 to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1461.

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Manuel I of Trebizond

Manuel I Megas Komnenos (Greek: Μανουήλ Α΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Manouēl I Megas Komnēnos) (died March 1263) was an Emperor of Trebizond, from 1238 until his death.

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Manuel III of Trebizond

Manuel III Megas Komnenos (Μανουήλ Γ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Manouēl III Megas Komnēnos) (December 16, 1364 – March 5, 1417) was Emperor of Trebizond from March 20, 1390 to his death in 1417.

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Manuel Komnenos (son of Andronikos I)

Manuel Komnenos (Greek: Μανουήλ Κομνηνός, Manouēl Komnēnos; 1145–1185?) was the eldest son of Byzantine Emperor Andronikos Komnenos (r. 1183–1185) by his first wife, whose name is not recorded.

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Marco Polo

Marco Polo (1254January 8–9, 1324) was an Italian merchant, explorer, and writer, born in the Republic of Venice.

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Marriage of state

A marriage of state is a diplomatic marriage or union between two members of different nation-states or internally, between two power blocs, usually in authoritarian societies and is a practice which dates back into pre-history, as far back as early Grecian cultures in western society, and of similar antiquity in other civilizations.

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Mehmed the Conqueror

Mehmed II (محمد ثانى, Meḥmed-i sānī; Modern II.; 30 March 1432 – 3 May 1481), commonly known as Mehmed the Conqueror (Fatih Sultan Mehmet), was an Ottoman Sultan who ruled first for a short time from August 1444 to September 1446, and later from February 1451 to May 1481.

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Michael I Komnenos Doukas

Michael I Komnenos Doukas, Latinized as Comnenus Ducas (Μιχαήλ Κομνηνός Δούκας, Mikhaēl Komnēnos Doukas), and in modern sources often recorded as Michael I Angelos, a name he never used, was the founder and first ruler of the Despotate of Epirus from until his assassination in 1214/15.

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Michael of Trebizond

Michael Megas Komnenos (Greek: Μιχαήλ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Mikhaēl Megas Komnēnos), (c. 1288– after 1355), Emperor of Trebizond for one day, July 30, 1341 and from May 3, 1344 to December 13, 1349.

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Michael VIII Palaiologos

Michael VIII Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Μιχαὴλ Η΄ Παλαιολόγος, Mikhaēl VIII Palaiologos; 1223 – 11 December 1282) reigned as Byzantine Emperor 1259–1282.

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Miguel de Cervantes

Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (29 September 1547 (assumed)23 April 1616 NS) was a Spanish writer who is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the Spanish language and one of the world's pre-eminent novelists.

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Monarchy

A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.

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Mongol Empire

The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.

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Mongols

The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

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Murad II

Murad II (June 1404 – 3 February 1451) (Ottoman Turkish: مراد ثانى Murād-ı sānī, Turkish:II. Murat) was the Ottoman Sultan from 1421 to 1444 and 1446 to 1451.

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Of, Turkey

Of (possibly from Οφιούς Ophious) is a town and district of Trabzon Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey.

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Ordu Province

Ordu Province (Ordu ili) is a province of Turkey, located on the Black Sea coast. Its adjacent provinces are Samsun to the northwest, Tokat to the southwest, Sivas to the south, and Giresun to the east. Its license-plate code is 52. The capital of the province is the city of Ordu.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Palaiologos

The Palaiologos (Palaiologoi; Παλαιολόγος, pl. Παλαιολόγοι), also found in English-language literature as Palaeologus or Palaeologue, was the name of a Byzantine Greek family, which rose to nobility and ultimately produced the last ruling dynasty of the Byzantine Empire.

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Paphlagonia

Paphlagonia (Παφλαγονία, Paphlagonía, modern pronunciation Paflagonía; Paflagonya) was an ancient area on the Black Sea coast of north central Anatolia, situated between Bithynia to the west and Pontus to the east, and separated from Phrygia (later, Galatia) by a prolongation to the east of the Bithynian Olympus.

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Perateia

Perateia (Περάτεια, "place beyond ", cf. peraia) was the overseas territory of the Empire of Trebizond, comprising the Crimean cities of Cherson, Kerch and their hinterlands.

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Pontic Greek

Pontic Greek (ποντιακά, pontiaká) is a Greek language originally spoken in the Pontus area on the southern shores of the Black Sea, northeastern Anatolia, the Eastern Turkish/Caucasus province of Kars, southern Georgia and today mainly in northern Greece.

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Pontic Greeks

The Pontic Greeks, also known as Pontian Greeks (Πόντιοι, Ελληνοπόντιοι, Póntioi, Ellinopóntioi; Pontus Rumları, Karadeniz Rumları, პონტოელი ბერძნები, P’ont’oeli Berdznebi), are an ethnically Greek group who traditionally lived in the region of Pontus, on the shores of the Black Sea and in the Pontic Mountains of northeastern Anatolia.

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Pontic Mountains

The Pontic Mountains or Pontic Alps (Turkish: Kuzey Anadolu Dağları, meaning North Anatolian Mountains) form a mountain range in northern Anatolia, Turkey.

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Principality of Theodoro

The Principality of Theodoro (Πριγκιπάτο της Θεοδωρούς), also known as Gothia (Γοτθία) or the Principality of Theodoro-Mangup, was a Greek-speaking principality in the south-west of Crimea and both the final rump state of the Byzantine Empire and vestige of the Crimean Goths until its conquest by the Ottoman Turks in 1475.

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Provinces of Turkey

Turkey is divided into 81 provinces (il).

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Republic of Genoa

The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.

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Republic of Venice

The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.

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Rize

Rize is the capital city of Rize Province in the eastern part of the Black Sea Region of Turkey.

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Rize Province

Rize Province (Rize ili) is a province of north-east Turkey, on the eastern Black Sea coast between Trabzon and Artvin. The province of Erzurum is to the south. it was formerly known as Lazistan, the designation of the term of Lazistan was officially banned in 1926, by Kemalists. Its capital is the city of Rize. The province is home to Laz, Hemshin, Turkish people and Georgian communities. Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan spent his early childhood in Rize, where his father was a member of the Turkish Coast Guard.

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Rose Macaulay

Dame Emilie Rose Macaulay, (1 August 1881 – 30 October 1958) was an English writer, most noted for her award-winning novel The Towers of Trebizond, about a small Anglo-Catholic group crossing Turkey by camel.

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Rusudan, daughter of George III of Georgia

Rusudan (რუსუდანი; Ρουσουδάν) was the younger daughter of King George III of Georgia and of his wife, Burdukhan (Gurandukht).

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Sack of Constantinople (1204)

The siege and sack of Constantinople occurred in April 1204 and marked the culmination of the Fourth Crusade.

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Safavid dynasty

The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.

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Samsun Province

Samsun Province (Samsun ili) is a province of Turkey on the Black Sea coast with a population of 1,252,693 (2010). Its adjacent provinces are Sinop on the northwest, Çorum on the west, Amasya on the south, Tokat on the southeast on the east. Its traffic code is 55. The provincial capital is Samsun, one of the most populated cities in Turkey and the largest and busiest port in the Black Sea.

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Second Bulgarian Empire

The Second Bulgarian Empire (Второ българско царство, Vtorо Bălgarskо Tsarstvo) was a medieval Bulgarian state that existed between 1185 and 1396.

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Seljuq dynasty

The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs (آل سلجوق Al-e Saljuq), was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia.

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Serbian Empire

The Serbian Empire (Српско царство/Srpsko carstvo) is a historiographical term for the empire in the Balkan peninsula that emerged from the medieval Serbian Kingdom.

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Sergey Karpov

Sergey Pavlovich Karpov (Сергей Павлович Карпов; born 1948) is a leading Russian Byzantinist who specializes in the Empire of Trebizond and the history of Gazaria.

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Siege of Baghdad (1258)

The Siege of Baghdad, which lasted from January 29 until February 10, 1258, entailed the investment, capture, and sack of Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, by Ilkhanate Mongol forces and allied troops.

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Siege of Trebizond (1461)

The Siege of Trebizond was the successful siege of the city of Trebizond, capital of the Empire of Trebizond, by the Ottomans under Sultan Mehmed II, which ended on 15 August 1461.

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Silk Road

The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.

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Sinop Province

Sinop Province (Sinop ili; Σινώπη, Sinopi) is a province of Turkey, along the Black Sea. It is located between 41 and 42 degrees North latitude and between 34 and 35 degrees East longitude. The surface area is 5,862 km², equivalent to 0.8% of Turkey's surface area. The borders total 475 km and consists of 300 km of land and 175 km seaside borders. Its adjacent provinces are Kastamonu on the west, Çorum on the south, and Samsun on the southeast. The provincial capital is the city of Sinop.

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Sinop, Turkey

Sinop (Σινώπη, Sinōpē, historically known as Sinope) is a city with a population of 36,734 on the isthmus of İnce Burun (İnceburun, Cape Ince), near Cape Sinope (Sinop Burnu, Boztepe Cape, Boztepe Burnu) which is situated on the most northern edge of the Turkish side of the Black Sea coast, in the ancient region of Paphlagonia, in modern-day northern Turkey.

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Steven Runciman

Sir James Cochran Stevenson Runciman, CH, FBA (7 July 1903 – 1 November 2000), known as Steven Runciman, was an English historian best known for his three-volume A History of the Crusades (1951–54).

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Strategos

Strategos or Strategus, plural strategoi, (στρατηγός, pl.; Doric Greek: στραταγός, stratagos; meaning "army leader") is used in Greek to mean military general.

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Sultanate of Rum

The Sultanate of Rûm (also known as the Rûm sultanate (سلجوقیان روم, Saljuqiyān-e Rum), Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate, Sultanate of Iconium, Anatolian Seljuk State (Anadolu Selçuklu Devleti) or Turkey Seljuk State (Türkiye Selçuklu Devleti)) was a Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim state established in the parts of Anatolia which had been conquered from the Byzantine Empire by the Seljuk Empire, which was established by the Seljuk Turks.

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Sumela Monastery

Sumela Monastery (Μονή Παναγίας Σουμελά, Moní Panagías Soumelá; Sümela Manastırı) is a Greek Orthodox monastery dedicated to the Virgin Mary (Panagia, meaning "All Holy" in Greek) at Melá Mountain (Turkish: Karadağ, which is a direct translation of the Greek name Sou Melá, "Black Mountain") within the Pontic Mountains (Turkish: Kuzey Anadolu Dağları) range, in the Maçka district of Trabzon Province in modern Turkey.

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Tabriz

Tabriz (تبریز; تبریز) is the most populated city in Iranian Azerbaijan, one of the historical capitals of Iran and the present capital of East Azerbaijan province.

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Tamar of Georgia

Tamar the Great (თამარი) (1160 – 18 January 1213) reigned as the Queen of Georgia from 1184 to 1213, presiding over the apex of the Georgian Golden Age.

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The Towers of Trebizond

The Towers of Trebizond is a novel by Rose Macaulay (1881–1958).

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Theme (Byzantine district)

The themes or themata (θέματα, thémata, singular: θέμα, théma) were the main administrative divisions of the middle Eastern Roman Empire.

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Theodore Gabras

Theodore Gabras (Θεόδωρος Γαβρᾶς) was a Byzantine governor in the Pontus who was involved in a minor unsuccessful rebellion against the Emperor Alexios I Komnenos around the year 1091.

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Theodore I Laskaris

Theodoros I Komnenos Laskaris (Θεόδωρος Α' Λάσκαρις, Theodōros I Laskaris; c. 1174/5 – 1221/August 1222) was the first Emperor of Nicaea (reigned 1204/05–1221/22).

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Thomas F. Madden

Thomas F. Madden (born 1960) is an American historian, a former Chair of the History Department at Saint Louis University in St. Louis, Missouri, and Director of Saint Louis University's Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies.

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Timur

Timur (تیمور Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror.

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Trabzon

Trabzon, historically known as Trebizond, is a city on the Black Sea coast of northeastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province.

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Trabzon Province

Trabzon Province (Trabzon ili) is a province of Turkey on the Black Sea coast. Located in a strategically important region, Trabzon is one of the oldest trade port cities in Anatolia. Neighbouring provinces are Giresun to the west, Gümüşhane to the southwest, Bayburt to the southeast and Rize to the east. The provincial capital is Trabzon city, and the traffic code is 61. The major ethnic groups are Turks, but the province is also home to a minority of Muslim Romeika-speakers, though younger speakers are not always fluent in this language.

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Trapezuntine Civil War

The Trapezuntine Civil War was a series of conflicts fought in the 1340s for the succession of the throne of the Empire of Trebizond.

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Turkish people

Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.

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Turkmens

The Turkmens (Türkmenler, Түркменлер, IPA) are a nation and Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily the Turkmen nation state of Turkmenistan.

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Uzun Hasan

Uzun Hasan or Uzun Hassan (1423 – January 6, 1478) (اوزون حسن, Uzun Həsən; Uzun Hasan, where uzun means "tall"; اوزون حسن) was the 9th shahanshah of the Oghuz Turkic Aq Qoyunlu dynasty, also known as the White Sheep Turkomans, and generally considered to be its strongest ruler.

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William Miller (historian)

William Miller (8 December 1864, Wigton, England – 23 October 1945, Durban, South Africa) was a British-born medievalist and journalist.

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Yeşilırmak (river)

The Yeşilırmak (Yeşilırmak, "Green River"; classical Ίρις, Iris) is a river in northern Turkey.

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Zonguldak Province

Zonguldak Province (Zonguldak ili) is a province along the western Black Sea coast region of Turkey.

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Redirects here:

Despotate of Sinope, Empire Trebizond, Empire of Trabizond, Empire of Trabzon, Empire of trebizond, First Bulgarian–Trebizond War, Kingdom of Trebizond, Second Bulgarian–Trebizond War, Trapezuntine Empire, Trebizond Empire.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empire_of_Trebizond

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